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{1} Hindrances have to be cast out first in the course of proper training.
With the casting out of the hindrances there is induced jhana, the means of attaining quietude.
Thus indeed is body-contemplation surely taught with quietude preceding.
Afterwards is given the higher instruction in regard to all divisions beginning with what should be understood — the aggregations and the sense-base which ought to be understood, and the factors of enlightenment which should be developed.
Therefore, here too, the development of quietude is desired so far as it is for the sake of insight.
It is said: "The instruction on the Arousing of Mindfulness has insight as the chief thing, abounds in insight."
Since there is no state of yoking together of the good and the bad moral qualities similar to the yoking of two bulls to a cart — since the good and the bad do not exist together — from the absence of sensuality at the time of seeing one's mind through knowledge it is said: by way of occurrence.
At the moment of seeing wisely the occurrence of sense-desire there is no sense-desire as good and bad states of mind cannot exist together
Existing means: When it is found in one's own mental flux.
Sensuously inauspicious or unpromising objects are the ten inanimate things: (1) The corpse that is swollen, (2) Blue, (3) Festering, (4) Fissured, (5) Mangled, (6) Dismembered, (7) Cut and dismembered, (8) With blood, (9) Wormy, (10) Become a skeleton.
Details of these may be found in The Path of Purity in the exposition of the subject of meditation on the foul.
And the perception of hair of the head and so forth, because it is called in the Girimananda Sutta the perception of the sensuously inauspicious or impure, is taken as the sensuously inauspicious animate thing.
The jhana on the sensuously inauspicious object occurs in an inanimate or animate sensuously inauspicious thing.
And the indication of the four kinds of wrong reflection and the four kinds of right reflection in regard to the sensuously inauspicious object is for the purpose of pointing out fully the subject.
The four kinds of consideration of the impure as pure, the impermanent as permanent, suffering as pleasure, and non-soul as soul are the four kinds of wrong reflection and the four kinds of consideration of the impure as impure and so forth are the four kinds of right reflection.
The taking up of the practice of considering the repulsiveness of any of the eleven kinds of the sensuously inauspicious or the practice of contemplation on the sensuously inauspicious object is "taking up" or "upholding."
The application to the development of the thought bent on the sensuously inauspicious object which brings partial and full concentration is application for the development of the jhana on the sensuously inauspicious subject of meditation.
Certain teachers say that as there is no opportunity for sense-desire in him who knows the proper measure of food to be taken, through absence of trouble owing to that knowledge from sloth and torpor, sense-desire is cast out in such a person.
Just this reason is given in even the expository portion: The person who practices moderation in food brings about the perception of impurity bound up with that food, for instance, through the alteration of food by way of bodily excretions, and dwells on other similar thoughts as well as on the idea of corporeal subjection to food.
Such a person casts out sense-desire.
The Elder Tissa referred to in the commentary above is the Elder Maha Tissa (of Anuradhapura), who saw the teeth of a woman and who by doing right reflection on their bony nature cast out sense-desire through jhana. Монах Тисса, упоминаемый в вышеприведённом комментарии - это старший монах Маха Тисса (из Анурадхапуры), который увидел зубы женщины и с помощью основательного внимания на их костной сущности устранил чувственное желание с помощью джханы.
According to the Abhidhamma method of instruction, even the whole world is the hindrance of sense-desire.
Therefore the commentator said: through the attainment of the path of arahantship [abhidhamma pariyayena sabbo pi loko kamacchandanivarananti aha arahattamaggenati].
{2} Anger vanishes also through the development of jhana by spreading love restrictedly with differentiation on seven or twenty-eight ways or by spreading it unrestrictedly without differentiation in five or twenty ways or by spreading it directionally towards the ten points in space.
{3} The thought of love [metta] is a sublime state of mind [brahmavihara]; it is one's own state of freedom from hatred.
A detailed description of the way of developing love as a subject of meditation is given in the Path of Purity.
The following summary of hints gathered from different comments and the Path of Purity will be helpful to a beginner:
The love-thought of meditation is different from worldly attachment.
It is based on wishing well to all beings.
The idea of possession of the loved object is foreign to it.
It is not a state of mind that encourages exclusiveness.
The aim of the meditation is finally to include in the ambit of one's goodwill all beings equally, without distinction.
