5.5 Наставление о дне упосатхи (uposathasuttaṃ)

Опубликовано khantibalo от 28 февраля, 2018 - 08:17

Будда отказывается зачитывать Патимоккху монахам в связи с присутствием в собрании порочного монаха. С этого момента монахи начали сами проводить эту процедуру и со временем она приобрела современный вид.

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5. Uposathasuttaṃ ¶
45. Evaṃ me sutaṃ – ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati pubbārāme migāramātupāsāde. I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Sāvatthī at the Eastern Monastery, the palace of Migāra's mother. Так я слышал. Однажды Благословенный находился в Саваттхи, в восточном монастыре, в особняке, пожертвованом матерью Мигары [=Висакхой].
Tena kho pana samayena bhagavā tadahuposathe bhikkhusaṅghaparivuto nisinno hoti. ¶ And on that occasion, the Blessed One — it being the observance day — was sitting surrounded by the community of monks. ¶ В то время Благословенный в день упосатхи сидел окружённый группой монахов. ¶
Atha kho āyasmā ānando abhikkantāya rattiyā, nikkhante paṭhame yāme, uṭṭhāyāsanā ekaṃsaṃ uttarāsaṅgaṃ [cīvaraṃ (sabbattha)] karitvā yena bhagavā tenañjaliṃ paṇāmetvā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – "abhikkantā, bhante, ratti; nikkhanto paṭhamo yāmo; ciranisinno bhikkhusaṅgho; uddisatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhūnaṃ pātimokkha"nti. Then Ven. Ānanda — when the night was far advanced, at the end of the first watch — got up from his seat, arranged his robe over one shoulder, stood facing the Blessed One, paying homage with his hands placed palm-to-palm over his heart, and said to him, "Lord, the night is far advanced. The first watch has ended. The community of monks has been sitting here long. May the Blessed One recite the Pāṭimokkha to them." Тогда почтенный Ананда глубокой ночью по окончании первой стражи встал со своего сидения, сложил верхнюю часть одеяния на плече, встал лицом к Благословенному с руками в жесте уважения и сказал: "Почтенный, уже глубокая ночь. Закончилась первая стража. Группа монахов уже долго сидит. Пусть Благословенный зачитает им Патимоккху".
Evaṃ vutte, bhagavā tuṇhī ahosi. ¶ When this was said, the Blessed One remained silent. ¶ Когда так было сказано, Благословенный оставался безмолвным. ¶
Dutiyampi kho āyasmā ānando abhikkantāya rattiyā, nikkhante majjhime yāme, uṭṭhāyāsanā ekaṃsaṃ uttarāsaṅgaṃ karitvā yena bhagavā tenañjaliṃ paṇāmetvā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – "abhikkantā, bhante, ratti; nikkhanto majjhimo yāmo; ciranisinno bhikkhusaṅgho; uddisatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhūnaṃ pātimokkha"nti. Then a second time, when the night was far advanced, at the end of the middle watch, Ven. Ānanda got up from his seat, arranged his robe over one shoulder, stood facing the Blessed One, paying homage with his hands placed palm-to-palm over his heart, and said to him, "Lord, the night is far advanced. The second watch has ended. The community of monks has been sitting here long. May the Blessed One recite the Pāṭimokkha to them." И во второй раз почтенный Ананда глубокой ночью по окончании второй стражи встал со своего сидения, сложил верхнюю часть одеяния на плече, встал лицом к Благословенному с руками в жесте уважения и сказал: "Почтенный, уже глубокая ночь. Закончилась первая стража. Группа монахов уже долго сидит. Пусть Благословенный зачитает им Патимоккху".
Dutiyampi kho bhagavā tuṇhī ahosi. ¶ When this was said, the Blessed One remained silent. ¶ Когда так было сказано, Благословенный оставался безмолвным. ¶
Tatiyampi kho āyasmā ānando abhikkantāya rattiyā, nikkhante pacchime yāme, uddhaste aruṇe, nandimukhiyā rattiyā uṭṭhāyāsanā ekaṃsaṃ uttarāsaṅgaṃ karitvā yena bhagavā tenañjaliṃ paṇāmetvā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – "abhikkantā, bhante, ratti; nikkhanto pacchimo yāmo; uddhasto aruṇo; nandimukhī ratti; ciranisinno bhikkhusaṅgho; uddisatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhūnaṃ pātimokkha"nti. Then a third time, when the night was far advanced, at the end of the last watch, as dawn was approaching and the face of the night was beaming, Ven. Ānanda got up from his seat, arranged his robe over one shoulder, stood facing the Blessed One, paying homage with his hands placed palm-to-palm over his heart, and said to him, "Lord, the night is far advanced. The last watch has ended. Dawn is approaching and the face of the night is beaming. The community of monks has been sitting here long. May the Blessed One recite the Pāṭimokkha to the community of monks." И в третий раз почтенный Ананда глубокой ночью по окончании третей стражи, когда приближался рассвет и ночь подходила к концу встал со своего сидения, сложил верхнюю часть одеяния на плече, встал лицом к Благословенному с руками в жесте уважения и сказал: "Почтенный, уже глубокая ночь. Закончилась первая стража. Группа монахов уже долго сидит. Пусть Благословенный зачитает им Патимоккху".
