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Отслеживание тела. Памятование о дыхании
english - Soma thera Комментарии
{1} With a perfect climate... comfortable conditions.
This includes such items as wholesome food and drink essential for maintaining mind and body unimpaired.
{2} That is without a companion.
{3} As Nibbana is without a second, that is, without craving as accompanying quality, it is called the one.
Hence it is said: "Truth is one; it is without a second."
Why is the Arousing of Mindfulness intended by the word "way"?
Are there not many other factors of the way, namely, understanding, thinking, speech, action, livelihood, effort, and concentration, besides mindfulness?
To be sure there are.
But all these are implied when the Arousing of Mindfulness is mentioned, because these factors exist in union with mindfulness.
Knowledge, energy and the like are mentioned in the analytically expository portion [niddese].
In the synopsis [uddese], however, the consideration should be regarded as that of mindfulness alone, by way of the mental disposition of those capable of being trained.
{4} In what sense is it a "way"?
In the sense of the path going towards Nibbana, and in the sense of the path which is the one that should be (or is fit to be) traversed by those who wish to reach Nibbana.
{6} And, in order to elaborate just that and to show of which path or way the instruction in our Discourse is the preliminary part, he further quoted the following also from the Patisambhida Magga:
{7} For the hearers [savaka], namely, the disciples of the Buddha, there is no attainment of the Noble Path [Ariya Magga] possible, except by practicing the subject of meditation [kammatthana] of the Four Truths [Catu Sacca].
Spiritual development usually called meditation, is the development of wisdom [pañña bhavana].
Just the contemplation of material form (corporeality), of feeling, consciousness or mental objects, constitutes the cultivation of the Arousing of Mindfulness.
{8} Three kingdoms = Pandu, Cola, Gola.
Because he was in the habit of carrying a yellow pennon about his body and also because he adorned himself with that pennon when taking part in wrestling matches he was well-known as Pitamalla, the yellow wrestler.
After his renunciation of the world too, he was known as the Elder Yellow Wrestler.
He came to Tambapanni Isle — Ceylon — having got the information that wrestlers were honored and hospitably received in the island.
{9} Craving [tanha] sews together [samsibbati] or weaves [vinati] aggregate with aggregate, effect with cause, and suffering with beings.
In Nibbana there is no "vana."
Or in the man who has attained to Nibbana there is no "vana."
Ocular experience by oneself: Sensing without aid from the outside.
{10} It is a declaration of the method of deliverance, by "the only way."
{11} Cattaro Satipatthana = "The Four Arousings of Mindfulness."
Four in relation to classes of objects of mindfulness.
{12} Drawing distinctions, it is said: Body and feeling are the cause of zest [assadassa karana].
For the rejection of that zest of body, by the dull-witted [manda] man of the craving type [tanhacarita], the seeing [dassana] of the ugly [asubha] in the body, the coarse object [olarika arammana], which is the basis of craving [tanha vatthu], is convenient.
To that type of man the contemplation on corporeality, the First Arousing of Mindfulness, is the Path to Purity [Visuddhi Magga].
For the abandoning of that zest, by the keen-witted [tikha] man of the craving type, the seeing of suffering in feeling, the subtle object [sukhuma arammana], which is the basis of craving, is convenient, and for him the contemplation on feeling, the Second Arousing of Mindfulness, is the Path to Purity.
For the dull-witted man of the theorizing type [ditthi carita] it is convenient to see consciousness [citta] in the fairly simple way it is set forth in this discourse, by way of impermanence [aniccata], and by way of such divisions as mind-with-lust [saragadi vasena], in order to reject the notion of permanence [nicca sañña] in regard to consciousness.
Consciousness is a special condition [visesa karana] for the wrong view due to a basic belief in permanence [niccanti abhinivesa vatthutaya ditthiya].
The contemplation on consciousness, the Third Arousing of Mindfulness, is the Path to Purity of this type of man.
For the keen-witted man of the theorizing type it is convenient to see mental objects or things [dhamma], according to the manifold way set forth in this discourse, by way of perception, sense-impression and so forth [nivaranadi vasena], in order to reject the notion of a soul [atta sañña] in regard to mental things.
Mental things are special conditions for the wrong view due to a basic belief in a soul [attanti abhinivesa vatthutaya ditthiya].
For this type of man the contemplation on mental objects, the Fourth Arousing of Mindfulness, is the Path to Purity.
Consciousness and mental objects constitute the outstanding conditions of theorizing.
Consciousness is such a condition because it is a decisive factor in the belief in permanence.
Mental objects are such conditions because these are decisive factors in the belief in a soul.
Consciousness and mental objects are decisive factors of craving as well as of theorizing.