"The liberation of the mind through love" refers only to full concentration.
Without reaching full concentration there is no effective freedom from anger.
The beginner who works at this subject of meditation is not to practice the thought of love at first:
On a sensuously promising object of the opposite sex, as attachment towards it might arise in the yogi's mind.
On a dead person, as the practice would be futile.
On an enemy, as anger might arise.
On an indifferent person, as the practice might prove wearisome.
On one who is very dear as the arousing of friendly thoughts without attachment towards such a one would be tiring; and as mental agitation might occur should even some slight trouble overtake that one.
Taking up the practice of the love subject of meditation is the generating, the bringing about of the characteristic, sign or mark, of the love thought of meditation of him who through loving-kindness gathers together all beings with goodwill.
The reflection on the thought of love itself is the sign of the love thought of meditation, because the reflection arisen first is the reason of the later reflection.
Spreading it particularly: Consecutively in the following order: to oneself, to a friend, an indifferent person, and an enemy.
Spreading it generally: By breaking down all barriers, limits and reservations which separate oneself from all others, and extending the same kind of friendly thought to all.
Directionally: Extending the thought of love towards one point of the compass, for instance, the east.
These three kinds of spreading of the thought of love refer to the stage of meditation of "taking up the practice of the thought of love" which covers the training from the beginning to the attainment of partial concentration (upacara samadhi).
In regard to this state of meditation the following is stated: Spreading the thought of love after particularizing the direction by way of a monastery, a street, village and so forth is one way and spreading the thought of love towards a direction in space generally by way of the eastern direction and so forth without specifying a monastery and so forth is another way of practice
The development of the jhana on the thought of love is the practice again and again of the thought of love that has got partial concentration.
The development is done in three ways: (1) The spreading of the love thought universally.
This is done by wishing that all living beings (satta), all breathing things (pana), all beings born (bhuta), all persons (puggala), all who have reached a state of individuality (attabhavapariyapanna), be without hatred, disease, and grief, and be happy taking care of themselves (avera, abyapajjha, anigha hontu, suhki attanam pariharantu).
(2) Spreading the thought of love by way of a restricted group of beings.
This is done by wishing that all females, all males, all purified ones, all non-purified ones, all divine beings, all humans, all beings fallen to states of woe, be without hatred, disease and grief and happy taking care of themselves.
(3) Spreading the thought of love directionally in space.
This is done by restricting the thought of love towards each of the ten directions in space: the cardinal points, the intermediate points, and the zenith and nadir.
And it is also done by wishing that the beings in each of the directions taken up, according to the divisions and groups given above, be without hatred and so forth according to the formula already mentioned.
{4} The bhikkhu who has eaten gluttonously after the manner of the well-known types of Brahmanical gormandizers mentioned in ancient Indian books. Монах, объевшийся подобно брахманским обжорам, упоминающимся в древних индийских книгах. Это из Висуддхимагги, гл. 1: https://tipitaka.theravada.su/p/370081
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There are five kinds of these greedy eaters: (1) He who eats until he has to be raised up by the hand from his seat. Всего есть пять таких видов обжор: (1) Тот, кто ест до момента, когда его приходится поднимать с места взяв за руку.
(2) He who lies rolling just where he has eaten and eats as long as he likes. (2) Тот, кто ложится у того места, где он ест и ест пока хочется.
(3) He who eats until he slips off his waist cloth. (3) Тот, кто ест до момента, когда приходится развязывать пояс.
(4) He who fills himself with food in such a way that it seems as if a crow could peck at the food in him. (4) Тот, кто набивает себя едой до такой степени, что кажется что ворона могла бы клевать находящуюся в нём еду.
(5) He who having filled his belly full and vomitted eats more food again, or he who eats until he vomits. (5) Тот, кто набил живот доверху, после чего отрыгивает и снова ест или тот, кто ест пока его не вырвет. :-))))))))
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On the light or brightness of the sun by day: The meaning should be understood thus: Sloth and torpor vanish in him, too, who at night is reflecting on the image of the perception of the brightness of the sun he got by day. "На свете солнца днём" - смысл следует понимать так: лень и сонливость исчезают у того, кто ночью размышляет об образе света солнца, увиденном днём.
