Введение

Опубликовано khantibalo от 30 января, 2017 - 18:44

Здесь описывается откуда взялся народ Куру и город Камасадхамма, где Будда прочёл это наставление.

Главная особенность состоит в том, что там не было монастыря и Будда жил в лесу на подаяния рыночного города.

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105. Evaṃ me sutanti satipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ. Evam me sutam = "Thus have I heard" the Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness [Satipatthana Sutta].
Tattha kurūsu viharatīti kurunāmakā jānapadino rājakumārā, tesaṃ nivāso ekopi janapado ruḷhīsaddena kurūti vuccati, tasmiṃ kurūsu janapade. Ekam samayam bhagava Kurusu viharati = "At one time the Blessed One was living in the (country of the) Kurus." Although the territory of the Kuru Princes, their homeland, was a single contiguous domain, by taking into consideration its many villages and market-towns, it was commonly referred to by the use of the plural form "Kurus. "
Aṭṭhakathācariyā panāhu : mandhātukāle tīsu dīpesu manussā jambudīpo nāma buddhapaccekabuddhamahāsāvakacakkavattipabhutīnaṃ uttamapurisānaṃ uppattibhūmi uttamadīpo atiramaṇīyoti sutvā raññā mandhātucakkavattinā cakkaratanaṃ purakkhatvā cattāro dīpe anusaṃyāyantena saddhiṃ āgamaṃsu. In the time of the legendary king Mandhatu, say the commentators, inhabitants of the three continents, Pubba Videha, Apara Goyana, and Uttara Kuru, having heard that Jambudipa,[1] the birthplace of Sammasambuddhas,[2] Paccekabuddhas,[3] the Great Disciples of the Buddhas, Universal Monarchs and other beings of mighty virtue, was an exceedingly pleasant, excellent continent, came to Jambudipa with the Universal Monarch Mandhatu who was making a tour of all the continents, in due order, preceded by his Wheel Treasure.
Tato rājā pariṇāyakaratanaṃ pucchi :
«Atthi nu kho manussalokato ramaṇīyataraṃ ṭhāna»nti?
«Kasmā deva evaṃ bhaṇasi?
«Kiṃ na passasi candimasūriyānaṃ ānubhāvaṃ?
«Nanu etesaṃ ṭhānaṃ ito ramaṇīyatara»nti?
Rājā cakkaratanaṃ purakkhatvā tattha agamāsi.
Cattāro mahārājāno «mandhātumahārājā āgato»ti sutvāva «mahiddhiko mahānubhāvo rājā na sakkā yuddhena paṭibāhitu»nti sakarajjaṃ niyyātesuṃ.
So taṃ gahetvā puna pucchi : «atthi nu kho ito ramaṇīyataraṃ ṭhāna»nti.
Athassa tāvatiṃsabhavanaṃ kathayiṃsu : «tāvatiṃsabhavanaṃ, deva, ramaṇīyataraṃ, tattha sakkassa devarañño ime cattāro mahārājāno paricārakā dovārikabhūmiyaṃ tiṭṭhanti.
Sakko devarājā mahiddhiko mahānubhāvo.
Tassimāni pana upabhogaṭṭhānāni, yojanasahassubbedho vejayantapāsādo, pañcayojanasatubbedhā sudhammā devasabhā, diyaḍḍhayojanasatiko vejayantaratho, tathā erāvaṇo hatthī, dibbarukkhasahassapaṭimaṇḍitaṃ nandanavanaṃ cittalatāvanaṃ phārusakavanaṃ missakavanaṃ .
Yojanasatubbedho pāricchattako koviḷāro, tassa heṭṭhā saṭṭhiyojanāyāmā paṇṇāsayojanavitthatā pañcadasayojanubbedhā jayasumanapupphavaṇṇā paṇḍukambalasilā, yassā mudutāya sakkassa nisīdato upaḍḍhakāyo anupavisatī»ti.
Taṃ sutvā rājā tattha gantukāmo cakkaratanaṃ abbhukkiri .
Taṃ ākāse patiṭṭhāsi saddhiṃ caturaṅginiyā senāya.
Atha dvinnaṃ devalokānaṃ vemajjhato cakkaratanaṃ otaritvā pathaviyaṃ patiṭṭhāsi saddhiṃ pariṇāyakaratanappamukhāya caturaṅginiyā senāya.
Rājā ekakova tāvatiṃsabhavanaṃ agamāsi.
Sakko «mandhātā āgato»ti sutvāva tassa paccuggamanaṃ katvā : «svāgataṃ te, mahārāja, sakaṃ te, mahārāja.