And body and feeling are decisive factors of theorizing as well as of craving.
Yet to point out that which is stronger in body and feeling, namely, craving, and that which is stronger in consciousness and mental objects, namely, theorizing, distinctions have been drawn.
Because he does not continue to stay in the coarse: The keen-witted man pursuing the path of quietude lays hold of the gross subject of meditation, but he does not stay in that.
He lays hold of feeling, the subtle subject of meditation, by way of the factors of absorption [jhana] after attaining to and emerging from the absorption reached with the material body as subject.
Since the heart of the man pursuing the path of insight takes to the contemplation of subtle consciousness and mental object, these have been spoken of as the Path to Purity for the man, dull-witted or keen-witted, pursuing insight.
{13} By way of remembering: by way of the reflection of actions of skill, and so forth, of body, speech, and thought.
Meeting in one thing = union in the one-natured Nibbana.
{14} On account of the cause or on account of the sameness of entry into the one Nibbana, the Arousing of Mindfulness is said to be just one thing.
The meeting in the one Nibbana of the various Arousings of Mindfulness is called the meeting in the one thing on account of participation in that one Nibbana or on account of their becoming all of a kind.
{15} From here, the explanation is by way of word-analysis [nirutti nayena].
{16} What he sees = What man or woman he sees.
Why, is there no seeing of man or a woman with the eye?
There is.
"I see a woman," "I see a man."
— these statements refer to what he sees by way of ordinary perception.
That perception, owing to wrong comprehension, does not get at the sense-basis [rupayatana] in the highest sense, philosophically, through the falsely determined condition of material form [viparita gahavasena miccha parikappita rupatta].
Or the meaning is: the absence of perception which is called the seeing of primary and derived materiality, beginning with things such as the hair of the head, owing to non-cognizability of the collective nature of an object like a man or woman by eye-consciousness [kesadibhutupadaya samuhasankhatam ditthi na hoti acakkhuviññana viññeyyatta].
What is seen that he does not properly see = He does not see, according to reality by the eye of wisdom, the sense-basis which exists, the collection of primary and derived materiality beginning with hair of the head and the like [yam rupayatanam kesadibhutupadaya samuhasankhatam dittham tam pañña-cakkhuna bhutato na passati].
Not seeing properly he is shackled = Not seeing this body as it actually is, with the eye of wisdom, he thinks: "This is mine, this am I, this is my self," and is bound with the fetter of defilement [imam attabhavam yathabhutam paññacakkhuna apassanto etam mama esohamasmi eso me attati kilesa bandhanena bajjhati].
{17} Although the term burning [atapana] is applied to the abandoning of defilements here, it is also applicable to right view, thought, speech, action, livelihood, mindfulness and concentration.
As "ardour" [atapa], like "glow" [atappa], is restricted by use to just energy generally, it is said: "ardour is a name for energy."
Or because of the occurrence of energy [viriya] by way of instigating the associated things, in the abandoning of opposing qualities, that itself (i.e., energy) is ardour (atapa]. In this place only energy [viriya] is referred to by "atapa." By taking the word ardent [atapi] the Master points out the one possessed of right energy or exertion [sammappadhana].
{18} Clearly comprehending = Discerning rightly, entirely and equally [samma samantato samañca pajananto].
Rightly = Correctly [aviparitam].
Entirely = By knowing in all ways [sabbakarapajananena].
Equally = By reason of proceeding through the conveying of higher and higher spiritual attainments [uparupari visesavaha-bhavena pavattiya].
Satima = "Mindful." Endowed with mindfulness that lays hold of the body as a subject of meditation, because this yogavacara (the man conversant with contemplative activity) contemplates with wisdom after laying hold of the object with mindfulness.
There is nothing called contemplation without mindfulness.
Therefore the Master said: "Mindfulness is necessary in all circumstances, O bhikkhus, I declare." [17]
Necessary in all circumstances = Everywhere in the state of becoming, in every sluggish and unbalanced state of mind, it is desirable.
Or, that by the help of which the other proper Factors of Enlightenment [bojjhanga] are capable of being developed, is "necessary in all circumstances."
Here, contemplation takes place by means of wisdom that is assisted by mindfulness.
{19} Necessary in all circumstances = Everywhere in the state of becoming, in every sluggish and unbalanced state of mind, it is desirable.
Or, that by the help of which the other proper Factors of Enlightenment [bojjhanga] are capable of being developed, is "necessary in all circumstances."
Here, contemplation takes place by means of wisdom that is assisted by mindfulness.
{20} Mental lassitude = Inward stagnation.
Indolence is the meaning.
Right means = Things like the purification of virtue [sila visodhana].