Here it may be helpful to state the eight ways of dealing with torpor taught by the Master to the Elder Maha Moggallana: (1) One should neglect to mind the thought which says that drowsiness is descending on one, or (2) one should reflect on the Dhamma, or (3) repeat or recite the Dhamma, or (4) pull both earlobes and rub or massage the limbs with the hands, or (5) getting up from the sitting position, apply water on and rub the eyes, and look into the distance, at the constellations in the starry sky, or (6) reflect on the thought of light, or (7) fix the thought on the ambulatory, aware of the ends of it with the controlling faculties of sense turned inwards and the mind kept in, or (8) sleep conscious of the time of waking and on awaking get up quickly thinking that one will not give oneself to the comforts of lying down, reclining and languor, when all other seven ways fail. Здесь будет полезно перечислить восемь способов справиться с ленью и сонливостью, рассказанным Благословенным почтенному Махамоггаллане: (1) следует не обращать внимания на мысль о том, что на вас нападает сонливость, (2) следует размышлять о Дхамме, или (3) повторять или декламировать Дхамму, (4) потянуть за мочки ушей или помассировать части тела руками, (5) встать из сидячего положения, промыть водой глаза и потереть их, (6) подумать о свете, (7) установить мысли на дорожку для ходьбы, осознавая её концы, направляя органы чувств и ум внутрь, (8) (если все предыдущие 7 способов не помогли) лечь спать, памятуя о пробуждении и при пробуждении быстро встать, чтобы не предаваться удобствам лежачего положения.
{5} In their own state or actually as they are individually, mental agitation and worry are two different things.
Still, as worry in the form of repentance or remorse for ill done and good undone is similar to agitation which is characterized by distraction and disquiet of mind, mental agitation is called flurry and worry.
Mental agitation does not overtake the intelligent well-read man who probes into things by way of what is written in books and by way of the significance and import of the things themselves.
Therefore, it is said that by way of knowledge not merely of the Disciplinary Rules, but by way of knowledge of the ninefold Buddha-word, beginning with the Discourses, according to the principles of the method already stated, and by the application of the proper remedies mentioned by way of questioning and so forth, remorse and regret for ill done and good undone do not take place.
By associating with elders who are older than oneself in the practice of the precepts of virtue and similar good things, who are restrained, aged, matured seniors, there is brought to one a measure of restraint, matured bearing, dignity and calm, and mental agitation and worry are cast out.
Good companionship refers to association with those versed in the Discipline who are able to dispel worry as regards any doubt concerning what is proper and improper practice.
{6} Things which are founded on doubt are things which stand or proceed on doubt.
Taking doubt itself one sees that the doubt arisen first is the particular reason by way of a common cause of the doubt arisen afterwards.
Surely by the knowledge of the Dhamma and by inquiry all doubts are cast out.
{7} According to nature means: according to the nature of breaking-up, according to the nature of the eye, color and the like in regard to material form, and according to the nature of experiencing, the nature of pleasure and the like in regard to feeling. Согласно его сущности означает согласно сущности разрушения, согласно сущности зрения, цвета и прочего в отношении материальных тел, согласно сущности испытывания [ощущений?], сущности удовольствия и прочего в отношении ощущения.
In this way all other connected things should be interpreted. По такому же принципу следует понимать все остальные связанные феномены.
{8} The two groups of six sense-bases are stated by way of determining the sense-doors and the sense-objects of arising of sixfold consciousness.
Of the consciousness or mind aggregate included in a course of cognition of eye-consciousness, just the eye-base is the "door" of origin, and the base of the material form is the object.
So it is in the case of the others.
But of the sixth sense-base the part of the mind-base called the life-continum, the unconscious mind, is the "door" of origin [chatthassa pana bhavangamanasankhato manayatanekadeso uppatti dvaram].
And in a particular or special way the mind-object base is the object [asadharananca dhammayatanam arammanam].
Dependent on both: The eye becomes a condition by way of decisive support and the material forms, the objects, become a condition by way of objective predominance and objective decisive support [cakkhum upanissaya paccayavasena paccayabhutam rupe arammanadhipati arammanupanissaya vasena paccayabhute ca paticca].
{9} the mental limbs of a being who is awaking from the stupor of the passions that soil or who is penetrating the Real Truths of Suffering, its Cause, its Cessation, and the Way Leading to the Cessation of Suffering.
