сноски к отслеживанию тела

Опубликовано khantibalo от 30 января, 2017 - 18:47
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Отслеживание тела. Направление ума на отвратительное. Направление ума на первоэлементы материи. Девять стадий разложения.
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{1} The person producing body-contemplation in all modes.
As sects outside the Buddha's Dispensation also produce a part of this contemplation, by their words, the Buddha's disciple's complete knowledge or all-round grasp of this contemplation, when it is practiced by him, is told.
{2} Because the subject of meditation of mindfulness on in-and-out-breathing is not easy to accomplish without leaving the neighbourhood of a village, owing to sound, which is a thorn to absorption; and because in a place not become a township it is easy for the meditator to lay hold of this subject of meditation, the Blessed One, pointing out the abode suitable for that, spoke the words, "Gone to the forest," and so forth.
{3} because of the pointing out by him of the suitable abode for yogis [yoginam anurupa nivasatthanu-padissanato].
{4} because like the leopard he lives alone, in the forest, and accomplishes his aim, by overcoming those contrary to him, namely, the passions.
{5} In the respiration sign = In the reflex image [patibhaga nimitta].
{6} The worker in respiration examines the respiration while devoting himself to the development of insight through the means of corporeality.
The basis, namely, the coarse body, is where the mind and mental characteristics occur.
{7} Besides these phenomena there is neither a living being nor a person refers to vision that is purified [añño satto va puggalo natthiti visuddhiditthi].
Mind-and-body is a bare impersonal process.
It is not unrelated to a cause and also not related to a discordant cause (which is fictive) like god, but is connected with (the really perceivable fact of) a cause like ignorance [tayidam dhammamattam na ahetukam napi issariyadi visamahetukam atha kho avijjadihi eva sahetukam].
A person who has transcended doubt regarding the past, the future and the present (of his own existence and so forth, as for instance taught in the Sabbasava Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya).
{8} Applies the three characteristics in order to grasp the qualities of the aggregates according to the method taught in the Anatta Lakkhana Sutta of the Samyutta Nikaya beginning with the words: "Whatsoever form."
{9} By way of the practice of quietude [samatha bhavana] however there is no arising of the sign of full absorption [appana nimittuppatti] in another's respiration-body.
{10} Or... in another's respiration-body.
This portion deals with reflection for the growth of insight and has no reference to the growth of full absorption of quietude...
{11} Without leaving aside at intervals, nor from time to time nor occasionally [antarantara na thapetva].
The time when the mind moves repeatedly back and forth.
Or the time when the meditation proceeds incessantly, in the internal and external phenomena [ajjhatta-bahidha dhammesu pi nirantaram va bhavanaya pavattana kalo].
{12} This pair of things stated in combination as internal and external cannot be found in the form of an object at one time, simultaneously.
It is not possible to objectify (these two) together is the meaning [ajjhattam bahiddhati ca vuttam idam dhammadvayaghatitam ekasmim kale, ekato arammanabhavena na labbhati. Ekajjham alambitum na sakkati attho].
{13} Origination [samudaya] is that from which suffering arises.
Contemplating origination-things.
Possessing the character of contemplation connected with the coarse body, the nasal aperture and the mind, the cause of the respirations [assasapassasanam uppatti hetu karaja kayadi tassa anupassanasilo].
As the contemplation on origination-and-dissolution-things, too, is split up as regards the scope of the object, it is not possible to objectify both origination and dissolution at the same time.
{14} For the purpose of reaching the knowledge of body-contemplation to the highest extent [kayanupassana ñanam param pamanam papanatthaya] is the meaning of: To the extent necessary for just knowledge [yavadeva ñanamattaya].
{15} With these words is stated the direct opposition of this meditation to the laying hold on craving and wrong views.
{16} Going. Ходьба.
The term is applicable both to the awareness of the fact of moving on and to the knowledge of the (true) characteristic qualities of moving on. Термин применим как к осознанию факта движения, так и к знанию истинных характеризующих качеств ходьбы вперёд.
The terms sitting, standing and lying down, too, are applicable in the general sense of awareness and in the particular sense of knowledge of the (true) characteristic qualities. Термины "сидение", "стояние" и "лежание" также применимы в общем смысле осознания и в конкретном смысле знания характеризующих качеств ходьбы.
Here (in this discourse) the particular and not the general sense of awareness is to be taken. Здесь (в наставлении) следует брать для понимания конкретный, а не общий смысл.
From the sort of mere awareness denoted by reference to canines and the like, proceeds the idea of a soul, the perverted perception, with the belief that there is a doer and an experiencer. Из обычного осознания, объяснённого путём отсылки к собакам и прочим, исходит идея "я", искажённое понимание, с верой в существование делателя и того, кто испытывает.
One who does not uproot or remove that wrong perception owing to non-opposition to that perception and to absence of contemplative practice cannot be called one who develops anything like a subject of meditation. Тот, кто не искореняет и не удаляет это искажённое понимание из-за отсутствия противодействия этому восприятию и из-за отсутствия медитативной практики не может называться тем, кто развивает что-либо похожее на объект медитации.
{17} There, who goes? is a doer-question of the action of going, without first separating efficient cause and action (tattha ko gacchatiti sadhanam kriyañca avinibbhutam katva gamana kriya kattu puccha]. {17} В этом утверждении "кто идёт?" является вопросом о делателе в части акта ходьбы без разделения причины и действия.
That is for indicating just the bare phenomenon of going, through the condition of denying the-doer-state-endowed-with-a-soul [sa kattubhava visittha atta patikkhepatta dhamma mattasseva gamana dassanato]. Это для указания на простое явление ходьбы с условием отрицания "состояния делателя, обладающего "я"".
(Or in other words the question "Who goes?" anticipates a negative answer, for according to the Abhidhamma there is no doer or goer but just a process dependent on conditions. (Альтернативный вариант: Вопрос "кто идёт" ожидает отрицательного ответа, ведь согласно Абхидхамме нет ни делателя ни идущего, есть лишь процесс, зависящий от условий.
There is merely a going. Есть всего лишь ходьба.
No one goes.) Никто не идёт.)
With the words, whose going is it? , the commentator says the same thing in another way after separating efficient cause and action for making clear the absence of a doer-connection [kassa gamananti tamevattham pariyayantarena vadati sadhanam kriyañca akattu sambandhi bhava vibhavanato]. Словами "чья это ходьба" комментатор говорит то же самое другим способом, разделив причину и действие, чтобы объяснить отсутствие связи с делателем.
On what account is it? На основе чего?
This is a question for the real reason of the action of going from which the idea of a goer is rejected. [kim karanati pana patikkhitta kattukaya gamana kriyaya aviparita karana puccha]. Это вопрос для истинной причины действия ходьбы, от которого понятие идущего отвергается.
