Практика Дхаммы мирскими последователями

Оглавление Далее>>
Дни соблюдения особых предписаний (Упосатха)
Перевод Таблица Оригинал

The Laity's Practice of Dhamma

Then what about Dhamma-practice outside the shrine-room? This is really a subject which goes beyond the scope of this book. All the important aspects of a layman's practice of the Dhamma have been written about in other books. However, mention may be made of these things:

Dana (Giving)

The giving of material things (amisa-dana), for instance, to support bhikkhus, to give to the poor, starving and so forth. There is no lack of opportunity to practice this in our over-populated world. And Buddhists who have enough of this world's wealth, enough of clothes, food, shelter and medicine which are the basic necessities for life should practice dana bearing in mind that what is given away is truly well preserved while what is kept is wasted. The practice, running counter to the worldly way of craving and attachment, is very important in the present materialistic civilization with its emphasis upon gain and accumulation of possessions. Nothing much can be done in Dhamma until one is prepared to open one's heart and one's hands to others.

The giving of Dhamma (Dhamma-dana) means the gift of some useful teaching and advice for others. It is necessary to know what will benefit them if one would give this gift in the right way. Dhamma is the supreme gift in the world, as said by the Buddha:

All gifts the gift of Dhamma does excel,
all tastes the taste of dhamma does excel,
all joys the joy of Dhamma does excel --
the craving-ender overcomes all dukkha.

-- Dhp. 354

All material things wear out with use but the Dhamma increases as we practice it. And material things give benefit only in this life, while the Dhamma benefits the practice now and in future lives as well.

The giving of non-fear (abhaya-dana). This means acting in such a way that other beings do not have any cause to fear oneself. This is another name for the practice of loving-kindness (metta) and is based upon good moral conduct (sila).

Sila (Moral Conduct, Precepts)

The Five Sila have been mentioned above. The Eight Sila will be dealt with in connection with the Uposatha day (below). Besides these lists of precepts which are guides to good conduct, one should study those discourses of the Buddha, like the Singalovada (The Exhortation to Singala -- see "Everyman's Ethics," Wheel 14) in which he has given the principles which will conduce to a harmonious society. This must be founded upon wholesome mental states in the individual and for this the following practices are essential:

Bhavana (Development or cultivation of the mind)

The four Divine Abidings: Loving-kindness, compassion, joy-with-others, and equanimity, bring two blessings: harmony within and peace with other people. Their importance in Buddhist practice cannot be over-emphasized. They are the educators of the heart or emotions and from a Buddhist point of view it will be better to be gentle and non-aggressive though lacking intellectual knowledge of Dhamma. Such a person shows that he has been tamed by the Dhamma of non-harming, but mere knowledge of the Dhamma divorced from practice makes only for conceit and an increase of views (ditthi).

Reading the Suttas in translation, especially the Anguttara-nikaya (see the anthology in two parts with this title from BPS, Kandy, and "Gradual Sayings," the complete translation in 5 vols. from the Pali Text Society London), will bring to light many discourses containing valuable advice for lay Buddhist practice. It would be useful to collect these together and then read them through from time to time. A reading of such relevant suttas might be introduced into the evening service every day, or else read upon Uposatha days. This brings us to the subject of the second part of this book.

Оглавление Далее>>
Дни соблюдения особых предписаний (Упосатха)

Редакция перевода от 19.07.2016 16:11