Гл. 4. Подробные инструкции по практике

Опубликовано khantibalo от 5 февраля, 2019 - 09:23

Конспект

Целью практики является достижение полной поглощённости. В процессе её достижения есть предварительный этап "сосредоточение доступа" на котором подавляются 5 помех (в суттах не описан). В состоянии полной поглощённости возникают 5 факторов, относящихся к первому уровню.

На этапе сосредоточения доступа практикующий видит представление (знак) обучения, который благодаря дальнейшей практике заменяется на представление - двойник. Облик этого представления будет разным в зависимости от предмета медитации - примеры для дыхания см. тут.

Если путём расширения представления обучения удаётся сразу же достичь полной поглощённости - это хорошо. В противном случае рекомендуется тщательно оберегать представление обучения, что возможно только в подходящих условиях проживания.

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english Nyanamoli thera
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Bhāvanāvidhānaṃ ¶ [DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT] ¶
55. Idāni sabbaṃ bhāvanāvidhānaṃ aparihāpentena bhāvetabboti ettha ayaṃ pathavīkasiṇaṃ ādiṃ katvā sabbakammaṭṭhānavasena vitthārakathā hoti. ¶ 21. Now, with the clause, And not overlook any of the directions for development (III.28), the time has come for the detailed exposition of all meditation subjects, starting with the earth kasiṇa. ¶
Evaṃ upacchinnakhuddakapalibodhena hi bhikkhunā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkantena bhattasammadaṃ paṭivinodetvā pavivitte okāse sukhanisinnena katāya vā akatāya vā pathaviyā nimittaṃ gaṇhitabbaṃ. [THE EARTH KASIṆA] When a bhikkhu has thus severed the lesser impediments, then, on his return from his alms round after his meal and after he has got rid of drowsiness due to the meal, he should sit down comfortably in a secluded place and apprehend the sign in earth that is either made up or not made up.
Vuttañhetaṃ – ¶ 22. For this is said:4 ¶
"Pathavīkasiṇaṃ uggaṇhanto pathaviyaṃ nimittaṃ gaṇhāti kate vā akate vā sāntake, no anantake, sakoṭiye, no akoṭiye, savaṭṭume, no avaṭṭume, sapariyante, no apariyante, suppamatte vā sarāvamatte vā. “One who is learning the earth kasiṇa apprehends the sign in earth that is either made up or not made up; that is bounded, not unbounded; limited, not unlimited; with a periphery, not without a periphery; circumscribed, not uncircumscribed; either the size of a bushel (suppa) or the size of a saucer (sarāva).
So taṃ nimittaṃ suggahitaṃ karoti, sūpadhāritaṃ upadhāreti, suvavatthitaṃ vavatthapeti. He sees to it that that sign is well apprehended, well attended to, well defined.
So taṃ nimittaṃ suggahitaṃ katvā sūpadhāritaṃ upadhāretvā suvavatthitaṃ vavatthapetvā ānisaṃsadassāvī ratanasaññī hutvā cittīkāraṃ upaṭṭhapetvā sampiyāyamāno tasmiṃ ārammaṇe cittaṃ upanibandhati 'addhā imāya paṭipadāya jarāmaraṇamhā muccissāmī'ti. Having done that, and seeing its advantages and perceiving it as a treasure, building up respect for it, making it dear to him, he anchors his mind to that object, thinking, ‘Surely in this way I shall be freed from aging and death.’
So vivicceva kāmehi - pe - paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharatī"ti. ¶ Secluded from sense desires … he enters upon and dwells in the first jhāna …” ¶
Tattha yena atītabhavepi sāsane vā isipabbajjāya vā pabbajitvā pathavīkasiṇe catukkapañcakajjhānāni nibbattitapubbāni, evarūpassa puññavato upanissayasampannassa akatāya pathaviyā kasitaṭṭhāne vā khalamaṇḍale vā nimittaṃ uppajjati, mallakattherassa viya. 23. Herein, when in a previous becoming a man has gone forth into homelessness in the Dispensation or [outside it] with the rishis’ going forth and has already produced the jhāna tetrad or pentad on the earth kasiṇa, and so has such merit and the support [of past practice of jhāna] as well, then the sign arises in him on earth that is not made up, that is to say, on a ploughed area or on a threshing floor, as in the Elder Mallaka’s case.