"Aparisuddhā, ānanda, parisā"ti. ¶ "Ānanda, the gathering isn't pure." ¶ "Ананда, собрание не чисто" ¶
Atha kho āyasmato mahāmoggallānassa etadahosi – "kaṃ nu kho bhagavā puggalaṃ sandhāya evamāha – 'aparisuddhā, ānanda, parisā'ti? Then the thought occurred to Ven. Mahā Moggallāna: "In reference to which individual did the Blessed One just now say, 'Ānanda, the gathering isn't pure'?" И тогда почтенный Махамоггаллана подумал: "В отношении какого человека Благословенный сказал: "Ананда, собрание не чисто"?".
Atha kho āyasmā mahāmoggallāno sabbāvantaṃ bhikkhusaṅghaṃ cetasā ceto paricca manasākāsi. So he directed his mind, encompassing with his awareness the awareness of the entire community of monks. И тогда почтенный Махамоггаллана направил свой ум, охватив своим разумом разум всей группы монахов.
Addasā kho āyasmā mahāmoggallāno taṃ puggalaṃ dussīlaṃ pāpadhammaṃ asuciṃ saṅkassarasamācāraṃ paṭicchannakammantaṃ asamaṇaṃ samaṇapaṭiññaṃ abrahmacāriṃ brahmacāripaṭiññaṃ antopūtiṃ avassutaṃ kasambujātaṃ majjhe bhikkhusaṅghassa nisinnaṃ. He saw that individual — unprincipled, evil, unclean and suspect in his undertakings, hidden in his actions, not a contemplative though claiming to be one, not leading the holy life though claiming to do so, inwardly rotten, oozing with desire, filthy by nature — sitting in the midst of the community of monks. И почтенный Махамоггаллана увидел того человека - безнравственного, порочного, нечистого, подозрительного в начинаниях, скрытного в поступках, не отшельника, хотя представляющего себя таковым, внутренне прогнившего, полного желаний, мерзкого - сидящего посредине группы монахов.
Disvāna uṭṭhāyāsanā yena so puggalo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ puggalaṃ etadavoca – "uṭṭhehi, āvuso, diṭṭhosi bhagavatā; natthi te bhikkhūhi saddhiṃ saṃvāso"ti. On seeing him, he got up, went over to that individual, and on reaching him said, "Get up, friend. You have been seen by the Blessed One. You have no affiliation with the community of monks." Увидев его он встал, подошёл к этому человеку и подойдя сказал: "Друг, вставай. Благословенный заметил тебя. У тебя нет общности с монахами". или "ты не имеешь с монахами ничего общего".
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Evaṃ vutte [atha kho (sabbattha), cūḷava. 383; a. ni. 8.20 passitabbaṃ], so puggalo tuṇhī ahosi. ¶ Then the individual remained silent. ¶ Когда так было сказано, тот человек остался безмолвным. ¶
Dutiyampi kho āyasmā mahāmoggallāno taṃ puggalaṃ etadavoca – "uṭṭhehi, āvuso, diṭṭhosi bhagavatā; natthi te bhikkhūhi saddhiṃ saṃvāso"ti. A second time... И во второй раз почтенный Махамоггаллана сказал тому человеку: "Друг, вставай. Благословенный заметил тебя. У тебя нет общности с монахами".