Going is here shown to be one of the particular modes of bare phenomenal movement due to appropriate cause-and-condition, without attributing it to a fallacious reason such as the one formulated thus: The soul comes into contact with the mind, the mind with the sense-organs and the sense-organs with the object (thus there is perception). [idañhi gamanam nama atta manasa samyujjati mano indriyehi indriyani atthehiti evamadi miccha karana vinimutta anurupa paccaya hetuko dhammanam pavatti akara viseso[20]].
No living being or person, because of the proving of the going of only a bare phenomenon and because of the absence of anyone besides that phenomenon. Ни живое существо ни личность, потому что доказывается ходьба лишь явления и потому что отсутствует кто-либо за этим явлением.
Now to show proof of the going of a bare phenomenon the words beginning with on account of the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity were spoken by the commentator [dhammamattasseva gamanasiddhito tabbinimuttasa ca kassaci abhavato idani dhammamattasseva gamana siddhim dassetum citta kriya vayo dhatu vippharenati adi vuttam]. Чтобы продемонстрировать доказательство ходьбы лишь явления, комментатор сказал слова "Благодаря распространению элемента вибрации, порождённого умственной деятельностью."
There mental activity and the diffusion and agitation in the process of oscillation which is mental activity = diffusion of the process of mental activity [tattha citta kriya ca vippharo vipphandanañcati citta kriya vayo dhatu vippharo].
The commentator, by mentioning mental activity, eschews the diffusion of the process of oscillation connected with inanimate things, and by the mention of the diffusion of the process of oscillation eschews the class of mental activity producing volitional verbal-expression.
By the terms mental activity and the process of oscillation, the commentator makes clear bodily expression [tena ettha ca citta kriyaggahanena anindriyabaddha vayodhatu vippharam nivatteti: vayodhatu vippharaggahanena cetana vaciviññatti bhedam citta kriyam nivatteti. Ubhayena pana kaya viññattim vibhaveti]. Используя термины "умственная деятельность" и "элемент вибрации" комментатор объясняет телесное выражение.
Produces the process of oscillation. Порождает элемент вибрации:
Brings about the group of materiality with the quality of oscillation in excess. Порождает группу материального с элементом вибрации в избытке.
This group of materiality is that of the pure octad consisting of the Four Great Primaries [mahabhuta] symbolized by earth, water, fire and air, and the four derived from these: color, smell, taste and nutritive essence [pathavi apo tejo vayo vanna gandha rasa oja].
Excess is to be taken here by way of capability (adequacy or competency) and not by way of measure (size or amount). Избыток следует понимать через возможность (достаточность), а не путём меры (количество).
The process of oscillation produces expression. "Элемент вибрации порождает выражение":
This was said concerning the process of oscillation arisen from the thought of going. Это было сказано в отношении элемента вибрации, возникшего от мысли пойти.
This process is a condition to the supporting with energy, the bearing up, and the movement of the conascent body of materiality. Этот процесс является условием к поддержке энергией, удержания и движения материального тела.
Expression is that change which takes place together with the intention. "Выражение" это перемена, происходящая с намерением.
Oscillation is mentioned by way of a predominant condition [adhika bhava] and not by way of production through oscillation alone.
Otherwise the state of derived materiality pertaining to expression would not be a fact [aññatha viññattiya upadaya rupa bhavo durupapado siya].
{18} In the same way he sees the arising of the aggregate of materiality through the origination of craving, karma and food, in the sense of the origin of conditions, and also while seeing the sign of birth [nibbatti lakkhana passanto pi]. {18} Таким же образом он видит возникновение совокупности тел через возникновение жажды, каммы и пищи в смысле происхождения условий и также видя знак рождения.
He sees the passing away of the aggregate while thinking that the dissolution of materiality comes to be through the dissolution of ignorance, in the sense of the dissolution of conditions, and through the dissolution of craving, karma and food, in the same way, and while seeing the sign of vicissitude [viparinamalakkhana]. Он видит прекращение совокупности думая, что разрушение тела происходит с разрушением неведения в смысле разрушения условий, а также через разрушение жажды, каммы и пищи, и также наблюдая характеристику подверженности превратностям.
For the arising of the materiality-aggregate ignorance, craving, karma and food are the principal reasons.
But these are not all.
As it is said that one sees the arising of the materiality-aggregate when beholding also the rebirth-sign or the bare origination state called the integration-succession [upacaya santati] of the various material forms [rupa] becoming manifest in the conscious flux [saviññanaka santana], owing to ignorance, craving, karma, and nutriment, and from consciousness [citta] and the process of caloricity [utu], the knowledge of arising is fivefold.
Similarly the knowledge of passing away or ceasing is fivefold.
The sign of vicissitude or change is the bare state of dissolution [bhanga sabhava] called impermanency [aniccata].
{19} On who is clearly comprehending [sampajano] is one who knows according to every way, intensively, or (item by item) in a detailed way [samantato pakarehi pakattham va savisesam janati]. {19} Осознающим является тот, кто знает всеми способами, интенсивно или подробно пункт за пунктом.
Clear comprehension [sampajaññam] is the state of that one. Осознание является состоянием такого человека.
It is likewise the knowledge of that one [tassa bhavo sampajaññam. Tatha pavatta ñanam]. Также осознание представляет собой знание такого человека.
{20} Going, here, is going after turning back (returning) and going after not turning back (going straight).
Turning back is the bare fact of turning back.
This dyad is only mutually supported action [gamanañcettha nivattetva anivatteva ca gamanam. Nivattanam pana nivatti mattameva. Aññamaññamupadana kriya mattañ-cetam dvatayam].
{21} Clear comprehension [sampajananam] = comprehending clearly [sampajanam]. {21} Осознание (sampajananaṃ).
Both words mean the same thing; their difference is only one of affix.
Doing without fail all actions with clear comprehension is the character of doing what ought to be done by oneself, with clear comprehension [attana kattabba kiccassa karana sila]. Совершение всех без исключения поступков с осознаванием является образом совершения необходимых для себя поступков с осознаванием.
The doing of only clear comprehension is the character of practicing clear comprehension [sampajanassa karana sila]. Совершение только осознавания является принципом практики осознавания.
{22} The discerning of things rightly, entirely and equally is clear comprehension.
Nothing else.
This way of explanation is different from the commentary's.
As it provides non-delusion in going forwards and backwards, the action of clear comprehension is practice of clear comprehension.
Who has that practice of clear comprehension is (one) practicing clear comprehension.
What takes place together with the aim called growth according to the Dhamma is purpose.
The clear comprehension of purpose in going forwards and backwards is clear comprehension of purpose.
The clear comprehension of what is suitable, fit, to oneself is clear comprehension of suitability.
The clear comprehension of the (mental) resort which is called the subject of meditation that is unrelinquished, in going backwards and forwards on the alms resort and elsewhere, is the clear comprehension of resort.