Tassa kirāyasmato kasitaṭṭhānaṃ olokentassa taṃṭhānappamāṇameva nimittaṃ udapādi. It seems that while that venerable one was looking at a ploughed area the sign arose in him the size of that area.
So taṃ vaḍḍhetvā pañcakajjhānāni nibbattetvā jhānapadaṭṭhānaṃ vipassanaṃ paṭṭhapetvā arahattaṃ pāpuṇi. ¶ He extended it and attained the jhāna pentad. Then by establishing insight with the jhāna as the basis for it, he reached Arahantship. ¶
Yo panevaṃ akatādhikāro hoti, tena ācariyasantike uggahitakammaṭṭhānavidhānaṃ avirādhetvā cattāro kasiṇadose pariharantena kasiṇaṃ kātabbaṃ. [MAKING AN EARTH KASIṆA] 24. But when a man has had no such previous practice, he should make a kasiṇa, guarding against the four faults of a kasiṇa and not overlooking any of the directions for the meditation subject learnt from the teacher.
Nīlapītalohitaodātasambhedavasena hi cattāro pathavīkasiṇadosā. Now, the four faults of the earth kasiṇa are due to the intrusion of blue, yellow, red or white.
Tasmā nīlādivaṇṇaṃ mattikaṃ aggahetvā gaṅgāvahe mattikāsadisāya aruṇavaṇṇāya mattikāya kasiṇaṃ kātabbaṃ. So instead of using clay of such colours, he should make the kasiṇa of clay like that in the stream of the Gangā,5 which is the colour of the dawn.
Tañca kho vihāramajjhe sāmaṇerādīnaṃ sañcaraṇaṭṭhāne na kātabbaṃ. And he should make it not in the middle of the monastery in a place where novices, etc., are about
Vihārapaccante pana paṭicchannaṭṭhāne pabbhāre vā paṇṇasālāya vā saṃhārimaṃ vā tatraṭṭhakaṃ vā kātabbaṃ. but on the confines of the monastery in a screened place, either under an overhanging rock or in a leaf hut. He can make it either portable or as a fixture.
Tatra saṃhārimaṃ catūsu daṇḍakesu pilotikaṃ vā cammaṃ vā kaṭasārakaṃ vā bandhitvā tattha apanītatiṇamūlasakkharakathalikāya sumadditāya mattikāya vuttappamāṇaṃ vaṭṭaṃ limpetvā kātabbaṃ. 25.Of these, a portable one should be made by tying rags of leather or matting onto four sticks and smearing thereon a disk of the size already mentioned, using clay picked clean of grass, roots, gravel, and sand, and well kneaded.
Taṃ parikammakāle bhūmiyaṃ attharitvā oloketabbaṃ. At the time of the preliminary work it should be laid on the ground and looked at.
Tatraṭṭhakaṃ bhūmiyaṃ padumakaṇṇikākārena khāṇuke ākoṭetvā vallīhi vinandhitvā kātabbaṃ. A fixture should be made by knocking stakes into the ground in the form of a lotus calyx, lacing them over with creepers.
Yadi sā mattikā nappahoti, adho aññaṃ pakkhipitvā uparibhāge suparisodhitāya aruṇavaṇṇāya mattikāya vidatthicaturaṅgulavitthāraṃ vaṭṭaṃ kātabbaṃ. If the clay is insufficient, then other clay should be put underneath and a disk a span and four fingers across made on top of that with the quite pure dawn-coloured clay.
Etadeva hi pamāṇaṃ sandhāya "suppamattaṃ vā sarāvamattaṃ vā"ti vuttaṃ. For it was with reference only to measurement that it was said above either the size of a bushel or the size of a saucer (§22).