Dutiyampi kho - pe - tatiyampi kho so puggalo tuṇhī ahosi. ¶ A third time, Ven. Mahā Moggallāna said, "Get up, friend. You have been seen by the Blessed One. You have no affiliation with the community of monks." And for a third time the individual remained silent. ¶ И во второй... и в третий раз тот человек остался безмолвным. ¶
Atha kho āyasmā mahāmoggallāno taṃ puggalaṃ bāhāyaṃ gahetvā bahidvārakoṭṭhakā nikkhāmetvā sūcighaṭikaṃ datvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – "nikkhāmito, bhante, so puggalo mayā. Then Ven. Mahā Moggallāna, grabbing that individual by the arm, having expelled him through the outside door of the porch and locking the bolt, approached the Blessed One and on arrival said, "I have expelled that individual, lord. И тогда почтенный Махамоггаллана, взяв за руку того человека, изгнал его за внешнюю дверь крыльца и закрыв дверь на засов подошёл к Благословенному и подойдя сказал ему: "Почтенный, тот человек был мною изгнан.
Parisuddhā parisā. The gathering is now pure. Теперь собрание чисто.
Uddisatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhūnaṃ pātimokkha"nti. Let the Blessed One recite the Pāṭimokkha to the community of monks." Пусть Благословенный зачитает Патимоккху группе монахов."
"Acchariyaṃ, moggallāna, abbhutaṃ, moggallāna! ¶ "Isn't it amazing, Moggallāna. Isn't it astounding, ¶ "Это необыкновенно, Моггаллана, это невероятно, Моггаллана! ¶
Yāva bāhāgahaṇāpi nāma so moghapuriso āgamessatī"ti! ¶ how that worthless man waited until he was grabbed by the arm." ¶ как тот ничтожный человек ждал, пока его возьмут за руку!". ¶
Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – "na dānāhaṃ, bhikkhave, ito paraṃ [na dānāhaṃ bhikkhave ajjatagge (a. ni. 8.20)] uposathaṃ karissāmi, pātimokkhaṃ uddisissāmi. Then the Blessed One addressed the monks: "From now on I will no longer perform the observance or recite the Pāṭimokkha. Затем Благословенный обратился к монахам: "Монахи, я больше не буду проводить упосатху и зачитывать Патимоккху.
Tumheva dāni, bhikkhave, ito paraṃ uposathaṃ kareyyātha, pātimokkhaṃ uddiseyyātha. From now on, you alone, monks, will perform the observance and recite the Pāṭimokkha. Отныне вы, монахи, сами будете проводить упосатху и зачитывать Патимоккху.
Aṭṭhānametaṃ, bhikkhave, anavakāso yaṃ tathāgato aparisuddhāya parisāya uposathaṃ kareyya, pātimokkhaṃ uddiseyya. ¶ It is impossible, it cannot happen, that a Tathāgata would perform the observance or recite the Pāṭimokkha with an impure gathering. ¶ Это невозможно, этого не может быть, чтобы Татхагата проводил упосатху или зачитывал Патимоккху нечистому собранию. ¶
"Aṭṭhime, bhikkhave, mahāsamudde acchariyā abbhutā dhammā, ye disvā disvā asurā mahāsamudde abhiramanti. "Monks, there are these eight amazing & astounding qualities of the ocean because of which, as they see them again & again, the asuras take great joy in the ocean. "Монахи, есть эти восемь необыкновенных и невероятных качеств океана, наблюдая которые снова и снова асуры восхищаются океаном.
Katame aṭṭha? ¶ Which eight? ¶ Какие восемь? ¶
"Mahāsamuddo, bhikkhave, anupubbaninno anupubbapoṇo anupubbapabbhāro, na āyatakeneva papāto. "[1] The ocean has a gradual shelf, a gradual slope, a gradual inclination, with a sudden drop-off only after a long stretch. Океанское дно имеет постепенный уклон, постепенный склон, постепенное наклонение с резким обрывом только после большого расстояния. Кстати на эту тему ещё можно вспомнить повторяющихся фрагмент в суттах, где говорится "когда освобождён есть знание "освобождён"". Я так понимаю, это ...
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Yampi [yaṃ (sī. syā. ka.)], bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo anupubbaninno anupubbapoṇo anupubbapabbhāro na āyatakeneva papāto; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, mahāsamudde paṭhamo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā asurā mahāsamudde abhiramanti. ¶ [1] The fact that the ocean has a gradual shelf, a gradual slope, a gradual inclination, with a sudden drop-off only after a long stretch: This is the first amazing & astounding quality of the ocean because of which, as they see it again & again, the asuras take great joy in the ocean. ¶
"Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo ṭhitadhammo velaṃ nātivattati. "[2] And furthermore, the ocean is stable and does not overstep its tideline...