Clear comprehension of non-delusion is non-delusion that is clearly comprehending and is called non-stupefaction.
{23} Arahantship.
This is mentioned by way of the highest kind of exposition.
Since the generating of quietude and insight too is growth according to the Dhamma for a bhikkhu.
{24} Some = Dwellers at the Abhayagiri Vihara at Anuradhapura.
Material gain = Material requisites like robes.
{25} Prejudice [asamapekkhana] is the name given to the grasping of an object without wise reflection by way of worldly ignorant complacency [gehasita aññanupekkha vasena arammanassa ayoniso gahanam].
Commit the offence of sexual intercourse by way of bodily contact with a woman.
Harm come to the life through trampling down by an elephant and so forth.
(Harm come to) purity through seeing those of the opposite sex and so forth.
{26} Subject of meditation [kammatthana] refers to the object of concentration by way of locality of occurrence of the contemplative action that is being stated.
Resort [gocara].
Literally, pasturing ground.
This word is applied to the wandering for alms of a bhikkhu and to the subject of meditation in the sense of the locus [sphere, range or scope) of contemplative action.
{27} There two or three sittings = two or three sitting turns [dve tayo nisajjavare].
Warming up is said concerning the matter of causing warmth to be taken up twice or thrice [dve tini unhapanani sandhaya vuttam].
The word sitting [pallanka] means sitting by way of the thigh-bound or locked posture [urubaddha asana].
It is the posture called the lion-pose [sihasana] and the firm pose [thirasana].
It is the sitting down of one with the left foot crossed on to the right thigh and the right foot on to the left thigh, by way of interlocking, through the bending of the thighs
{28} With just the thought of meditation uppermost in mind = Just with the subject of meditation in the forefront of the mind [kammatthana mukheneva], keeping to the thought of meditation [kammatthanam avijahanto].
{29} for the purpose of assisting the folk with the grace of the Dhamma, thinking, "If I do not expound the Dhamma to them, who will? "
{30} This is said to strengthen the dictum of the commentators mentioned above.
{31} After expounding the Dhamma even with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind = After expounding the Dhamma just in accordance with the character of the thought of meditation that is being attended to by oneself, by way of sticking to that thought.
The method of exegesis is the same in regard to the next expression concerning food.
After giving thanks.
Here too the governing expression is: Even with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind.
There, just at the place of departure from the village.
The point at which the bhikkhu actually gets out of the village.
{32} As the elder bhikkhu came the younger ones performed this duty not looking to see who the elder was.
{33} Kamma-produced caloricity [kammajja tejo] is an expression referring to the function of that part of the alimentary tract where the bile helps digestion and from which vital heat spreads — the grahani according to Ayurveda.
It is stated that the commentator said kamma-produced caloricity concerning "the seizure," the name of the alimentary function explained above [gahanim sandhayaha].
Becomes very strong means: generates a condition of heat.
Subject of meditation does not get on to the road of contemplative thought owing to the disappearance of concentration of the wearied body through hunger-fatigue.
When in the stomach, indeed, property like cooked rice (called the underived, the unassimilated or that which is not due to pre-clinging) is absent; kamma-produced caloricity gets hold of the inner lining of the stomach.
That causes the utterance of words like the following: "I am hungry; give me food."
When food is taken, kamma-produced caloricity having let go the inner lining of the stomach, gets hold of the food-property.
Then the living being becomes calm.
Therefore in the commentaries kamma-produced caloricity is spoken of as (a malignant spirit, a devourer of the living, frequenting pools, fording-places and the like and known by the shadow it casts on the water) a shadow-demon.
{34} "And bhikkhus, like this one," and so forth.
With these words the commentator points out the state of benefit of the bhikkhu attending to the thoughts of meditation, even, in the way aforesaid.
{35} Just through the means of the observance of carrying forth and carrying back means: By way of whatsoever going for and returning from alms-gathering only with the thought of meditation.
{36} Desirous of self-improvement (atta kamati) — (Those bhikkhus) wishing for personal good and well-being (attano hita sukhamicchanta) — those wishing for (delighting in, intent on) the Dhamma is the true meaning [dhammacchandavantoti attho] — by reason of the fact that the Dhamma is truly good and well-being [dhammo hi hitam sukhañca tannimittakam].
Or to the wise the Dhamma is the self owing to the absence of difference (of the Dhamma) from the self, and (because the Dhamma is contained in the self) owing to the (Dhamma's) state of being included in the living being [atha va viññanam attato nibbisesatta attabhava pariyapannatta ca dhammo atta nama].
They (the bhikkhus who have genuinely renounced, in the Dispensation of the Buddha) desire, wish for, that (tam kamenti icchanti].[21]
Newly (or recently) — at the time this sub-commentary was written — however the reading: desirous of attainment, by way of (moral) good, is seen (adhuna pana attha kamati hitavacakena attha saddena patho dissati]. The true meaning of that is: (those) wishing for good that is connected with the Dhamma or (those) wishing for the Dhamma that is good [dhamma saññuttam hitamicchanta hita bhutam va dhammamicchantati].
Unbecoming is that means: unbecoming is another's knowing of one's own defilement [parassa jananam].
This also should be understood as included even by another's knowing: He (the monk who is trying to overcome the adventitious defilement) makes systematic attention strong on account of (his awareness of) the hungry condition of those coming behind (pacchato agacchantanam chinna bhatta bhava bhayenapi yoniso manasikaram paribruhetiti idampi parassa jananeneva sangahitanti datthabbam].
Even to the earlier step means: just to the first footprint made with mind separate from the thought of meditation [purima pade yevati pathamam kammatthana vippayutta cittena uddharita pada valañje yeva].
Like the elder Maha Phussa, the verandah-dweller. With the stories beginning, here, the commentator lays low the misgiving about this observance, for instance, expressed thus: Just impossible is that what is pointed out was, indeed, in this way, practiced before [atthane yevetam kathitam khvayam evam patipanna pubboti asankam nivatteti].
{37} Diverting the talk = Turning away the talk because of unostentatiousness due to Realization [adhigamappichiccha-taya]. Keeping to only the postures of standing and walking: This is said by way of the postures proper to be resolved upon for adherence. One restricts oneself to these postures not however by way of refusing to practice the proper-to-be-practiced and necessary posture of sitting at meal-time and on such other occasions; for, by the word, only, it should be understood that one tops the remaining forms of sitting, namely, every sitting-posture not absolutely necessary of practice, and the posture of lying down.
I will honor the Blessed One's great struggle. According to my strength, I will do worship to the six-year asceticism of extreme torture undertaken by the World's Redeemer for our sakes, since even the honoring of the Master, through conduct, is the more praiseworthy kind of worship. Not so praiseworthy is the worship (of him) with material things.
Pure pavarana.
The Pavarana through the state of destruction of the outflowings — arahantship [khinasava bhavena pavaranam].
