Гл. 4. Второй уровень поглощённости

Опубликовано khantibalo от 5 февраля, 2019 - 13:46

Конспект

Переход ко 2 уровню следует осуществлять, когда обретено мастерство на первом. Выйдя из поглощённости первого уровня следует с помощью памятования и осознанности рассмотреть её недостатки, состоящие в грубости рассуждения и изучения, а также близости пяти помех. Оставшиеся 3 фактора будут казаться умиротворёнными по сравнению с ними. Затем следует настроиться на то же представление с целью оставления грубых факторов.

Стандартная формула 2 уровня поглощённости

Метафора в ДН2

На этом уровне оставлены 2 фактора и ему присущи 3 фактора.

Особенностью этого состояния является уверенность и единение ума.

Уверенность здесь соответствует убеждённости. Или она делает ум убеждённым благодаря устранению колебаний от рассуждения и изучения.

Единению ума соответствует собранность ума.

Хотя эти факторы присутствуют уже на первом уровне, именно здесь они набирают силу и становятся полностью очевидными.

"Рождённые собранностью" означает, что именно этот уровень заслуживает названия "собранность ума", благодаря уверенности и отсутствию колебаний рассуждения и изучения.

 

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Dutiyajjhānakathā ¶
79. Imāsu pana pañcasu vasīsu ciṇṇavasinā paguṇapaṭhamajjhānato vuṭṭhāya "ayaṃ samāpatti āsannanīvaraṇapaccatthikā, vitakkavicārānaṃ oḷārikattā aṅgadubbalā"ti ca tattha dosaṃ disvā dutiyajjhānaṃ santato manasikatvā paṭhamajjhāne nikantiṃ pariyādāya dutiyādhigamāya yogo kātabbo. 137. When he has once acquired mastery in these five ways, then on emerging from the now familiar first jhāna he can regard the flaws in it in this way: “This attainment is threatened by the nearness of the hindrances, and its factors are weakened by the grossness of the applied and sustained thought.” He can bring the second jhāna to mind as quieter and so end his attachment to the first jhāna and set about doing what is needed for attaining the second.
Athassa yadā paṭhamajjhānā vuṭṭhāya satassa sampajānassa jhānaṅgāni paccavekkhato vitakkavicārā oḷārikato upaṭṭhahanti, pītisukhañceva cittekaggatā ca santato upaṭṭhāti, tadāssa oḷārikaṅgaṃ pahānāya santaaṅgapaṭilābhāya ca tadeva nimittaṃ "pathavī pathavī"ti punappunaṃ manasikaroto "idāni dutiyajjhānaṃ uppajjissatī"ti bhavaṅgaṃ upacchinditvā tadeva pathavīkasiṇaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā manodvārāvajjanaṃ uppajjati. 138. When he has emerged from the first jhāna, applied and sustained thought appear gross to him as he reviews the jhāna factors with mindfulness and full awareness, while happiness and bliss and unification of mind appear peaceful. Then, as he brings that same sign to mind as “earth, earth” again and again with the purpose of abandoning the gross factors and obtaining the peaceful factors, [knowing] “now the second jhāna will arise,” there arises in him mind-door adverting with that same earth kasiṇa as its object, interrupting the life-continuum.
Tato tasmiṃyevārammaṇe cattāri pañca vā javanāni javanti, yesamavasāne ekaṃ rūpāvacaraṃ dutiyajjhānikaṃ. After that, either four or five impulsions impel on that same object, the last one of which is an impulsion of the fine-material sphere belonging to the second jhāna.
Sesāni vuttappakārāneva kāmāvacarānīti. ¶ The rest are of the sense sphere of the kinds already stated (§74). ¶
Ettāvatā cesa vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. [THE SECOND JHĀNA] 139. And at this point, “With the stilling of applied and sustained thought he enters upon and dwells in the second jhāna, which has internal confidence and singleness of mind without applied thought, without sustained thought, with happiness and bliss born of concentration” (Vibh 245),
Evamanena dvaṅgavippahīnaṃ tivaṅgasamannāgataṃ tividhakalyāṇaṃ dasalakkhaṇasampannaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ adhigataṃ hoti pathavīkasiṇaṃ. ¶ and so he has attained the second jhāna, which abandons two factors, possesses three factors, is good in three ways, possesses ten characteristics and is of the earth kasiṇa. ¶
80. Tattha vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamāti vitakkassa ca vicārassa cāti imesaṃ dvinnaṃ vūpasamā samatikkamā, dutiyajjhānakkhaṇe apātubhāvāti vuttaṃ hoti. 140. Herein, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought: with the stilling, with the surmounting, of these two, namely, applied thought and sustained thought; with their non-manifestation at the moment of the second jhāna, is what is meant.