{21} Arousing of Mindfulness.
Here bare mindfulness is meant.
Therefore, the commentator speaks of "the things that make up the condition connected with the Arousing of Mindfulness."
These things are energy and so forth, associated necessarily with mindfulness.
Condition [anga] = reason [karana].
Mindfulness denotes concentration, too, here on account of the inclusion of mindfulness in the aggregate of concentration [samadhikkhandha].
Or since the exposition is on mindfulness, and as neither the abandoning of defilements nor the attainment of Nibbana is wrought by mindfulness alone, and as mindfulness does not also occur separately, the pointing out the things that make up the condition connected with the Arousing of Mindfulness is like the pointing out of the condition connected with absorption [jhana].
Condition [anga] is a synonym for constituent [avayava].
Initial application, sustained application, interest, joy and one-pointedness of mind are together with absorption, as energy and the other qualities are with mindfulness.
"Having overcome" refers to the discipline of knocking out an evil quality by its opposite good (that is by dealing with each category of evil separately) or through the overcoming of evil part by part [tadangavinaya] and through the disciplining or the overcoming of the passions by suppression in absorption [vikkhambhana vinaya].
Preliminary practice connected with the mundane path of mindfulness is pointed out by the commentator here.
{22} Yogic power is the power of meditation.
Yogic skill is dexterity in yoking oneself in meditation.
{23} The subject of meditation useful in all circumstances is stated by referring to (the laying hold on) mindfulness and clear comprehension, because through the force of these two qualities there is the protection of the subject of meditation and suitability of attention for its unbroken practice.
Further, of these two qualities, mindfulness and clear comprehension, the following is stated in the commentary to the Atthasalini, Mula Tika, "To all who have yoked themselves to the practice of any subject of meditation, to all yogis, these two are things helpful, at all times, for the removal of obstruction and the increase of inner culture."
{24} The word "feelings" is repeated to limit (or unambiguously determine) the object by isolating it [anissato vavatthanam], for the analysis of the apparently compact [ghana vinibbhoga] and for such other purposes, in order to prevent any straying from the contemplation on feelings to some other object.
Erratic contemplation takes place because of the connection of the other non-material aggregates with feelings, and because of the dependence of non-material things like feelings on material form in the five-constituent-existence [pañca vokara bhava] or the sensuous plane of becoming [kama bhava].
By the repetition of the word, the limiting of the object by isolating it, is shown through the pointing out of only a doer of feeling-contemplation in the property called feeling, as there is no contemplating of the body, or consciousness or mental objects in feeling but only the contemplating of feeling.
As, in this matter of feeling, when a pleasurable feeling occurs, there is no occurrence of the other two, and when a painful feeling or a neither pleasurable nor painful feeling occurs, there is no occurrence of the remaining ones, so is shown the analysis (sifting out or penetration or dissection) of the apparently compact, the absence of permanence (or stability), by the pointing out of different feelings, after penetrating them severally, and not having spoken of the state of feeling in a general way.
Through the noticing of feelings as lasting just for the measure of a moment in time, the seeing of impermanence is made clear.
Through the same cognizance, suffering and soullessness too are seen.
For the analysis of the apparently compact and for such other purposes.
By the words, "And for such other purposes," the following should be understood: "This yogavacara (the Buddha's disciple who is endeavoring for spiritual insight) contemplates just feelings and not any other thing, because he is not one who contemplates by way of the lovely (the good or the desirable), after the manner of a fool who sees a gem in a bubble of water which has not the quality of a gem.
He does not see in this foolish way even in the stable instant when he experiences a pleasant feeling.
Much more so does he not stray away into fanciful thinking in regard to the two remaining feelings of pain and indifference.
On the other hand, he contemplates along the real way of impermanence, soullessness, and the unlovely, by way of momentary dissolution, lack of power to control (sway or rule), and the trickling of the dirt of defilement, and distinctively contemplates suffering, as the pain of vicissitude, and of the formations or the constituents of life.
{25} In the way mentioned above should the repetition of words in the contemplation of consciousness and mental objects be explained, too.
Only mundane, as connected with the examining of mundane objects of thought in the light of impermanence, suffering and soullessness [sammasana carassa adhippetatta].
{26} By the passage, beginning with the words "To be sure, in whatsoever way," the commentator points to the limit of the object (excluding thereby discursive thinking that strays from the reality).
{27} Who sees pleasure as suffering = Who sees feelings by way of the suffering natural to change, with the eye of wisdom.
Who sees pain as a thorn = Who sees painful feeling as damage causing, piercing in, and as a thing hard to drive out.
The neutral peace = The feeling of indifference is peaceful, owing to the absence of grossness as in states of pain and pleasure; and by way of a restful nature.