"Sāntake no anantake"tiādi panassa paricchedatthāya vuttaṃ. ¶ But that is bounded, not unbounded was said to show its delimitedness. ¶
56. Tasmā evaṃ vuttappamāṇaparicchedaṃ katvā rukkhapāṇikā visabhāgavaṇṇaṃ samuṭṭhapeti. 26. So, having thus made it delimited and of the size prescribed, he should scrape it down with a stone trowel—a wooden trowel turns it a bad colour,
Tasmā taṃ aggahetvā pāsāṇapāṇikāya ghaṃsetvā samaṃ bherītalasadisaṃ katvā taṃ ṭhānaṃ sammajjitvā nhatvā āgantvā kasiṇamaṇḍalato aḍḍhateyyahatthantare padese paññatte vidatthicaturaṅgulapādake suatthate pīṭhe nisīditabbaṃ. so that should not be employed—and make it as even as the surface of a drum. Then he should sweep the place out and have a bath. On his return he should seat himself on a well-covered chair with legs a span and four fingers high, prepared in a place that is two and a half cubits [that is, two and a half times elbow to finger-tip] from the kasiṇa disk.
Tato dūratare nisinnassa hi kasiṇaṃ na upaṭṭhāti, āsannatare kasiṇadosā paññāyanti. For the kasiṇa does not appear plainly to him if he sits further off than that; and if he sits nearer than that, faults in the kasiṇa appear.
Uccatare nisinnena gīvaṃ onamitvā oloketabbaṃ hoti, nīcatare jaṇṇukāni rujanti. If he sits higher up, he has to look at it with his neck bent; and if he sits lower down, his knees ache.
Tasmā vuttanayeneva nisīditvā "appassādā kāmā"tiādinā nayena kāmesu ādīnavaṃ paccavekkhitvā kāmanissaraṇe sabbadukkhasamatikkamupāyabhūte nekkhamme jātābhilāsena buddhadhammasaṅghaguṇānussaraṇena pītipāmojjaṃ janayitvā "ayaṃ dāni sā sabbabuddha paccekabuddha ariyasāvakehi paṭipannā nekkhammapaṭipadā"ti paṭipattiyā sañjātagāravena "addhā imāya paṭipadāya pavivekasukharasassa bhāgī bhavissāmī"ti ussāhaṃ janayitvā samena ākārena cakkhūni ummīletvā nimittaṃ gaṇhantena bhāvetabbaṃ. ¶ [STARTING CONTEMPLATION] 27.So, after seating himself in the way stated, he should review the dangers in sense desires in the way beginning, “Sense desires give little enjoyment” (M I 91) and arouse longing for the escape from sense desires, for the renunciation that is the means to the surmounting of all suffering. He should next arouse joy of happiness by recollecting the special qualities of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha; then awe by thinking, “Now, this is the way of renunciation entered upon by all Buddhas, Paccekabuddhas and noble disciples”; and then eagerness by thinking, “In this way I shall surely come to know the taste of the bliss of seclusion.” [125] After that he should open his eyes moderately, apprehend the sign, and so proceed to develop it. 6 ¶
Atiummīlayato hi cakkhu kilamati, maṇḍalañca ativibhūtaṃ hoti, tenassa nimittaṃ nuppajjati. 28.If he opens his eyes too wide, they get fatigued and the disk becomes too obvious, which prevents the sign becoming apparent to him.
Atimandaṃ ummīlayato maṇḍalamavibhūtaṃ hoti, cittañca līnaṃ hoti, evampi nimittaṃ nuppajjati. If he opens them too little, the disk is not obvious enough, and his mind becomes drowsy, which also prevents the sign becoming apparent to him.
Tasmā ādāsatale mukhanimittadassinā viya samenākārena cakkhūni ummīletvā nimittaṃ gaṇhantena bhāvetabbaṃ, na vaṇṇo paccavekkhitabbo, na lakkhaṇaṃ manasikātabbaṃ. So he should develop it by apprehending the sign (nimitta), keeping his eyes open moderately, as if he were seeing the reflection of his face (mukha-nimitta) on the surface of a looking- glass. 7 29.The colour should not be reviewed. The characteristic should not be given attention.8
Apica vaṇṇaṃ amuñcitvā nissayasavaṇṇaṃ katvā ussadavasena paṇṇattidhamme cittaṃ paṭṭhapetvā manasi kātabbaṃ. But rather, while not ignoring the colour, attention should be given by setting the mind on the [name] concept as the most outstanding mental datum, relegating the colour to the position of a property of its physical support.