{38} Low [omatta] = Negligible [avamatta], poor in regard to standard [lamakappamana].
Since the process of caloricity with (its cognate process) oscillation coming (as a servant or follower) behind it [vayo dhatuya anugata tejo dhatu] is the condition for upraising [uddharanassa paccayo], caloricity and oscillation are in preponderance, by reason of capability, in the action of upraising.
Caloricity is specially conducive to the action of upraising and so in upraising oscillation is subordinate to caloricity.
The processes of extension and cohesion are low in the action of upraising owing to their incapacity to raise up.
Since the process of oscillation with (its cognate process) caloricity coming (as a servant or follower) behind it [tejo dhatuya anugata vayo dhatu] is the condition for stretching out and shifting away [atiharana vitiharananam paccayo], oscillation and caloricity are in preponderance by reason of capability, in stretching out and shifting away.
Oscillation is naturally active and because in the actions of stretching out and shifting away its movement is excessive, caloricity is subordinate to oscillation in these actions.
The other two processes are low in stretching out and shifting away because of the incapacity of these processes to stretch out and to shift away.
Raising up is the lifting of a foot from a place already stepped on to.
Stretching out is the carrying of a foot to the front from the place on which one is standing.
Shifting away is the carrying of a foot sidewards (by moving it laterally) for the purpose of avoiding stake and the like or for avoiding contact with the other foot already set on the ground.
Or stretching out is the carrying of a foot (near) to the place where the other foot is set and shifting away is the carrying of a foot further to a point beyond the place on which the other foot is.
Since the process of cohesion with (its cognate process) extension coming (as a servant or follower) behind it [pathavi dhatuya anugata apodhatu] is the condition for dropping down [vossajjane paccayo], cohesion and extension are in preponderance by reason of capability in the action of dropping down.
The nature of cohesion is most gravid and so in the laying down of an upraised foot extension is subordinate to cohesion.
Because of their incapacity to drop down what is upraised the processes of caloricity and oscillation are called low in this connection.
Since the process of extension with (its cognate process) cohesion coming (as a servant or follower) behind it [apodhatuya anugata pathavidhatu] is the condition for the keeping (of a foot) on the ground, extension and cohesion are in preponderance by reason of capability, in the keeping (of a foot) on the ground.
In keeping the foot on the ground too, as in the state of something fixed, cohesion is subordinate to extension owing to the excessive functioning of the latter process.
Cohesion is subordinate to extension also by way of the contactual action of the process of extension in pressing the foot against the ground.
And here dropping down is lowering by way of relinguishment or laying down.
The setting down, thence, of the foot on the ground and so forth is keeping the foot on the ground.
After keeping the foot on the ground, the coming to a complete standstill of the action of going, by way of contacting is pressing the foot against the ground.
There = In this going forward or among the six aforesaid divisions known as raising up, stretching out, shifting away, dropping down, keeping down, and pressing against.
In raising up = In the moment of upraising.
Material and mental phenomena = The material phenomena proceeding in the form of upraising (or through the mode of upraising), and the mental phenomena originating that materiality do not occur in stretching out by reason of their existing only for a moment.
Throughout, this is the method of exegesis in this passage.
Just in these places = Wherever, in the divisions beginning with upraising, phenomena come to be, just in those very places, they perish.
To be sure, owing to swift change there is no going over of phenomena to another place.
Sections = Division.
Links = Joints.
Parts = Portions.
And all here is stated concerning the abovementioned divisions of the action of going which take place in the form of a differentiated serial process.
More fleet than the group of devas running before the Sun's chariot — the group of devas in the shape of horses with keen-edged razors attached to their heads and hoofs, engaged in and taken to going, plunging forwards, some above and some below, but never knocking against each other, though moving close together — is the moment of existence of material phenomena.
As the break-up of sesamum seeds that are roasted takes place almost at once with the sound of crackling, the destruction of conditioned phenomena takes place almost at once with phenomena's arising.
For, similar to the crackling sound, the sign of the breaking up of the sesamum seeds, is arising the sign (indicatory) of the (eventual) breaking up of conditioned phenomena, owing to the destruction (inevitably and) assuredly of phenomena that have arisen.
Who is the one that goes forward?
Just no one.
[ko eko abhikkamati nabhikkamati yeva].
Could it be said: Whose going forward is there?
No.
Why?
In the highest sense, what takes place is the going, the standing, the sitting down, and the lying down of the processes.
The passage just mentioned is for dispelling the false idea of a self that goes forward which a confused blinded worldling is apt to possess or the passage is stated by way of objection and refutation.
With material form in the several divisions [tasmim tasmim kotthase rupena saddhim] means: with material form in the aforesaid sixfold division.
The conscious state of the thought-unit that comes into existence when any material form comes into existence, runs a course of its own and does not get into close contact with the material form in question, nor does it get into repeated contact or relation with that material form.
Therefore it is said: one conscious state arises with material form and quite another ceases when that material form ceases.
By reason of the absence of close or repeated contact [apaccamatthatta] of mind with matter this happens.
Tension, oscillation or vibration of mind is quicker than that of matter, seventeen times.
The words: with material form in relation to the first sentence of the stanza mean: with whatsoever material form arising simultaneously with a conscious state [yena kenaci sahuppajjanakena rupena].
And the same words in relation to the second sentence of the stanza refer to the material form already arisen and existing at the starting point of the seventeenth thought-unit that occurs after the ceasing-phase of the thought-unit with which the aforesaid material form arose and which material form arisen already has a total duration from its arising to ceasing of seventeen consecutive thought-units and is possessed of the nature of ceasing together with the cessation of the seventeenth thought-unit mentioned above, namely, of the seventeenth thought-unit in its phase of dissolution or ceasing [dutiya pada sambandhe pana rupenati idam yam tato nirujjhamana cittato upari sattarasama cittassa uppadakkhane uppannam tadeva tassa nirujjhamana cittassa niroddhena saddhim nirujjhanakam sattarasa cittakkhanayukam rupam sandhaya vuttam].
Material and mental phenomena would perhaps be taken as things of equal duration, if the matter were put in a different way to this.
Should these two kinds of phenomena be wrongly considered as things of equal duration then there would be contradiction with such commentarial sayings as: "Material form is slow-changing, is tardy as regards ceasing," and with such textual sayings as: "I do not see a single thing so swiftly changing, o bhikkhus, as this mind" [aññatha ruparupadhamma samanayuka siyum yadi ca siyum atha rupam garu parinamam dandha nirodhanti adi atthakatha vacanehi naham bhikkhave eka dhammampi samanupassami evam lahu parivattam yathayidam bhikkave cittanti evamadi pali vacanehi ca virodho siya].