{10} It is a name for him who stands in the practice starting from the arising of the knowledge of the rise and fall of phenomena.
{11} The instruction of the Discourses is figurative and as this instruction on the Arousing of Mindfulness is set going by way of the mundane eightfold path, it is said by the commentator that the meditator is "Complete Enlightenment."
Otherwise he should be a Pure Disciple [ariya savaka].
The meditator is considered the personification of the factors of complete enlightenment by which he can reach Nibbana.
{12} or the mindfulness arousing the knowledge which grasps the purpose of these actions is mindfulness with clear comprehension, and as mindfulness with clear comprehension everywhere is a state which brings about the cultivation of mindfulness, mindfulness with clear comprehension is necessary for the arising of mindfulness.
As the abandoning or rejection of contrary things and the practice of suitable things are necessary for the arising of fresh karmically wholesome things, so the eschewing of persons bereft of mindfulness, association with persons who cultivate mindfulness, the state of being not engaged with the first kind and the state of being engaged with the second are necessary for the arising of the enlightenment factor of mindfulness.
{13} who in the Terrace of the Wisdom Tree having got a golden ticket authorizing him to expound the Dhamma [bodhi mande suvanna salakam gahetva] entered the assembly saying: "In which one of the eighteen languages shall I expound the Dhamma? "
{14} who is mentioned as the Elder Dattabhaya by the commentator;
{15} Here, right reflection is the conscious state that is associated with knowledge and which arises by way of perceiving, according to actuality, the nature, function, characteristic and so forth of the several skillful (or wholesome) states of mind and the like. Здесь основательное внимание - это умственное состояние, связанное со знанием и возникающее путём постижения в соответствии с действительностью сущности, функции, характеристики и прочего нескольких благотворных умственных состояний и прочего.
Because it is correct reflection it is called right (or radical) reflection. Поскольку это совершенное понимание оно называется основательным вниманием.
{16} by asking for explanation of knotty points regarding these things in the Five Nikayas with the commentaries from teachers of the Dhamma.
Purification of the basis is the cleaning of the personal basis: the body, and of the impersonal basis: clothes and dwelling place.
The flame of a lamp is unclear when its wick, oil and container are dirty; the wick splutters, flickers; but the flame of a lamp that has a clean wick, oil and container is clear and the wick does not spit; it burns smoothly.
So it is with knowledge.
Knowing that arises out of the mind and mental qualities which are in dirty external and internal surroundings is apt to be impure, too, but the knowledge that arises under clean conditions is apt to be pure.
In this way cleanliness leads to the growth of this enlightenment factor which comprises knowledge.
Personal cleanliness is impaired by the excessive length of hair of the head, nails, hair of the body, by the excess of humors, and by the dirt of perspiration; cleanliness of impersonal or external things is impaired when robes are worn out, dirty and smelly, and when the house where one lives is dirty, soiled and untidy.
So personal cleanliness should be secured by shaving, hair-cutting, nail-paring, the use of pectoral emetics and of purgatives which make the body light, and by shampooing, bathing and doing other necessary things, at the proper time.
In similar way external cleanliness should be brought about by darning, washing and dyeing one's robes, and by smearing the floor of one's house with clay and the like to smoothen and clean it, and by doing other necessary things to keep the house clean and tidy.
{17} Equalizing is making neither more nor less effective functionally.
{18} Faith outstrips the others because of unclearness of wisdom and the laxity and so forth of energy and the others, through the excessive zeal of the function of faith, in regard to a believable object, an object that generates trust.
Energy is unable to do the work of exerting and of supporting the associated mental characteristics and to avoid indolence.
Mindfulness is not able to do the work of attending to the object, of continuing to be at the object, after coming to it.
Concentration is not able to do the work of non-distraction, of rejecting distraction.
To see the object, according to actuality as if one were seeing a physical thing with the eye, wisdom is not able.
These four faculties are unable to do their work because of their being overwhelmed by the faculty of faith acting very strong.
Only by the evenness of function can the mental things which exist together with consciousness, and are the principal things amongst conascent mental things, namely, the five spiritual controlling faculties, accomplish their work.
Not otherwise.