Yampi, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo ṭhitadhammo velaṃ nātivattati; ayaṃ, bhikkhave [ayampi (sabbattha)], mahāsamudde dutiyo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā asurā mahāsamudde abhiramanti. ¶ This is the second amazing & astounding quality of the ocean because of which, as they see it again & again, the asuras take great joy in the ocean. ¶
"Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo na matena kuṇapena saṃvasati. "[3] And furthermore, the ocean does not tolerate a dead body.
Yaṃ hoti mahāsamudde mataṃ kuṇapaṃ taṃ khippameva [khippaññeva (sī.), khippaṃyeva (ka.)] tīraṃ vāheti, thalaṃ ussāreti. Any dead body in the ocean gets quickly washed to the shore and thrown up on dry land...
Yampi, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo na matena kuṇapena saṃvasati, yaṃ hoti mahāsamudde mataṃ kuṇapaṃ taṃ khippameva tīraṃ vāheti thalaṃ ussāreti; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, mahāsamudde tatiyo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā asurā mahāsamudde abhiramanti. ¶ This is the third amazing & astounding quality of the ocean because of which, as they see it again & again, the asuras take great joy in the ocean. ¶
"Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, yā kāci mahānadiyo, seyyathidaṃ – gaṅgā yamunā aciravatī sarabhū mahī, tā mahāsamuddaṃ patvā [pattā (syā. pī. ka.)] jahanti purimāni nāmagottāni; 'mahāsamuddo'tveva saṅkhaṃ gacchanti. "[4] And furthermore, whatever great rivers there are — such as the Ganges, the Yamunā, the Aciravatī, the Sarabhū, the Mahī — on reaching the ocean, give up their former names and are classed simply as 'ocean'...
Yampi, bhikkhave, yā kāci mahānadiyo, seyyathidaṃ – gaṅgā yamunā aciravatī sarabhū mahī tā mahāsamuddaṃ patvā jahanti purimāni nāmagottāni, 'mahāsamuddo'tveva saṅkhaṃ gacchanti; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, mahāsamudde catuttho acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā asurā mahāsamudde abhiramanti. ¶ This is the fourth amazing & astounding quality of the ocean because of which, as they see it again & again, the asuras take great joy in the ocean. ¶
"Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, yā ca loke savantiyo mahāsamuddaṃ appenti, yā ca antalikkhā dhārā papatanti, na tena mahāsamuddassa ūnattaṃ vā pūrattaṃ vā paññāyati. "[5] And furthermore, though the rivers of the world pour into the ocean, and rains fall from the sky, no swelling or diminishing in the ocean for that reason can be discerned...
Yampi, bhikkhave, yā ca loke savantiyo mahāsamuddaṃ appenti, yā ca antalikkhā dhārā papatanti, na tena mahāsammuddassa ūnattaṃ vā pūrattaṃ vā paññāyati; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, mahāsamudde pañcamo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā asurā mahāsamudde abhiramanti. ¶ This is the fifth amazing & astounding quality of the ocean because of which, as they see it again & again, the asuras take great joy in the ocean. ¶
"Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo ekaraso loṇaraso. "[6] And furthermore, the ocean has a single taste: that of salt...
Yampi, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo ekaraso loṇaraso; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, mahāsamudde chaṭṭho acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā asurā mahāsamudde abhiramanti. ¶ This is the sixth amazing & astounding quality of the ocean because of which, as they see it again & again, the asuras take great joy in the ocean. ¶
"Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo bahuratano anekaratano. "[7] And furthermore, the ocean has these many treasures of various kinds:
Tatrimāni ratanāni, seyyathidaṃ – muttā maṇi veḷuriyo saṅkho silā pavāḷaṃ rajataṃ jātarūpaṃ lohitaṅgo masāragallaṃ. pearls, sapphires, lapis lazuli, shells, quartz, coral, silver, gold, rubies, & cat's eyes...
Yampi, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo bahuratano anekaratano, tatrimāni ratanāni, seyyathidaṃ – muttā maṇi veḷuriyo saṅkho silā pavāḷaṃ rajataṃ jātarūpaṃ lohitaṅgo [lohitaṅko (sī. pī.), lohitako (? )] masāragallaṃ; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, mahāsamudde sattamo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā asurā mahāsamudde abhiramanti. ¶ This is the seventh amazing & astounding quality of the ocean because of which, as they see it again & again, the asuras take great joy in the ocean. ¶
"Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo mahataṃ bhūtānaṃ āvāso. "[8] And furthermore, the ocean is the abode of such mighty beings as these:
Tatrime bhūtā – timi timiṅgalo timitimiṅgalo [timi timiṅgalo timirapiṅgalo (sī. pī., a. ni. 8.19)] asurā nāgā gandhabbā. whales, whale-eaters, & whale-eater-eaters; asuras, nāgas, & gandhabbas.
