Буддийское отношение к животным
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The Buddhist Attitude to Animal Life
If we believe that animals were created by someone for the benefit of men, it would follow that men were also created for animals since some animals do eat human flesh as part of their nature.
ANIMALS are said to be conscious only of the present. They live with no concern for the past or future. It is like little children who seem to have no notion of the future. They also live in the present until their faculties of memory and imagination are developed. Self-consciousness is a faculty which comes with maturity.
Human beings possess the faculty of reasoning. The gap between human being and animal widens only to the extent that we develop our reasoning faculty and act accordingly. Buddhists accept that animals not only possess instinctive power but also, to a lesser degree, thinking power. But they can use their instinct from birth only to find their food, shelter, protection and sensual pleasure.
In some respects, animals are superior to human beings. Dogs have a keener sense of hearing and smelling; insects have a keener sense of smell; hawks are speedier; eagles can see a greater distance. Undoubtedly, we are wiser; but we have so much to learn from the ants and bees. Much of the animal is still in us. But we also have much more: we have the potential for spiritual development.
Buddhism cannot accept that animals were created by someone to benefit human beings; if animals were created for them then it could follow that human beings were also created for animals since there are some animals which eat human flesh because it is in their nature to eat the flesh of living beings.
Buddhists are encouraged to love all living beings and not to restrict their concern only for the welfare of human beings. They should practise loving kindness towards every living being. The Buddha’s advice is that it is not right for us to take away the life of any living being since every living being has a right to exist. Animals also have fear and pain as do human beings. It is wrong to take away their lives or hurt them or instill fear in them. We should not misuse our intelligence and strength to destroy animals even though they may sometimes be perceived as a nuisance to us. Animals need our sympathy. Destroying them is not the only way to get rid of them. Every living being is contributing something to maintain this world. It is unfair for us to deprive their living rights.
In his HANDBOOK OF REASON, D. Runes says:
‘We can hardly speak of morals in relation to creatures we systematically devour, mostly singed but sometimes raw. There are men and women who practise horse love, dog love, cat love, bird love. But these very same people would take a deer or a calf by its neck, slit its throat, drink the blood straight away or in a pudding, and bite off the flesh. And who is to say that a horse they cherish is nobler than a deer they feed on? Indeed, there are people who eat cats, dogs and horses but would use a cow only as a work animal and the dogs to protect them and their properties.’
Some cry over a little bird or goldfish that expired; others travel long distances to catch fish on a nasty hook for food or mere pleasure or to shoot birds for fun. Some go into deep jungle and to other countries for hunting animals as game while others spend a lot to keep the same animals at home as their pets.
Some keep frogs to foretell the weather; others cut off their legs and fry them. Some tenderly tend birds in gilded cages; others serve them for breakfast. It is all quite confusing.
Every religion advises us to love our fellow humans. Some even teach us to love them more if they belong to the same religion. But Buddhism is supreme in that it teaches us to show equal care and compassion for each and every creature in the universe. The destruction of any creature represents a disturbance of the Universal Order.
The Buddha was very clear in His teachings against any form of cruelty to any living being. One day the Buddha saw a man preparing to make an animal sacrifice. On being asked why he was going to kill innocent animals, the man replied that it was because it would please the gods. The Buddha then offered Himself as the sacrifice, saying that if the life of an animal would please the gods then the life of a human being, more valuable, should please the gods even more. Needless to say, the man was so moved by the Buddha’s practical gesture that he gave up the animal sacrifice and accepted the Buddha’s Teaching. Human cruelty towards animals is another expression of our uncontrolled greed.
Today we destroy animals and deprive them of their natural rights for our convenience. But we are already beginning to pay the price for this selfish and cruel act. Our environment is threatened and if we do not take stern measures for the survival of other creatures, our own existence on this earth may not be guaranteed.
It is true that the existence of certain creatures is a threat to human existence. But we never consider that human beings are the greatest threat to every living being on this earth in the water and in the air whereas the existence of other creatures is a threat only to certain living beings, and even so, they do not pose a threat of extinction, because they take only enough to survive, never for pleasure or uncontrolled greed.
Since every creature contributes something for the maintenance of the planet and atmosphere, destroying them is not the solution to overcome our problems and needs. We should take other measures to maintain the balance of nature.
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Редакция перевода от 01.07.2015 19:54