Reflection on the phenomenal nature of the thing (faith).
By examining the objet of faith by way of the conditioned and the produced from the conditioned and the like, by scrutiny according to actuality.
The story of the Thera Vakkali. История монаха Ваккали.
This venerable person who fulfilled his duties through keen faith liked to behold the Master always. Этот почтенный исполнял свои дела благодаря сильной убеждённости и часто любил смотреть на Благословенного.
The Master admonished him saying, "What shall it profit you to see this impure body. Благословенный увещевал его словами: "Хватит, Ваккали, что ты смотришь на это вонючее тело.
Who sees the Dhamma, sees me," and urged him to practice a subject of meditation. Видящий Дхамму видит меня." и посоветовал ему заниматься медитацией на объекте.
He was unable to apply himself to the practice of the subject of meditation and as he was inclined to destroy himself, he went up to a place that was a steep declivity. Но дост. Ваккали был неспособен прилагать усилия на объект медитации и склоняясь к тому, чтобы покончить с собой, пошёл на место с обрывом.
Then the Master showed himself by his psychic power as if he were seated before the thera and spoke these words: Тогда Благословенный с помощью своих сверхсил предстал перед монахом и изрёк следующие слова:
The bhikkhu who is full of joy and believes in The Dispensation of the Buddha "Наполненный радостью монах, приверженный системе Будды
Can reach the peaceful happy state of the ceasing of activities. может достигнуть прекрасного состояния, успокоения процессов конструирования" (Дхаммапада, глава 25)
Gladdened by the words of the Master he set up the development of insight, but as his faith was very strong he was not able to enter into the joy of the insight. Обрадованный словами Благословенного он начал развивать прозрение, но из-за сильной приверженности не смог войти в радость прозрения.
The Master knowing this gave him the subject of meditation after correcting it with the imparting of evenness of the controlling faculties. Зная это Благословенный дал ему объект медитации, скорректировав его с выравниванием духовных способностей.
The thera after putting himself in the path of practice taught by the Master, and after doing hard work in regular order, reached arahantship. Монах, приложив усилия на пути, объяснённом Благословенным, выполнив в обычном порядке трудную работу, достиг архатства.
{19} The story of the Thera Sona. История монаха Соны.
This refers to Sona Thera who was of delicate constitution. Она относится к монахе Соне, имевшем хрупкое телосложение.
After getting a subject of meditation from the Master he was living in Cool Wood, and he thought thus: "My body is delicate and it is not possible to reach happiness with comfort only.
Even after being exhausted, the duty of the recluse should be done." Даже когда человек устал, он всё равно должен заниматься делом жизни отшельника."
Thereupon, he decided, while giving himself up to exertion, to keep to only the two postures of standing and walking. Поэтому он решил полностью предать себя усилиям и поддерживать только два положения тела: стоя и при ходьбе.
Owing to excessive walking blisters appeared on the soles of his feet and caused him great pain. Из-за чрезмерной ходьбы на подошвах его ног образовались мозоли, вызывавшие сильнейшую боль.
He continued to make strong effort in spite of the pain but could not produce a state of distinction in meditation with his excessive energy. Несмотря на боль он продолжал прикладывать огромные усилия, но не смог обрести достижение в медитации со своим чрезмерным усилием.
The Master visited Sona, instructed him with the simile of the lute, corrected the Thera's subject of meditation showing him the method of applying energy evenly and went to Vulture Peak. Благословенный посетил Сону и наставил его метафорой струнного инструмента, скорректировав объект медитации монаха путём демонстрации ему метода равномерного распределения усердия. После этого Благословенный отправился на гору Гиджджхакута.
Having applied energy evenly according to the method given by the Master, and after working hard for insight, the Thera, developing the practice, established himself in arahantship. Равномерно распределяя усердия согласно данному Благословенным методу, приложив большие усилия в практике прозрения дост. Сона достиг архатства.
{20} Discord of faith and wisdom and discord of concentration and energy through functional unevenness are not conducive to success in meditation. So, too, concentration and energy.
{22} With faith that is (rather) strong, the yogi will, by believing in and fixing the mind on the object, reach full absorption.
If for instance the yogi is meditating on the element of earth he will not think thus: "How can absorption arise by the repetition of the word earth?"