Tattha kiñcāpi dutiyajjhāne sabbepi paṭhamajjhānadhammā na santi. Herein, although none of the states belonging to the first jhāna exist in the second jhāna—
Aññeyeva hi paṭhamajjhāne phassādayo, aññe idha. for the contact, etc. (see M III 25), in the first jhāna are one and here they are another—
Oḷārikassa pana oḷārikassa aṅgassa samatikkamā paṭhamajjhānato paresaṃ dutiyajjhānādīnaṃ adhigamo hotīti dīpanatthaṃ "vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā"ti evaṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ. ¶ it should be understood all the same that the phrase “with the stilling of applied and sustained thought” is expressed in this way in order to indicate that the attaining of the other jhānas, beginning with that of the second from the first, is effected by the surmounting of the gross factor in each case. ¶
Ajjhattanti idha niyakajjhattamadhippetaṃ. 141. Internal: here one’s own internal41 is intended;
Vibhaṅge pana "ajjhattaṃ paccatta"nti ettakameva vuttaṃ. but that much is actually stated in the Vibhaṅga too with the words “internally in oneself” (Vibh 258).
Yasmā ca niyakajjhattamadhippetaṃ, tasmā attani jātaṃ attano santāne nibbattanti ayamettha attho. And since one’s own internal is intended, the meaning here is this: born in oneself, generated in one’s own continuity.
Sampasādananti sampasādanaṃ vuccati saddhā. 142. Confidence: it is faith that is called confidence.
Sampasādanayogato jhānampi sampasādanaṃ. The jhāna “has confidence” because it is associated with confidence
Nīlavaṇṇayogato nīlavatthaṃ viya. as a cloth “has blue colour” because it is associated with blue colour.
Yasmā vā taṃ jhānaṃ sampasādanasamannāgatattā vitakkavicārakkhobhavūpasamanena ca cetaso sampasādayati, tasmāpi sampasādananti vuttaṃ. Or alternatively, that jhāna is stated to “have confidence” because it makes the mind confident with the confidence possessed by it and by stilling the disturbance created by applied and sustained thought.
Imasmiñca atthavikappe sampasādanaṃ cetasoti evaṃ padasambandho veditabbo. And with this conception of the meaning the word construction must be taken as “confidence of mind.”
Purimasmiṃ pana atthavikappe cetasoti etaṃ ekodibhāvena saddhiṃ yojetabbaṃ. ¶ But with the first-mentioned conception of the meaning the words “of mind” must be construed with “singleness42”. ¶
Tatrāyamatthayojanā, eko udetīti ekodi, vitakkavicārehi anajjhārūḷhattā aggo seṭṭho hutvā udetīti attho. 143. Here is the construction of the meaning in that case. Unique (eka) it comes up (udeti), thus it is single (ekodi); the meaning is, it comes up as the superlative, the best, because it is not overtopped by applied and sustained thought,
Seṭṭhopi hi loke ekoti vuccati. for the best is called “unique” in the world.
Vitakkavicāravirahato vā eko asahāyo hutvā itipi vattuṃ vaṭṭati. Or it is permissible to say that when deprived of applied and sustained thought it is unique, without companion.
Atha vā sampayuttadhamme udāyatīti udi, uṭṭhāpetīti attho. Or alternatively: it evokes (udāyati) associated states, thus it is an evoker (udi); the meaning is, it arouses.
Seṭṭhaṭṭhena eko ca so udi cāti ekodi, samādhissetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. And that is unique (eka) in the sense of best, and it is an evoker (udi), thus it is a unique evoker (ekodi = single). This is a term for concentration.
Iti imaṃ ekodiṃ bhāveti vaḍḍhetīti idaṃ dutiyajjhānaṃ ekodibhāvaṃ. Then, since the second jhāna gives existingness to (bhāveti), augments, this single [thing], it “gives singleness” (ekodibhāva).
So panāyaṃ ekodi yasmā cetaso, na sattassa, na jīvassa, tasmā etaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvanti vuttaṃ. ¶ But as this single [thing] is a mind’s, not a being’s or a soul’s, so singleness of mind is said. ¶
Nanu cāyaṃ saddhā paṭhamajjhānepi atthi, ayañca ekodināmako samādhi, atha kasmā idameva "sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvañcā"ti vuttanti. 144. It might be asked: But does not this faith exist in the first jhāna too, and also this concentration with the name of the “single [thing]?” Then why is only this second jhāna said to have confidence and singleness of mind?