Since the nature of mind and mental characteristics [citta cetasika] is to cognize or to have objects, mind and mental characteristics arise cognizing [vibhaventa] according to their strength [yatha balam] the thing become a condition to mind and mental characteristics, in the form of an object or the thing become an object-condition to mind and mental characteristics [attano arammana paccayabhutamattam].
And immediately after the accomplishment or the effectuating of that which comprises the nature or quality of mind and mental characteristics, and that quality is just the process of cognizing, there occurs the ceasing of mind and mental characteristics [tesam sabhava nipphatti anantaram nirodho].
Material phenomena, however, do not take objects, have no objects [anarammana]; they do no cognizing.
Material phenomena have to be cognized [pakasetabba].
Cognizibility's fulfillment [pakasetabba bhava nipphatti] occurs with sixteen thought-units [solasehi cittehi hoti].
Hence the reduction of material phenomena to seventeen thought-units, together with the one thought-unit of the past, is acknowledged, by the commentator, it is said [tasma eka cittakkhanatitena saha sattarasa cittakkhanayukata rupadhammanam icchitati].
The swift changeability of mind or consciousness [viññanassa lahuparivattita] takes place through the mere combination of the other three mental aggregates with variform consciousness [the protean mind] and through the mere combination of objects with the same consciousness that is replete with variegation [lahuparivattana viññana visesassa sangati matta paccayataya tinnam khandhanam visaya sangatimattataya ca].
The state of slow change of material form [rupassa garu parivattita] occurs owing to the condition of sluggishness of the primaries, namely, of the processes of extension, cohesion, caloricity and oscillation symbolized by earth, water, fire and air, respectively [dandha maha bhuta paccayataya].
Only the Tathagata, he who has arrived at the Truth by traversing the Ancient Road of the Buddhas, has knowledge of the different processes according to reality [yatha bhutam nana dhatu ñanam kho pana tathagatasseva].
And by means of that knowledge of the Tathagata, the condition of pre-nascence as just a material phenomenon is stated.
Likewise, by that knowledge of the Tathagata, the condition of post-nascence, too, is stated.
Because of the statement of the pre-nascent and post-nascent conditions (the idea of) the identity of moment of occurrence of mental and material phenomena is just not fit.
Therefore it was said by the commentator, the elder Ananda thus: Just according to the method stated should the meaning be understood here [tena ca pure jata paccayo rupa dhammova vutto paccha jata paccaya ca tathevati ruparupa dhammanam samanakkhanata na yujjateva tasma vuttanayenevettha attho veditabboti acariyena vuttam].
This matter was stated in this way because it is easy to understand the simultaneity of cessation of mind and bodily or vocal expression [tadetam cittanuparivattiya viññattiya eka nirodha bhavassa suviññeyyatta evam vuttam]. [22]
The meaning should be understood thus: Quite another conscious state (i.e., thought-units) ceases with the ceasing of the material form arisen at the starting point of the seventeenth thought-unit which is earlier to the material form together with expression that is physical, in short, seventeen thought-units arise and pass away during the life-time of all material form except those connected with expression [tato saviññattikena puretaram sattarasama cittassa uppadakkhane uppannena rupena saddhim aññam cittam nirujjhatiti attho veditabbo].
The passage should be constructed thus: One conscious state ceases and quite another arises — i. e. , the conscious states at the arising and the ceasing of material phenomena are different [aññam cittam nirujjhati aññam uppajjate cittanti yojetabbam].
Indeed one is the word explanation; another is the explanation of the sense [añño hi saddakkamo añño atthakkamo].
While the conscious state arisen earlier, in ceasing, it ceases in just the form of proximity-condition and so forth, to another conscious state arising after it [yam hi purimuppannam cittam tam nirujjhantam aññassa paccha uppajjamanassa anantaradi paccaya bhaveneva nirujjhati].
Then another conscious state which has just obtained a condition, arises [yathaladdha paccayameva aññampi uppajjate cittam].
And here (mind is) in a different state by reason of the difference of occasion [avattha visesato cettha aññatha].
{39} Alokite = "In looking straight on."
Vilokite = "In looking away from the front."
{40} By way of what is fitting = In the form of that which is suitable to a recluse.
Since looking downwards could happen in such actions as sweeping and plastering the floor with clay and cow-dung, looking upwards in removing cob-webs and other similar actions, and looking backwards in such actions as the avoiding of danger coming from behind, it is said, that the commentator uttered the passage beginning with the words: Or, by this method.
By that the commentator points out that the statement is also one of the kind that implies what is not expressed — an elliptical statement.
{41} When the venerable elder Nanda was working for insight he slid into an unfavorable state of mind beginning with boredom in regard to the holy life and on becoming aware of that state of mind of his, he stirred himself, saying, "I shall restrain myself well."
Then having become energetic and very conscientious regarding guardedness at the doors of the controlling faculties of sense, he reached the state of one of great perfection in self-restraint, through the fulfillment of all duties.
By reason of that perfection the Master placed him in the position of pre-eminence in regard to the controlling faculty of restraint, with the words: "This one, namely, Nanda, O bhikkhus, is the chief among my disciples endowed with the controlling faculty of restraint."
{42} The passage beginning with the words: Within, it is said, there certainly is no self or soul is stated to explain that looking straight on or looking away from the front is, to be sure, just a variety of occurrence of even bare phenomena and that therefore clear comprehension of non-delusion is the knowing of that fact as it really is [yasma pana alokitadi nama dhamma mattasseva pavatti viseso tasma tassa yathavato jananam asammoha sampajaññanti dassetum abhantareti adi vuttam].
Accurate knowledge of the root [mula pariñña] = comprehension of the fundamental reason of impulsion at the mind-door [mano dvarika javanassa mula karana parijananam].
Through the casual state [agantuka bhava]: through the state of one coming as a stranger [abbhagata bhava].
Through the temporary state [tavakalika bhava]: through the state of proceeding only at a certain moment (tam khana matta pavattakassa bhava].
Fulfilling the function of a (main) factor of the rebirth-process means: accomplishing the principal work of a link; what is stated by that is this: having become substance.
The life-continum is, indeed, the principal factor and the principal basis because of similarity to the relinking mind.
Therefore, it is called the principal factor and basis or it is called so owing to its fulfilling of the function of a ground or reason by way of the causal condition of unbroken procedure [patthana bhutam anga kiccam nipphadentam asariram hutvati vuttam hoti, bhavangam hi patisandhi sadisatta patthanam angam patthanañca sariranti vuccati, avicchedappavatti hetu bhavena va karana kiccam sadhayamananti attho].
The expression: After the turning round of that has been stated by way of general reference to the life-continum, threefold as regards procedure: past thought-unit of the life-continum, movement of the life-continum and stoppage of the life-continum.
At this place turning round refers just to the stoppage of the life-continum [tam avattetvati bhavanga samañña vasena vuttam pavattakara visesa vasena pana atitadina tibbidham tattha ca bhavangupacchedasseva avattanam].