Santi mahāsamudde yojanasatikāpi attabhāvā, dviyojanasatikāpi attabhāvā, tiyojanasatikāpi attabhāvā, catuyojanasatikāpi attabhāvā, pañcayojanasatikāpi attabhāvā. There are in the ocean beings one hundred leagues long, two hundred... three hundred... four hundred... five hundred leagues long.
Yampi, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo mahataṃ bhūtānaṃ āvāso, tatrime bhūtā – timi timiṅgalo timitimiṅgalo asurā nāgā gandhabbā, santi mahāsamudde yojanasatikāpi attabhāvā dviyojanasatikāpi attabhāvā - pe - pañcayojanasatikāpi attabhāvā; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, mahāsamudde aṭṭhamo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā asurā mahāsamudde abhiramanti. The fact that the ocean is the abode of such mighty beings as these: whales, whale-eaters, & whale-eater-eaters; asuras, nāgas, & gandhabbas; and there are in the ocean beings one hundred leagues long, two hundred... three hundred... four hundred... five hundred leagues long: This is the eighth amazing & astounding quality of the ocean because of which, as they see it again & again, the asuras take great joy in the ocean.
Ime kho, bhikkhave, aṭṭha mahāsamudde acchariyā abbhutā dhammā ye disvā disvā asurā mahāsamudde abhiramanti. ¶ "These are the eight amazing & astounding qualities of the ocean because of which, as they see them again & again, the asuras take great joy in the ocean. ¶
"Evameva kho, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye aṭṭha acchariyā abbhutā dhammā, ye disvā disvā bhikkhū imasmiṃ dhammavinaye abhiramanti. "In the same way, monks, there are eight amazing & astounding qualities of this Dhamma & Vinaya because of which, as they see them again & again, the monks take great joy in this Dhamma & Vinaya. Точно так же, монахи, в этой доктрине и дисциплине есть восемь необыкновенных и невероятных качеств, наблюдая которые снова и снова монахи крайне восхищаются доктриной и дисциплиной.
Katame aṭṭha? ¶ Which eight? ¶ Что это за восемь? ¶
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo anupubbaninno anupubbapoṇo anupubbapabbhāro, na āyatakeneva papāto; evameva kho, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye anupubbasikkhā anupubbakiriyā anupubbapaṭipadā, na āyatakeneva aññāpaṭivedho. "[1] Just as the ocean has a gradual shelf, a gradual slope, a gradual inclination, with a sudden drop-off only after a long stretch; in the same way this Dhamma & Vinaya has a gradual training, a gradual performance, a gradual practice, with a penetration to gnosis only after a long stretch. Как у океанского дна есть постепенный уклон, постепенный склон, постепенное наклонение с резким обрывом только после большого расстояния, так и в этой доктрине и дисциплине есть постепенное обучение, постепенная деятельность, постепенная практика с достижением [высшего] знания только после большого расстояния.
Yampi, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye anupubbasikkhā anupubbakiriyā anupubbapaṭipadā, na āyatakeneva aññāpaṭivedho; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye paṭhamo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā bhikkhū imasmiṃ dhammavinaye abhiramanti. ¶ The fact that this Dhamma & Vinaya has a gradual training, a gradual performance, a gradual practice, with a penetration to gnosis only after a long stretch: This is the first amazing & astounding quality of this Dhamma & Vinaya because of which, as they see it again & again, the monks take great joy in this Dhamma & Vinaya. ¶
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo ṭhitadhammo velaṃ nātivattati; evameva kho, bhikkhave, yaṃ mayā sāvakānaṃ sikkhāpadaṃ paññattaṃ taṃ mama sāvakā jīvitahetupi nātikkamanti. "[2] And furthermore, just as the ocean is stable and does not overstep its tideline; in the same way my disciples do not — even for the sake of their lives — overstep the training rules I have formulated for them... И подобно тому как океан устойчив и не пересекает свою береговую линию, так и мои ученики даже ценой собственной жизни не преступают правила обучения, которые я для них установил.