Pathavī mahī, medinī, bhūmi, vasudhā, vasundharātiādīsu pathavīnāmesu yamicchati, yadassa saññānukūlaṃ hoti, taṃ vattabbaṃ. That [conceptual state] can be called by anyone he likes among the names for earth (pathavī) such as “earth” (pathavī), “the Great One” (mahī), “the Friendly One” (medinī), “ground” (bhūmi), “the Provider of Wealth” (vasudhā), “the Bearer of Wealth” (vasudharā), etc., whichever suits his manner of perception.
Apica pathavīti etadeva nāmaṃ pākaṭaṃ, tasmā pākaṭavaseneva pathavī pathavīti bhāvetabbaṃ. Still “earth” is also a name that is obvious, so it can be developed with the obvious one by saying “earth, earth.”
Kālena ummīletvā kālena nimīletvā āvajjitabbaṃ. It should be adverted to now with eyes open, now with eyes shut.
Yāva uggahanimittaṃ nuppajjati, tāva kālasatampi kālasahassampi tato bhiyyopi eteneva nayena bhāvetabbaṃ. ¶ And he should go on developing it in this way a hundred times, a thousand times, and even more than that, until the learning sign arises. ¶
57. Tassevaṃ bhāvayato yadā nimīletvā āvajjantassa ummīlitakāle viya āpāthamāgacchati, tadā uggahanimittaṃ jātaṃ nāma hoti. 30. When, while he is developing it in this way, it comes into focus9 as he adverts with his eyes shut exactly as it does with his eyes open, then the learning sign is said to have been produced.
Tassa jātakālato paṭṭhāya na tasmiṃ ṭhāne nisīditabbaṃ. After its production he should no longer sit in that place;10
Attano vasanaṭṭhānaṃ pavisitvā tattha nisinnena bhāvetabbaṃ. he should return to his own quarters and go on developing it sitting there.
Pādadhovanapapañcaparihāratthaṃ panassa ekapaṭalikupāhanā ca kattaradaṇḍo ca icchitabbo. But in order to avoid the delay of foot washing, a pair of single- soled sandals and a walking stick are desirable.
Athānena sace taruṇo samādhi kenacideva asappāyakāraṇena nassati, upāhanā āruyha kattaradaṇḍaṃ gahetvā taṃ ṭhānaṃ gantvā nimittaṃ ādāya āgantvā sukhanisinnena bhāvetabbaṃ, punappunaṃ samannāharitabbaṃ, takkāhataṃ vitakkāhataṃ kātabbaṃ. Then if the new concentration vanishes through some unsuitable encounter, he can put his sandals on, take his walking stick, and go back to the place to re-apprehend the sign there. When he returns he should seat himself comfortably and develop it by reiterated reaction to it and by striking at it with thought and applied thought.
Tassevaṃ karontassa anukkamena nīvaraṇāni vikkhambhanti, kilesā sannisīdanti, upacārasamādhinā cittaṃ samādhiyati, paṭibhāganimittaṃ uppajjati. ¶ [THE COUNTERPART SIGN] 31. As he does so, the hindrances eventually become suppressed, the defilements subside, the mind becomes concentrated with access concentration, and the counterpart sign arises. ¶
Tatrāyaṃ purimassa ca uggahanimittassa imassa ca viseso, uggahanimitte kasiṇadoso paññāyati, paṭibhāganimittaṃ thavikato nihatādāsamaṇḍalaṃ viya sudhotasaṅkhathālaṃ viya valāhakantarā nikkhantacandamaṇḍalaṃ viya meghamukhe balākā viya uggahanimittaṃ padāletvā nikkhantamiva tato sataguṇaṃ sahassaguṇaṃ suparisuddhaṃ hutvā upaṭṭhāti. The difference between the earlier learning sign and the counterpart sign is this. In the learning sign any fault in the kasiṇa is apparent. But the counterpart sign [126] appears as if breaking out from the learning sign, and a hundred times, a thousand times more purified, like a looking-glass disk drawn from its case, like a mother-of-pearl dish well washed, like the moon’s disk coming out from behind a cloud, like cranes against a thunder cloud.