Vuccate, aduñhi paṭhamajjhānaṃ vitakkavicārakkhobhena vīcitaraṅgasamākulamiva jalaṃ na suppasannaṃ hoti, tasmā satiyāpi saddhāya "sampasādana"nti na vuttaṃ. —It may be replied as follows: It is because that first jhāna [157] is not fully confident owing to the disturbance created by applied and sustained thought, like water ruffled by ripples and wavelets. That is why, although faith does exist in it, it is not called “confidence.”
Na suppasannattāyeva cettha samādhipi na suṭṭhu pākaṭo, tasmā "ekodibhāva"ntipi na vuttaṃ. And there too concentration is not fully evident because of the lack of full confidence. That is why it is not called “singleness” there.
Imasmiṃ pana jhāne vitakkavicārapalibodhābhāvena laddhokāsā balavatī saddhā, balavasaddhāsahāyapaṭilābheneva ca samādhipi pākaṭo, tasmā idameva evaṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ. But in this second jhāna faith is strong, having got a footing in the absence of the impediments of applied and sustained thought; and concentration is also evident through having strong faith as its companion. That may be understood as the reason why only this jhāna is described in this way.
Vibhaṅge pana "sampasādananti yā saddhā saddahanā okappanā abhippasādo. 145. But that much is actually stated in the Vibhaṅga too with the words: “‘Confidence’ is faith, having faith, trust, full confidence.
Cetaso ekodibhāvanti yā cittassa ṭhiti - pe - sammāsamādhī"ti ettakameva vuttaṃ. ‘Singleness of mind’ is steadiness of consciousness … right concentration” (Vibh 258).
Evaṃ vuttena pana tena saddhiṃ ayamatthavaṇṇanā yathā na virujjhati, aññadatthu saṃsandati ceva sameti ca, evaṃ veditabbā. ¶ And this commentary on the meaning should not be so understood as to conflict with the meaning stated in that way, but on the contrary so as to agree and concur with it. ¶
81. Avitakkaṃ avicāranti bhāvanāya pahīnattā etasmiṃ, etassa vā vitakko natthīti avitakkaṃ. 146. Without applied thought, without sustained thought: since it has been abandoned by development, there is no applied thought in this, or of this, [jhāna], thus it is without applied thought.
Imināva nayena avicāraṃ. The same explanation applies to sustained thought.
Vibhaṅgepi vuttaṃ "iti ayañca vitakko ayañca vicāro santā honti samitā vūpasantā atthaṅgatā abbhatthaṅgatā appitā byappitā sositā visositā byantikatā, tena vuccati avitakkaṃ avicāra"nti (vibha. 576). ¶ Also it is said in the Vibhaṅga: “So this applied thought and this sustained thought are quieted, quietened, stilled, set at rest, set quite at rest, done away with, quite done away with,43 dried up, quite dried up, made an end of; hence it is said: without applied thought, without sustained thought” (Vibh 258). ¶
Etthāha "nanu ca 'vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā'ti imināpi ayamattho siddho, atha kasmā puna vuttaṃ 'avitakkaṃ avicāra'nti". Here it may be asked: Has not this meaning already been established by the words “with the stilling of applied and sustained thought?”
Vuccate, evametaṃ siddhovāyamattho, na panetaṃ tadatthadīpakaṃ. So why is it said again “without applied thought, without sustained thoughts?”
Nanu avocumha "oḷārikassa pana oḷārikassa aṅgassa samatikkamā paṭhamajjhānato paresaṃ dutiyajjhānādīnaṃ samadhigamo hotīti dassanatthaṃ vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamāti evaṃ vutta"nti. ¶ —It may be replied: Yes, that meaning has already been established. But this does not indicate that meaning. Did we not say earlier: “The phrase ‘with the stilling of applied and sustained thought’ is expressed in this way in order to indicate that the act of attaining the other jhānas, beginning with that of the second from the first, is effected by the surmounting of the gross factor in each case? ” (§140). ¶
Apica vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā idaṃ sampasādanaṃ, na kilesakālussiyassa. 147. Besides, this confidence comes about with the act of stilling, not the darkness of defilement, but the applied and sustained thought.
Vitakkavicārānañca vūpasamā ekodibhāvaṃ, na upacārajjhānamiva nīvaraṇappahānā, paṭhamajjhānamiva ca na aṅgapātubhāvāti evaṃ sampasādanaekodibhāvānaṃ hetuparidīpakamidaṃ vacanaṃ. And the singleness comes about, not as in access jhāna with the abandoning of the hindrances, nor as in the first jhāna with the manifestation of the factors, but with the act of stilling the applied and sustained thought. So that [first] clause indicates the cause of the confidence and singleness.