From the cessation of that (tannirodha) = Owing to the dissolution of that [tassa nirujjhanato] — expressions of reason by way of proximity-condition [anantara paccaya vasena hetu vacanam].
Even in the first impulsion and so forth ending with the seventh impulsion.
This passage has been stated concerning the absence (in a definite way) of lust, hate and ignorance with the thought: This is a woman or This is a man, in the course of cognition at the five doors of sense.
In this matter, indeed, owing to the existence of mental states, by way of adverting and the rest up to determining, without radical reflection, on account of reflecting unwisely prior to adverting-determining, impulsion that is with a bare semblance of greed arises in regard to a liked object such as a female form, and impulsion that is with a bare semblance of hate arises in regard to an object not liked.
There is however no occurrence of lust, hate and ignorance in an extreme way, with strong moral consequences in the course of sense-door cognition.
Only in the course of mind-door cognition lust, hate and ignorance occur absolutely, that is, with strong moral consequences.
But impulsion of the course of sense-door cognition is the root of lust, hate and ignorance of mind-door course of cognition.
Or even all beginning with the mental state of the life-continum can be taken as the root of mind-door impulsion.
Thus accurate knowledge of the root has been stated by way of the root-reason of mind-door impulsion.
The casual state and the temporary state (are) indeed (stated) on account of the newness of just impulsion of the course of cognition at the five doors of sense and on account of the brevity of the same impulsion [pathama javanepi... pe... sattama javanepiti idam pañca dvarika vithiyam ayam itthi ayam purisoti rajjana dussana muyhananam abhavam sandhaya vuttam tattha hi avajjana vatthabbananam puretaram pavatta yoniso manasikara vasena ayoniso avajjana votthabbanakarena pavattanto itthe itthi rupadimhi lobha sahagata mattam javanam uppajati anitthe ca dosa sahagata mattam na pana ekanta rajjana dussanadi hoti tassa pana mano dvarikassa rajjana dussanadino pañca dvarika javanam mulam yatha vuttam va sabbampi bhavangadi evam mano dvarikassa javanassa mula karana vasena mulapariñña vutta. Agantuka tavakalikata pana pañca dvarika javanasseva apubba bhava vasena ittarata vasena ca].
After breaking up gradually are fallen, one atop of another, on account of the turning round — changing, moving — early and later or before and after or below and above, in the form of the arising of the mental state of the life-continum [hettha ca upari ca parivattamana vasena aparaparam bhavanguppatti vasena].
Likewise indeed (is indicated) the falling after breaking down of the (other) mental states on account of the arising of the mental state of the life-continum [tatha bhavanguppada vasena hi tesam bhijjitva patanam].
By this indeed the commentator shows, by way of the gradual arising of the earlier and the later mental state of the life-continum, the arising of the impulsion of the mind-door course of cognition which is different to the impulsion of the course of cognition at the five doors of sense [imina pana hetthimassa uparimassa ca bhavangassa aparaparuppatti vasena pañca dvarika javanato visadisassa mano dvarika javanassa uppadam dasseti].
Because of the proceeding of lust and the like by just the way of mind-door impulsion, the commentator said even thus: There takes place looking straight on or looking away from the front, by way of lust, hatred and ignorance.
{43} Like a visitor = Like someone come specially, a stranger [agantuka puriso viya].
Visitors are of two kinds, by way of a guest, that is, a person who comes and goes, a person who does not stay permanently in a place, and by way of someone who comes specially to a place, a stranger.
In this connection, one who is an acquaintance, or one who is known, is a guest.
One who is not an acquaintance and is unknown, is a stranger.
According to the context here a stranger is meant.
Since to these mental states there is just that duration limited to the process of rise-and-fall of mental phenomena, these states of mind are called temporary.
{44} Seeing = Eye-consciousness [cakkhuviññanam]. By reason of knowing the acts of looking straight on and of looking away from the front in that way only as "eye-consciousness," adverting and the rest are left out, as bare seeing only is in "eye-consciousness" [tassa vaseneva alokana vilokana paññayananto avajjanadinam agahanam].
Separate from that fivefold aggregate, who, singly, looks straight on?
Who, singly, looks away from the front?
None, singly, only by oneself indeed, looks straight on, and none, singly, only by oneself, looks away from the front — this reply is intended to be given to the questions.
{45} With the words: light is the condition of decisive-support the conditionality of seeing is stated through the Suttanta method, through the way of illustrated discourse, discursively, indirectly.
Conascence-condition too belongs to just seeing. This is (given as) only an example owing to the obtaining also of conditions of mutuality, association, presence, non-disappearance and so forth.
{46} Just by the showing of the tribulation of non-comprehension of that, the felicity of comprehension is made clear; thus here, the illustration of these should be understood.
In the terrace of the Great Relic Shrine = In the terrace of the great relic shrine known by the name of Hemamali, at Anuradhapura, in Lanka, built by the king Dutthagamini.
By just that fact, became a layman = By reason of coming into bodily contact with a female, that bhikkhu having become filled with longing for sense-delights turned to the lower life of the world.
On the pole of a robe-tent = On a pole fixed to the roof of a tent covered with robes.
It is said by the commentator that bhikkhus having made a robe-tent were in that tent rehearsing the doctrine even on the terrace of the Great Relic Shrine.
It is said by the commentators, the elders Ananda and Dhammapala, that the ribbon-snake is a snake-species found in Lion Island.
{47} Subject of meditation — The subject of meditation of the elements (modes or processes) that is according to the method about to be stated with the words "Within there is no soul" and so forth.
{48} With the words, to the lone-dweller in the forest such robes are productive of loss of clothing, the commentator mentioned in part what constitutes the loss of (or destruction of) the life of purity and it is stated so because clothing is properly free to be taken or used by or accessible to thieves and the like.
{49} Just by that statement (or irreversibility) the commentator shows that the non-suitable mentioned earlier is not non-suitable absolutely because of the possibility of the non-suitable mentioned earlier becoming suitable to someone, at some time, owing to this or that reason.
This pair (of robes mentioned) here is however absolutely non-suitable, on account of the absence of suitability to anyone at any time
{50} Within.
In one's own mental flux [abbhantareti attano santane].
Body too.
Body too is only an ego-concept [kayapiti atta paññatti matto kiyopi].
I = Karma produced body [ahanti kamma bhuto kayo].
Processes = External processes called robes [civara sankhata bahira dhatuyo].
Process-heap = The internal process-collection called the body [dhatu samuhanti kaya sankhatam ajjhattikam dhatu samuham].
{51} With the seeing of the purpose, the obtaining of food, should the bowl be taken by one.
In this way indeed does clear comprehension of purpose arise.
{52} A bowl that is hard to wash well: This was said concerning a bowl difficult to wash properly, naturally, though it may be without mends.