Tañca kho neva vaṇṇavantaṃ, na saṇṭhānavantaṃ. But it has neither colour nor shape;
Yadi hi taṃ īdisaṃ bhaveyya, cakkhuviññeyyaṃ siyā oḷārikaṃ sammasanupagaṃ tilakkhaṇabbhāhataṃ, na panetaṃ tādisaṃ. for if it had, it would be cognizable by the eye, gross, susceptible of comprehension [by insight—(see XX.2f.)] and stamped with the three characteristics. 11 But it is not like that.
Kevalañhi samādhilābhino upaṭṭhānākāramattaṃ saññajametanti. ¶ For it is born only of perception in one who has obtained concentration, being a mere mode of appearance.12 ¶
58. Uppannakālato ca panassa paṭṭhāya nīvaraṇāni vikkhambhitāneva honti, kilesā sannisinnāva, upacārasamādhinā cittaṃ samāhitamevāti. ¶ But as soon as it arises the hindrances are quite suppressed, the defilements subside, and the mind becomes concentrated in access concentration. ¶
Duvidho hi samādhi upacārasamādhi ca appanāsamādhi ca. [THE TWO KINDS OF CONCENTRATION] 32.Now, concentration is of two kinds, that is to say, access concentration and absorption concentration:
Dvīhākārehi cittaṃ samādhiyati upacārabhūmiyaṃ vā paṭilābhabhūmiyaṃ vā. the mind becomes concentrated in two ways, that is, on the plane of access and on the plane of obtainment.
Tattha upacārabhūmiyaṃ nīvaraṇappahānena cittaṃ samāhitaṃ hoti. Herein, the mind becomes concentrated on the plane of access by the abandonment of the hindrances, В каноне этот уровень не описан.
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Paṭilābhabhūmiyaṃ aṅgapātubhāvena. ¶ and on the plane of obtainment by the manifestation of the jhāna factors. ¶
Dvinnaṃ pana samādhīnaṃ idaṃ nānākāraṇaṃ, upacāre aṅgāni na thāmajātāni honti, aṅgānaṃ athāmajātattā, yathā nāma daharo kumārako ukkhipitvā ṭhapiyamāno punappunaṃ bhūmiyaṃ patati, evameva upacāre uppanne cittaṃ kālena nimittamārammaṇaṃ karoti, kālena bhavaṅgamotarati. 33.The difference between the two kinds of concentration is this. The factors are not strong in access. It is because they are not strong that when access has arisen, the mind now makes the sign its object and now re-enters the life- continuum,13 just as when a young child is lifted up and stood on its feet, it repeatedly falls down on the ground.
Appanāyaṃ pana aṅgāni thāmajātāni honti, tesaṃ thāmajātattā, yathā nāma balavā puriso āsanā vuṭṭhāya divasampi tiṭṭheyya, evameva appanāsamādhimhi uppanne cittaṃ sakiṃ bhavaṅgavāraṃ chinditvā kevalampi rattiṃ kevalampi divasaṃ tiṭṭhati, kusalajavanapaṭipāṭivaseneva pavattatīti. ¶ But the factors are strong in absorption. It is because they are strong that when absorption concentration has arisen, the mind, having once interrupted the flow of the life-continuum, carries on with a stream of profitable impulsion for a whole night and for a whole day, just as a healthy man, after rising from his seat, could stand for a whole day. ¶
Tatra yadetaṃ upacārasamādhinā saddhiṃ paṭibhāganimittaṃ uppannaṃ, tassa uppādanaṃ nāma atidukkaraṃ. 34. The arousing of the counterpart sign, which arises together with access concentration, is very difficult.
Tasmā sace teneva pallaṅkena taṃ nimittaṃ vaḍḍhetvā appanaṃ adhigantuṃ sakkoti, sundaraṃ. Therefore if he is able to arrive at absorption in that same session by extending the sign, it is good.
No ce sakkoti, athānena taṃ nimittaṃ appamattena cakkavattigabbho viya rakkhitabbaṃ. If not, then he must guard the sign diligently as if it were the foetus of a Wheel-turning Monarch (World-ruler).
Evañhi – ¶
Nimittaṃ rakkhato laddha-parihāni na vijjati; ¶ So guard the sign, nor count the cost, And what is gained will not be lost; ¶
Ārakkhamhi asantamhi, laddhaṃ laddhaṃ vinassati. Who fails to have this guard maintained Will lose each time what he has gained.
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Редакция перевода от 25.05.2020 15:25