Yampi, bhikkhave, mayā sāvakānaṃ sikkhāpadaṃ paññattaṃ taṃ mama sāvakā jīvitahetupi nātikkamanti; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye dutiyo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā bhikkhū imasmiṃ dhammavinaye abhiramanti. ¶ This is the second amazing & astounding quality of this Dhamma & Vinaya because of which, as they see it again & again, the monks take great joy in this Dhamma & Vinaya. ¶
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo na matena kuṇapena saṃvasati; yaṃ hoti mahāsamudde mataṃ kuṇapaṃ taṃ khippameva tīraṃ vāheti, thalaṃ ussāreti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, yo so puggalo dussīlo pāpadhammo asuci saṅkassarasamācāro paṭicchannakammanto assamaṇo samaṇapaṭiñño abrahmacārī brahmacāripaṭiñño antopūti avassuto kasambujāto, na tena saṅgho saṃvasati; atha kho naṃ khippameva sannipatitvā ukkhipati. "[3] And furthermore, just as the ocean does not tolerate a dead body — any dead body in the ocean getting quickly washed to the shore and thrown up on dry land — in the same way, if an individual is unprincipled, evil, unclean & suspect in his undertakings, hidden in his actions — not a contemplative though claiming to be one, not leading the holy life though claiming to do so, inwardly rotten, oozing with desire, filthy by nature — the community has no affiliation with him. Having quickly gathered together, they suspend him from the community. И подобно тому как океан не терпит мёртвого тела и любое мёртвое тело быстро прибивается к берегу и выбрасывается на сухую землю, так и если человек безнравственный, порочный, нечистый, подозрительный в начинаниях, скрытный в поступках, не отшельник, хотя представляющий себя таковым, внутренне прогнивший, полный желаний, мерзкий - у монахов нет общности с ним. Быстро собравшись они отлучают его. ukkhipati - здесь не то слово как выше, где монаха выгнали из помещения
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Kiñcāpi so hoti majjhe bhikkhusaṅghassa nisinno, atha kho so ārakāva saṅghamhā, saṅgho ca tena. Even though he may be sitting in the midst of the community of monks, he is far from the community, and the community far from him Хотя он может сидеть посреди группы монахов, он далёк от группы и группа далека от него.
Yampi, bhikkhave, yo so puggalo dussīlo pāpadhammo asuci saṅkassarasamācāro paṭicchannakammanto assamaṇo samaṇapaṭiñño abrahmacārī brahmacāripaṭiñño antopūti avassuto kasambujāto, na tena saṅgho saṃvasati; khippameva naṃ sannipatitvā ukkhipati.
Kiñcāpi so hoti majjhe bhikkhusaṅghassa nisinno, atha kho so ārakāva saṅghamhā, saṅgho ca tena; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye tatiyo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā bhikkhū imasmiṃ dhammavinaye abhiramanti. ¶ ... This is the third amazing & astounding quality of this Dhamma & Vinaya because of which, as they see it again & again, the monks take great joy in this Dhamma & Vinaya. ¶
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, yā kāci mahānadiyo, seyyathidaṃ – gaṅgā yamunā aciravatī sarabhū mahī tā mahāsamuddaṃ patvā jahanti purimāni nāmagottāni, 'mahāsamuddo'tveva saṅkhaṃ gacchanti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, cattāro vaṇṇā – khattiyā, brāhmaṇā, vessā, suddā te tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitvā [pabbajitā (ka. sī.)] jahanti purimāni nāmagottāni, 'samaṇā sakyaputtiyā'tveva saṅkhaṃ gacchanti. "[4] And furthermore, just as whatever great rivers there are — such as the Ganges, the Yamunā, the Aciravatī, the Sarabhū, the Mahī — on reaching the ocean, give up their former names and are classed simply as 'ocean'; in the same way, when members of the four castes — noble warriors, brahmans, merchants, & workers — go forth from home to the homeless life in this Dhamma & Vinaya declared by the Tathāgata, they give up their former names and clans and are classed simply as 'contemplatives, sons of the Sakyan' И подобно тому, что какие бы ни были великие реки, а именно Ганг, Ямуна, Ачиравати, Сарабху и Махи - достигнув океана они оставляют свои старые названия и зовутся просто "океан", так и когда выходцы из четырёх каст - кшатрии, брахманы, вайшьи и шудры - уходят из дома в бездомную жизнь в этой доктрине и дисциплине, они оставляют свои старые личные и родовые имена и зовутся просто отшельниками, потомками Сакьев.