Who sees feelings with the thought that they are impermanent by reason of their becoming non-existent after having come to be, owing to their being characterised by the qualities of arising and passing away, owing to their temporariness, and owing to their being in a state of constant negation, is he who sees the neutral peace of the neither pleasurable nor painful feelings as fleeting, and is indeed the bhikkhu who will rightly know and live, become still.
Rightly = Correctly.
Know = know feelings as they are.
{28} Suffering is what it is because of the ill natural to the constituents of life [sankhara dukkhataya dukkha].
{29} All that is in suffering = Everything experienced is plunged, included, in suffering [sabbantam vedayitam dukkhasmim antogadham pariyapannam], because the ill natural to the formations, the constituents in life, cannot be conquered [sankhara dukkhata nativattanato].
{30} The three feelings should be contemplated upon as pleasant and painful.
When the first occurs, the second changes and the third is known, then, feeling is pleasant.
When the first changes, the second occurs and the third is not known, then feeling is painful.
{31} Or the divisions of object... non-causative functional process and so forth.
Contemplation should be done by way of the division of the blue and so forth pertaining to the variety of objects visual and so forth [rupadi arammana nanattassa niladi tabbhedassa); by way of the division of the "low" and so forth pertaining to the diverse kinds of dominance of the will-to-do and so forth [chandadi adhipati nanattassa hinadi tabbhedassa]; by way of the division of the spontaneous and non-spontaneous consciousness, absorption with initial application and so forth pertaining to the variety of conditions of conascence of knowledge, absorption and so forth [ñana jhanadi nanattassa sasankharikasankharika savitakkadi tabbhedassa]; by way of the division of lofty, middling, and so forth pertaining to the diverse planes, sensuous and so forth [kamavacaradi bhuminanattassa ukkattha majjhimadi tabbhedassa]; by way of the division of conduciveness to deva-plane-rebirth and so forth, pertaining to the diverse kind of moral action of skill and so forth [kusaladi kammananattassa devagati samvattaniyatadi tabbhedassa]; by way of the division of the state of requital which could be perceived in this very present condition of life and so forth, pertaining to the variety of dark and bright resultants of evil and good deeds (kanha sukka vipaka nanattassa dittha dhamma vedaniyatadi tabbhedassa]; by way of the division of the three good conditions of rebirth and so forth, pertaining to non-causative functional diversity of the sensuous plane and so forth [paritta bhumakadi kriya nanattassa tihetukadi tabbhedassa].
{32} Or it should be understood thus: It is stated in this manner in order to indicate that the abandoning of the defilements in one object implies the abandoning of the defilements in the remaining objects.
Therefore, it is not fit to speak again of the abandoning of these; for while the defilements are abandoned, they are not abandoned separately in one object after another — i. e. , the defilements pertaining to the body, for instance, are not first abandoned and then those belonging to the feeling and so forth, in succession, but the defilements of all objects are abandoned when the defilements are abandoned in one object.
That is due to the fact that only the defilements which can arise in the future are capable of being abandoned through the scorching out of the causes by the attainment of the Path or through measures that make the causes temporarily impotent, because of the observance of virtue and the development of absorption.
Past defilements and those arising in the present are beyond the scope of abandoning.
The abandoning of the defilements of one object in the thought-unit of the Path is indeed the abandoning of the defilements of all objects.
It is right to say that by the Path, are the defilements abandoned.
The abandoning of the defilements of one person is not necessarily the abandonding of the defilements of another person [nahi ekassa pahinam tato aññassa pahinam nama hoti].
Reference to the different types of persons is made to point this fact of possible difference of method by way of object.
The diversity of the thought-unit.
The mundane thought-unit is meant, as the preliminary path is dealt with here.
What is abandoned temporarily by mundane meditation in the body, is not suppressed in the feelings and the other objects.
Even if covetousness and grief should not occur in the feelings and the other objects, when it is suppressed in the body, it should not be stated that owing to efficient rejection by meditation opposed to covetousness and grief, there is no covetousness and grief in the other objects such as feelings and in the case of suppression by meditation, therefore, it is fit to speak of the rejection of covetousness and grief again in feelings and the other objects.
{33} This statement refers to the supramundane meditation of Mindfulness-arousing.
In the case of mundane meditation the rejection is stated everywhere with reference to bare non-occurrence of the defilements [lokiya bhavanaya sabbattha appavatt mattam sandhaya vuttam].
In regard to the four objects of contemplation through the Arousing of Mindfulness, it is said in the Vibhanga thus: Even the Five Aggregates are the world [pañca pi khandha lokoti hi Vibhange catusu pi thanesu vuttanti].
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