He will think that the method of meditation taught by the Supreme Buddha will surely succeed, and he will settle in, and leap on to the object by way of firm belief, having, as it were, forced his way into it.
{23} reason of the fact that concentration is the principal thing in absorption.
{24} Owing to the very great strength of the concentration of the man pursuing quietude, very great strength of wisdom too should be desired.
Full absorption is mundane full absorption.
Supramundane full absorption also is expected through the equalizing of these.
Accordingly the Master said: "He develops quietude and insight yoked together."
{25} Faith, energy and wisdom have a tendency towards excitement and concentration has a tendency towards sloth.
Therefore, mindfulness is to be desired by the yogi always.
{26} Because it is applied always mindfulness is always useful or desirable; and because in all states of elation and depression it should be developed by the man longing for the factors of enlightenment, it is necessary.
Mind's help: the help of a wholesome or skillful state of consciousness.
It is the support of such a state of mind for attaining the yet unattained.
{27} By resorting to this threefold suitability, well-being of mind comes into existence by way of the basis of bodily well-being and there proceeds then the reason for twofold calm.
This is the judgment of things based on the acknowledgment of the law of moral causation avoiding first the extreme view that the suffering and happiness experienced by living beings are causeless and then the other extreme view of ascribing these to a fictive cause like that of a Creator God, and the knowing of all suffering and happiness as one's own action.
{28} The first stage of tranquillity which arises when an object is being grasped by way of bearing it in mind, the composed manner, is the characteristic sign of quietude. Первая стадия спокойствия (джханы), когда объект схватывается путём удержания его в уме в собранной манере, является представлением спокойствия.
{29} by way of the composed manner.
{30} Confusion is the state of mind which, because of the whirling in a multiplicity of objects, is jumping from thing to thing, diverse of aim, and not one-pointed. Рассеянность - это состояние ума, который, из-за вращения во множестве объектов, прыгает с одного на другое, имеет разные цели и не однонаправлен.
Distraction is the same in character. Отвлечение аналогично по характеру.
Unsteadiness is its salient feature, and deviation is its manifestation. Его основной характеристикой является неспокойствие, а проявлением - отклонение.
By one-pointedness of mind confusion is thrown out. Путём однонаправленности рассеянность устраняется.
{32} Excessive laxity... Of application of wisdom means feeble working of wisdom.
As the principal thing in liberality is non-greed, and in virtue non-hate, so in meditation it is wisdom (non-ignorance) that is the principal thing.
Therefore, if wisdom is not very strong in the development of concentration there will be no causing of contemplative attainment (or distinction).
As unprepared food gives no pleasure to a man, so, without the application of wisdom, the object of meditation does not give satisfaction to the yogi's mind.
To the yogi then there is the pointing out of the remedy for that lack of satisfaction in the stirring up of spiritual feeling and confidence.
{33} Persons egotistical in this way should be avoided.
{34} Persons egotistical in that way, too, should be avoided.
{35} The company of such a person should be sought.
{36} The cause of the enlightenment factor of equanimity is the impartial state, the middle state, free from attraction and repulsion.
If that freedom from attraction and repulsion exists then there is equanimity; when it does not exist there is no equanimity.
This state of freedom from attraction and repulsion is twofold by way of scope: detachment in regard to beings and detachment in regard to things.
Repulsion is thrown away even by the development of the enlightenment factor of calm and in order to show just the way of casting out attraction is the instruction beginning with detachment in regard to beings taught.
Specially, equanimity is an enemy of lust and so the commentator said: Equanimity is the path of purity of one who is full of lust. Безмятежное наблюдение является врагом страсти, поэтому сказано "безмятежное наблюдение является путём к чистоте того, кто полон страсти".
The detached attitude towards beings is developed by reflection on the individual nature of moral causation and by reflection on soullessness. Отрешённое отношение к существам развивается путём размышления о сущности каммы и безличности.
By reflection on ownerlessness, the state of not belonging to a soul is brought out and by reflection on temporariness, the impermanence of things is brought out to produce the detached attitude towards inanimate things. Путём размышления об отсутствии собственника безличность становится заметной, а путём размышления о временности становится заметной изменчивость, порождающая отрешённое отношение к неживым вещам.
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Редакция перевода от 16.06.2017 20:34