Yampi, bhikkhave, cattāro vaṇṇā – khattiyā, brāhmaṇā, vessā, suddā te tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitvā jahanti purimāni nāmagottāni, 'samaṇā sakyaputtiyā'tveva saṅkhaṃ gacchanti; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye catuttho acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā bhikkhū imasmiṃ dhammavinaye abhiramanti. ¶ ... This is the fourth amazing & astounding quality of this Dhamma & Vinaya because of which, as they see it again & again, the monks take great joy in this Dhamma & Vinaya. ¶
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, yā ca loke savantiyo mahāsamuddaṃ appenti, yā ca antalikkhā dhārā papatanti, na tena mahāsamuddassa ūnattaṃ vā pūrattaṃ vā paññāyati; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bahū cepi bhikkhū anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyanti, na tena nibbānadhātuyā ūnattaṃ vā pūrattaṃ vā paññāyati. "[5] And furthermore, just as the rivers of the world pour into the ocean, and rains fall from the sky, but no swelling or diminishing in the ocean for that reason can be discerned; in the same way, although many monks are totally unbound into the property of unbinding with no fuel remaining, no swelling or diminishing in the property of unbinding for that reason can be discerned И подобно тому как реки впадают в океан и дожди падают с неба, но не различим ни разлив ни уменьшение океана по этой причине, так же хотя много монахов совершают окончательное освобождение без остатка в элемент освобождения, не различим ни разлив ни уменьшение элемента освобождения.
Yampi, bhikkhave, bahū cepi bhikkhū anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyanti, na tena nibbānadhātuyā ūnattaṃ vā pūrattaṃ vā paññāyati; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye pañcamo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā bhikkhū imasmiṃ dhammavinaye abhiramanti. ¶ ... This is the fifth amazing & astounding quality of this Dhamma & Vinaya because of which, as they see it again & again, the monks take great joy in this Dhamma & Vinaya. ¶
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo ekaraso loṇaraso; evameva kho, bhikkhave, ayaṃ dhammavinayo ekaraso vimuttiraso. "[6] And furthermore, just as the ocean has a single taste — that of salt — in the same way, this Dhamma & Vinaya has a single taste: that of release И подобно тому как у всего океана есть один вкус - вкус соли, так и у этой доктрины и дисциплины есть один вкус - вкус освобождения.
Yampi, bhikkhave, ayaṃ dhammavinayo ekaraso vimuttiraso; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye chaṭṭho acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā bhikkhū imasmiṃ dhammavinaye abhiramanti. ¶ ... This is the sixth amazing & astounding quality of this Dhamma & Vinaya because of which, as they see it again & again, the monks take great joy in this Dhamma & Vinaya. ¶
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo bahuratano anekaratano, tatrimāni ratanāni, seyyathidaṃ – muttā maṇi veḷuriyo saṅkho silā pavāḷaṃ rajataṃ jātarūpaṃ lohitaṅgo masāragallaṃ; evameva kho, bhikkhave, ayaṃ dhammavinayo bahuratano anekaratano; tatrimāni ratanāni, seyyathidaṃ – cattāro satipaṭṭhānā, cattāro sammappadhānā, cattāro iddhipādā, pañcindriyāni, pañca balāni, satta bojjhaṅgā, ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. "[7] And furthermore, just as the ocean has these many treasures of various kinds — pearls, sapphires, lapis lazuli, shells, quartz, coral, silver, gold, rubies, & cat's eyes — in the same way, this Dhamma & Vinaya has these many treasures of various kinds: the four establishings of mindfulness, the four right exertions, the four bases of power, the five faculties, the five strengths, the seven factors for awakening, the noble eightfold path И подобно тому как в океане есть много сокровищ, немало сокровищ, таких сокровищ как жемчуга, сапфиры, лазуриты, раковины, кварцы, кораллы, серебро, золото, рубины, переливчатые камни, так и в этой доктрине и дисциплине есть много сокровищ, немало сокровищ, таких сокровищ как четыре способа установления памятования, четыре совершенных усилия, четыре основы сверхсил, пять [духовных] способностей, пять сил, семь факторов постижения, благородный восьмеричный путь. Может этот камень последний: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B8%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D0%B3%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B7