{53} A person endowed with the highest clear comprehension should be known by way of the discernment of fineness of the characteristic activity of one possessed of the highest clear comprehension and by way of the highest state of the previous practicers of clear comprehension.
{54} Taking onward: moving on up to the mouth.
Moving away from side to side: taking forwards from there to the belly.
Again, taking onward = carrying beyond the mouth-aperture.
Moving away from side to side = taking what is going belly-wards, side-wise.
Bears = causes to stand in the stomach.
Turns round = causes to turn back and forth.
Pulverizes = causes the complete powdering as if by a pestle.
Expels = causes the depositing outside the belly.
In regard to the functions of the process of extension, too, the explanation is similar to that which has been already stated.
Indeed, these — bearing, turning, pulverizing, drying — the process of oscillation is able to do, only, together with the process of extension.
Not singly by itself.
Therefore, these — bearing, turning, pulverizing, the removal of liquidity or drying — too, are stated by way of the function of the process of extension.
Moistens = makes humid.
Preserves wetness: Just as there is no very great drying by the process of oscillation and so forth, so the process of cohesion preserves wetness by not wetting quite.
The way = the way for entering, turning round, expelling (actually the openings or vacuities which provide the range for such functions).
Process of consciousness = mind-consciousness process, the knowledge in regard to seeking food, swallowing and the like.
In any particular situation = in any function of seeking, swallowing or other similar act.
Right kind of action.
The act which even completes a function and becomes a condition for any particular kind of knowledge.
That act causes fulfillment of even the knowledge of the scope of that function, by reason of that knowledge not arising without the act.
Knows.
Perceives, understands, by way of seeking, by way of full experience of swallowing, by way of the digested, the undigested and so forth.
It should be understood that as knowledge is always preceded by the adverting or the turning of the mind to a thing, knowledge too is included here.
{55} By way of the need to go for it (food): By way of going towards the alms-village in the sense of wandering for alms. The return journey is also included.
By way of the need to seek it: By way of wandering for alms in the alms-village.
Entry into a retiring hall and the like become included in this, naturally.
By way of the process of eating it: By way of taking in the contemptible food comparable to dog's vomit in a dog's food trough, rid of color and odor just when the tongue turns the food which has been reduced to pulp by the pestles of the teeth.
By way of the receptacle (in the form of excretion of bile, phlegm, pus and blood): Through the food thus taken in becoming the condition for prime contemptibility, by way of the fourfold receptacle placed on the top of the stomach.
What stands, exists, there, in the upper part of the stomach is the staying place, the receptacle.
By way of the food that is undigested: By way of non-preparation of the food in the stomach and the intestines for absorption by the body, through the process of karma-produced caloricity called "the seizer," a supposed organ of the body which functions in digestion, according to Ayurvedic teaching of ancient India.
By way of the food that is digested: Digested through just the karma-produced process of caloricity abovementioned.
By way of the consequences of eating: By way of effect.
By way of the business called the bringing about of carcass-products like hair, and diseases, like skin eruptions through the digested and undigested food.
This is stated by the commentator as the fruit of food.
By way of the trickling or oozing of food from the body's openings in the form of excretions: By way of the flowing out from eye, ear and several other openings, here and there.
For it is said by the Ancients:
Hard eats, soft eats, food and drink superfine,
Get in at one door and get out by nine.
By way of the pollution due to food: By way of the smearing throughout, when eating, of the hands, lips, and other members of that kind, and, after eating, of the nine openings or doors of the body.
{56} Fields occupied or frequented by humans and places occupied or frequented by devas, and deva-sanctuaries, are improper.
Angry men and spirits cause even death to those who defecate or urinate in such places.
By using such places for cleansing the waste of the body bhikkhus and bhikkunis become guilty of the disciplinary offences of minor wrong-doing (dukkata) or of acts expiable by confession (pacittiya) according to the circumstances.
{57} Postures of long duration [addhana iriyapatha]: postures kept up long or postures existing in a process of going for or of one wayfaring long.
Postures of middling duration [majjhima]: postures proceeding neither too long in time nor involving too long wayfaring, namely, those connected with wandering for alms and so forth.
Postures of short duration [cunnika iriyapatha]: postures become diminutive, by reason of brief duration and proceeding by way of going about and so forth in the monastery or elsewhere.
{58} By reason of proximity of the word "waking," here the action of lying down is only sleep in the sense of the descent of the mind into the state of the life-continum.
It is not merely the stretching out of the back.
{59} Action is doing, function of body and so forth (i.e., bodily expression or verbal expression, kayaviññatti va vaciviññatti).
The processes which make action produce the function of bodily expression or the function of verbal expression.
Or action is the double function of adverting.
The things made of or produced from that action or double function are processes made of action.
For by way of adverting, when there is the stoppage of the life-continum, courses of cognition arise [karanam kriya kayadikiccam. Tam nibbattentiti kriyamayani. Athava avajjanadvayakiccam kriya; taya pakatani, nibbattani va kriyamayani. Avajjanavasenahi bhavangupaccede sati vithicittani uppajjanti].
Processes are things which go on, move changing, by arising gradually in different ways.
Somewhere there is the reading "of mental states," "of action-making mental states, kriyamaya cittanam."
It should be understood that this is not a reading of the Ancients as it is against the commentary and explanation to the Abhidhamma and other books [aparaparuppattiya nanappakarato vattanti parivattantiti pavattani. Katthaci pana cittananti patho. So Abhidhammatthakathadihi tattikahi ca viruddhatta na Parana pathoti veditabbo].
Impulsion of either course of cognition (mind-door or five-door course of cognition) is a process made of action.
Therefore it is said in the explanation to the Abhiddhamma, "On account of the condition of processes making action of body and so forth and by reason of the condition of originating action of adverting, impulsion of either course of cognition, or lust of every process of the six doors gets known as a process which makes or is made of action." [javanam sabbampi va chaddvarika vithi cittam kriyamaya pavattani. Tenaha Abhidhammatikayam kayadi kriyamayatta avajjamakriya samutthitatta ca javanam sabbampi va chaddvarapavattam kriyamayapavattam namati]. [25]
Non-occurrence: Non-arising (of the processes which make action or are made of action) at the time of falling asleep is called sleep.
Thus the thing should be understood.
Otherwise sleep could be called the proceeding of even all states of door-free consciousness (namely, every instance of the supervention of the life-continum), before and after the six-door states of consciousness; so, it should be understood that the supervention of the life-continum at a time other than that of falling asleep is included in waking [appavattanti niddokkamana kale anuppajjanam suttam namati attho gahetabbo. Itaratha chaddvarika cittanam pure caranucaravasena uppajjantanam sabbesampi dvaravimutta cittanam pavattam suttam nama siya, evañca katva niddokkamana kalato aññasmim kale uppajjantanam dvaravimutta cittanampi pavattam jagarito sangayhatiti veditabbam].