Tathā vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā idaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ, na tatiyacatutthajjhānāni viya cakkhuviññāṇādīni viya ca abhāvāti evaṃ avitakkaavicārabhāvassa hetuparidīpakañca, na vitakkavicārābhāvamattaparidīpakaṃ. In the same way this jhāna is without applied thought and without sustained thought, not as in the third and fourth jhānas or as in eye-consciousness, etc., with just absence, but with the actual act of stilling the applied and sustained thought. So that [first clause] also indicates the cause of the state without applied and sustained thought; it does not indicate the bare absence of applied and sustained thought.
Vitakkavicārābhāvamattaparidīpakameva pana "avitakkaṃ avicāra"nti idaṃ vacanaṃ. The bare absence of applied and sustained thought is indicated by this [second] clause, namely, “without applied thought, without sustained thought.”
Tasmā purimaṃ vatvāpi vattabbamevāti. ¶ Consequently it needs to be stated notwithstanding that the first has already been stated. ¶
Samādhijanti paṭhamajjhānasamādhito sampayuttasamādhito vā jātanti attho. 148. Born of concentration: born of the first-jhāna concentration, or born of associated concentration, is the meaning.
Tattha kiñcāpi paṭhamampi sampayuttasamādhito jātaṃ, atha kho ayameva samādhi "samādhī"ti vattabbataṃ arahati vitakkavicārakkhobhavirahena ativiya acalattā, suppasannattā ca, tasmā imassa vaṇṇabhaṇanatthaṃ idameva "samādhija"nti vuttaṃ. Herein, although the first was born of associated concentration too, still it is only this concentration that is quite worthy to be called “concentration” because of its complete confidence and extreme immobility due to absence of disturbance by applied and sustained thought. So only this [jhāna] is called “born of concentration,” and that is in order to recommend it.
Pītisukhanti idaṃ vuttanayameva. ¶ With happiness and bliss is as already explained. ¶
Dutiyanti gaṇanānupubbatā dutiyaṃ. Second: second in numerical series.
Idaṃ dutiyaṃ samāpajjatītipi dutiyaṃ. Also second because entered upon second.
Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ "dvaṅgavippahīnaṃ tivaṅgasamannāgata"nti, tattha vitakkavicārānaṃ pahānavasena dvaṅgavippahīnatā veditabbā. 149. Then it was also said above which abandons two factors, possesses three factors (§139). Herein, the abandoning of two factors should be understood as the abandoning of applied thought and sustained thought.
Yathā ca paṭhamajjhānassa upacārakkhaṇe nīvaraṇāni pahīyanti, na tathā imassa vitakkavicārā. But while the hindrances are abandoned at the moment of the access of the first jhāna, in the case of this jhāna the applied thought and sustained thought are not abandoned at the moment of its access.
Appanākkhaṇeyeva ca panetaṃ vinā tehi uppajjati. It is only at the moment of actual absorption that the jhāna arises without them.
Tenassa te "pahānaṅga"nti vuccanti. Hence they are called its factors of abandoning.
Pīti sukhaṃ cittekaggatāti imesaṃ pana tiṇṇaṃ uppattivasena tivaṅgasamannāgatatā veditabbā. 150. Its possession of three factors should be understood as the arising of the three, that is, happiness, bliss, and unification of mind.
Tasmā yaṃ vibhaṅge "jhānanti sampasādo pīti sukhaṃ cittassa ekaggatā"ti (vibha. 580) vuttaṃ, taṃ saparikkhāraṃ jhānaṃ dassetuṃ pariyāyena vuttaṃ. So when it is said in the Vibhaṅga, “‘Jhāna’: confidence, happiness, bliss, unification of mind” (Vibh 258), this is said figuratively in order to show that jhāna with its equipment.
Ṭhapetvā pana sampasādanaṃ nippariyāyena upanijjhānalakkhaṇappattānaṃ aṅgānaṃ vasena tivaṅgikameva etaṃ hoti. But, excepting the confidence, this jhāna has literally three factors qua factors that have attained to the characteristic of lighting (see §119),
Yathāha – "katamaṃ tasmiṃ samaye tivaṅgikaṃ jhānaṃ hoti, pīti sukhaṃ cittassa ekaggatā"ti (dha. sa. 161; vibha. 628). according as it is said: “What is jhāna of three factors on that occasion? It is happiness, bliss, unification of mind” (Vibh 263).
Sesaṃ paṭhamajjhāne vuttanayameva. The rest is as in the case of the first jhāna.
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Редакция перевода от 16.06.2019 22:03