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Yampi, bhikkhave, ayaṃ dhammavinayo bahuratano anekaratano, tatrimāni ratanāni, seyyathidaṃ – cattāro satipaṭṭhānā, cattāro sammappadhānā, cattāro iddhipādā, pañcindriyāni, pañca balāni, satta bojjhaṅgā, ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye sattamo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā bhikkhū imasmiṃ dhammavinaye abhiramanti. ¶ ... This is the seventh amazing & astounding quality of this Dhamma & Vinaya because of which, as they see it again & again, the monks take great joy in this Dhamma & Vinaya. ¶
"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, mahāsamuddo mahataṃ bhūtānaṃ āvāso, tatrime bhūtā – timi timiṅgalo timitimiṅgalo asurā nāgā gandhabbā, santi mahāsamudde yojanasatikāpi attabhāvā dviyojanasatikāpi attabhāvā tiyojanasatikāpi attabhāvā catuyojanasatikāpi attabhāvā pañcayojanasatikāpi attabhāvā; evameva kho, bhikkhave, ayaṃ dhammavinayo mahataṃ bhūtānaṃ āvāso; tatrime bhūtā – sotāpanno, sotāpattiphalasacchikiriyāya paṭipanno, sakadāgāmi, sakadāgāmiphalasacchikiriyāya paṭipanno, anāgāmī, anāgāmīphalasacchikiriyāya paṭipanno, arahā, arahattāya paṭipanno [arahattaphalasacchikiriyāya (sī.)]. "[8] And furthermore, just as the ocean is the abode of such mighty beings as these: whales, whale-eaters, & whale-eater-eaters; asuras, nāgas, & gandhabbas, and there are in the ocean beings one hundred leagues long, two hundred... three hundred... four hundred... five hundred leagues long; in the same way, this Dhamma & Vinaya is the abode of such mighty beings as these: stream-winners & those practicing to realize the fruit of stream-entry; once-returners & those practicing to realize the fruit of once-returning; non-returners & those practicing to realize the fruit of non-returning; arahants & those practicing for arahantship. И подобно тому как океан является местом обитания таких могучих существ как киты, поедатели китов, поедатели поедателей китов, асуры, наги и гандхаббы и в океане есть существа длиной в сто йоджан, двести йоджан, триста йоджан, четыреста йоджан, пятьсот йоджан, так и эта доктрина и дисциплина является местом обитания таких могучих существ как вошедшие в поток и практикующие для осуществления плода вхождения в поток, возвращающиеся однажды и практикующие для осуществления плода однократного возвращения, невозвращающиеся и практикующие для осуществления плода невозвращения, араханты и практикующие для осуществления плода арахантства. В 7 главе Висуддхимагги, где объясняется качество Дхаммы akaliko говорится, что между путём и плодом нет задержки: как только достигнут путь, сразу ис...
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Yampi, bhikkhave, ayaṃ dhammavinayo mahataṃ bhūtānaṃ āvāso, tatrime bhūtā – sotāpanno, sotāpattiphalasacchikiriyāya paṭipanno, sakadāgāmī, sakadāgāmiphalasacchikiriyāya paṭipanno, anāgāmī, anāgāmiphalasacchikiriyāya paṭipanno, arahā, arahattāya paṭipanno; ayaṃ, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye aṭṭhamo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo, yaṃ disvā disvā bhikkhū imasmiṃ dhammavinaye abhiramanti. The fact that this Dhamma & Vinaya is the abode of such mighty beings as these — stream-winners & those practicing to realize the fruit of stream-entry; once-returners & those practicing to realize the fruit of once-returning; non-returners & those practicing to realize the fruit of non-returning; arahants & those practicing for arahantship: This is the eighth amazing & astounding quality of this Dhamma & Vinaya because of which, as they see it again & again, the monks take great joy in this Dhamma & Vinaya.
Ime kho, bhikkhave, imasmiṃ dhammavinaye aṭṭha acchariyā abbhutā dhammā, ye disvā disvā bhikkhū imasmiṃ dhammavinaye abhiramantī"ti. ¶ "These are the eight amazing & astounding qualities of this Dhamma & Vinaya because of which, as they see them again & again, the monks take great joy in this Dhamma & Vinaya." ¶ Таковы, о монахи, восемь необыкновенных и невероятных качеств в этой доктрине и дисциплине, наблюдая которые снова и снова монахи крайне восхищаются доктриной и дисциплиной. ¶
Atha kho bhagavā etamatthaṃ viditvā tāyaṃ velāyaṃ imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi – ¶ Then, on realizing the significance of that, the Blessed One on that occasion exclaimed: ¶ Затем, поняв значение этого Благословенный воскликнул по этому поводу: ¶
"Channamativassati, vivaṭaṃ nātivassati; ¶ Rain soddens what's covered & doesn't sodden what's open. ¶ Закрытое намокает, открытое не намокает ¶
Tasmā channaṃ vivaretha, evaṃ taṃ nātivassatī"ti. So open up what's covered up, so that it won't get soddened by the rain. Поэтому откройте закрытое, так оно не намокнет.
pañcamaṃ;
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Редакция перевода от 28.02.2018 13:21