{60} The occurrence of the sound-base is speech; its non-occurrence is silence [saddayatanassa pavattanam bhasanam appavattanam tunhi].
Since, indeed, in the exposition of the Elder Maha Siva the state of clear comprehension is considered by way of the vision of the ending then and there of material and mental qualities occurring in posture after posture, without a break, the state of clear comprehension should be known by way of the insight portion of the clear comprehension of non-delusion come down in the Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness; not by way of the detailing of the fourfold clear comprehension.
Therefore, only, in the Discourse on the Fruit of the Homeless Life (Samaññaphala Sutta) is that fourfold clear comprehension intended.
The dominance of non-delusion refers to the statement to which non-delusion is the dominant or principal thing.
This statement of the Elder Maha Siva contains the reason that is found only in the Satipatthana Sutta in this connection, namely, clear comprehension of non-delusion, by way of the insight portion or turn; and not the detailing of fourfold clear comprehension as given in the Samaññaphala Sutta.
{61} By the words only clear comprehension that is endowed with mindfulness, both the importance of clear comprehension by way of function and that of mindfulness are taken.
Indeed it is not the pointing out of merely the condition of mindfulness with clear comprehension for it is said, "nowhere does knowledge exist without mindfulness."
Now in order to reinforce that thing by the Classificatory Method too [vibhanga nayenapi tadattham samatthetum], the words "Indeed, in the Book of Classifications" and so forth were spoken by the commentator.
By this indeed, one makes clear the importance even of mindfulness here as of clear comprehension [imina pi hi sampajaññassa viya satiya pettha patthanam (padhanam) yeva vibhaveti].
There, "these" refers to the synoptical statement beginning with "In going forwards and in going backwards, he is a doer of clear comprehension."
[tattha etani padaniti abhikkante patikkante sampajana kari hoti adini uddesa padani].
The reciters of the Middle Collection [Majjhimabhanaka] however and the scholars of the Abhidhamma [Abhidhammika] say thus: "A certain bhikkhu goes thinking the while of something else, considering something else (that is, not thinking of or considering his action of going, or his subject of meditation.)
Another goes without causing the abandoning of the subject of meditation.
In the same manner, a certain bhikkhu thinking the while of something else, considering something else, is standing, sitting, or sleeping (lying down); another sleeps (lies down) without causing the abandoning of the subject of meditation." [eko bhikkhu gacchanto aññam cintento aññam vitakkento gacchati. Eko kammatthanam avissajjetva va gacchati. Tatha eko titthanto nisidanto sayanto aññam cintento aññnam vitakkento sayati. Eko kammatthanam avissajjetva va sayati].
Indeed the earnest bhikkhu comprehends thus: The material and mental qualities which existed at the east end of the ambulatory passed away just there without reaching the west end of the ambulatory.
The material and mental qualities which existed at the west end of the ambulatory, too, passed away just there without reaching the east end of the ambulatory.
The material and mental qualities which existed at the very center of the ambulatory passed away just there without reaching either end of the ambulatory.
The material and mental qualities which existed in walking, passed away without reaching the position of standing.
The material and mental qualities which existed in the position of standing passed away just there without reaching the position of sitting; of sitting, without reaching the position of sleeping.
Comprehending in this way again and again, the mind enters the life-continum, the unconscious.
When arising, he at once takes up the subject of meditation.
This bhikkhu is a doer of clear comprehension in walking (going about) and so forth.
In this way, however, the subject becomes unclear in sleep; the subject of meditation should not be made unclear.
Therefore the bhikkhu, having exercised to the full extent of his ability on the ambulatory, stood, and sat, lies down comprehending thus: "The body is unconscious; the bed is unconscious.
The body does not know, 'I am lying down on the bed.'
The bed also does not know, 'On me the body is lying down.'
He, whilst just comprehending again and again thus, "The unconscious body is lying down on the unconscious bed," the mind enters the life-continum, the unconscious.
On awakening, he at once takes up the subject of meditation.
This bhikkhu is called a doer of clear comprehension in sleeping. [27]
{62} This reflection by way of mindfulness directed bodywards, called the reflection of repulsiveness is unknown to non-Buddhists in the form of subject of meditation development (kammatthana bhavana vasena).
Hence it is a thing which comes into being when a Buddha arises; not at other times.
This mindfulness directed bodywards leads to the following:
Great moral-emotional upsurge (maha samvega).
The great tranquillity or security based on effort (maha yogakkhema)
Great mindfulness and clear comprehension (maha sati sampajañña)
Attainment of insight-knowledge (ñanadassanapatilabha)
Happy living here and now (ditthadhammasukhavihara)
Realization of the fruition of wisdom and freedom[28] (vijjavi-muttiphalasacchikiriya).
This mindfulness has been explained in the following sections: Breathing-in-and-out; four kinds of deportment; the fourfold clear comprehension; the reflection on repulsiveness; the reflection on the elements or modes of existence; and the nine cemetery contemplation.
There are these seven kinds of skill in study to be acquired in regard to this subject of meditation, by:
Repetition of the thirty-two parts of the body verbally (vacasa).
Repetition of the parts only mentally (manasa).
Determining of the hair of the head and so forth according to color (vannato).
Determining of the parts according to shape (santhanato).
Determination of situation of the parts as above or below the navel, on the upper or lower side of the body, directionally (disato).
Determination of the place in the body acquired by a part, that is, determination spatially (okasato).
Determination of one part by the position of another to it and by way of dissimilarity of one part to another (paricchedato).
There are these ten kinds of skill in reflecting on this subject of meditation:
Doing the meditation gradually as one climbing a stairway one step after another in due order taking one part after another serially (anupubbato).
Doing it not too quickly (natisighato).
Doing it not too slowly (natisanikato).
Doing it by warding off mental rambling (vikkhepapatibahanato).
Practice by way of going beyond the concept of hair and so forth to the idea of repulsiveness (pannattisamatikkamanato).
Practice by gradual elimination of the less clear parts (anupubbamuñcanato).
Practice by way of the part which is the source of ecstasy (appanato).
Practice by way of the Three Discourses: Adhicitta,[29] Sitibhava,[30] and Bojjhangakosalla. [31]
{63} By the word placed there is the elucidation of occasion by way of own (or particular) function of material things known as the body in various moments [kaya sankhatam rupadhammanam tasmim tasmim khane sakicca vasena avatthana paridipanam].
By the word disposed here the following meaning should be known: By way of condition, the putting down or settling owing to the arrangement of several conditions [paccaya vasena tehi tehi paccayehi pakarato nihitam].
Reflects (paccavekkhati) = Considers again and again, sees analytically, part by part, separately after sifting thoroughly with the eye of wisdom [pati pati avekkhati ñanacakkhuna vinibhujjitva visum visum passati].
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