Anusāsa, mahārājā»ti vatvā saddhiṃ nāṭakehi rajjaṃ dvebhāge katvā ekaṃ bhāgamadāsi.
Rañño tāvatiṃsabhavane patiṭṭhitamattasseva manussabhāvo vigacchi, devabhāvo pāturahosi. And at last when Mandhatu bodily translated himself by means of his psychic virtue to the Tavatimsa devaloka, the heaven of the Thirty-three,
Tassa kira sakkena saddhiṃ paṇḍukambalasilāyaṃ nisinnassa akkhinimisamattena nānattaṃ paññāyati.
Taṃ asallakkhentā devā sakkassa ca tassa ca nānatte muyhanti.
So tattha dibbasampattiṃ anubhavamāno yāva chattiṃsa sakkā uppajjitvā cutā, tāva rajjaṃ kāretvā atittoyeva kāmehi tato cavitvā attano uyyāne patiṭṭhito vātātapena phuṭṭhagatto kālamakāsi.
Cakkaratane pana pathaviyaṃ patiṭṭhite pariṇāyakaratanaṃ suvaṇṇapaṭṭe mandhātuupāhanaṃ likhāpetvā idaṃ mandhāturajjanti rajjamanusāsi.
Tepi tīhi dīpehi āgatamanussā puna gantuṃ asakkontā pariṇāyakaratanaṃ upasaṅkamitvā «deva mayaṃ rañño ānubhāvena āgatā, idāni gantuṃ na sakkoma, vasanaṭṭhānaṃ no dehī»ti yāciṃsu. the people of the three continents who accompanied him to Jambudipa begged of his son for territory to live in, as they said they had come carried by the great power of Mandhatu, and were now unable by themselves to return to their own continents.
So tesaṃ ekekaṃ janapadamadāsi. Their prayer was heard and lands were granted to each of the groups of people of the three continents.
Tattha pubbavidehato āgatamanussehi āvasitapadeso tāyeva purimasaññāya videharaṭṭhanti nāmaṃ labhi. The settlement of people from Pubba Videha came to be known as Videha,
Aparagoyānato āgatamanussehi āvasitapadeso aparantajanapadoti nāmaṃ labhi. of those from Apara Goyana, as Aparanta,
Uttarakuruto āgatamanussehi āvasitapadeso kururaṭṭhanti nāmaṃ labhīti . and of those from Uttara Kuru as Kururattha.
Bahuke pana gāmanigamādayo upādāya bahuvacanena voharīyati.
Tena vuttaṃ «kurūsu viharatī»ti.
Kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamoti. Kammasadammam nama Kurunam nigamo = "At Kammasadamma, a market-town of the Kuru people."
Kammāsadhammanti ettha keci dha-kārassa da-kārena atthaṃ vaṇṇayanti. Some explain the word Kammasadamma, here, spelling it with a "dh" instead of a "d."
Kammāso ettha damitoti kammāsadammo. Since Kammasa was tamed here it was called Kammasadamma, the place of the taming of Kammasa.
Kammāsoti kammāsapādo porisādo vuccati. Kammasa refers to the cannibal of Kammasapada, the one with the speckled, black and white or gray colored foot.
Tassa kira pāde khāṇukena viddhaṭṭhāne vaṇo ruhanto cittadārusadiso hutvā ruhi, tasmā kammāsapādoti paññāyittha . It is said that a wound on his foot, caused by a stake, healed, having become like a piece of wood with lines of fibre of a complex pattern [cittadaru sadiso hutva].Therefore, he became well-known as Kammasapada, Speckled Foot.
So ca tasmiṃ okāse damito porisādabhāvato paṭisedhito. was Speckled Foot tamed
Kena? By whom?
Mahāsattena. By the Great Being, the Bodhisatta.
Katarasmiṃ jātaketi? In which Birth-story [Jataka] is it stated?
Mahāsutasomajātaketi eke. Certain commentators say: "In the Sutasoma Birth-story."
Ime pana therā jayaddisajātaketi vadanti. But the elders of the Great Minister at Anuradhapura, the Maha Vihara, say that it is stated in the Jayaddisa Birth-story.
Tadā hi mahāsattena kammāsapādo damito. Kammasapada was tamed, weaned of his cannibalism, by the Great Being, in the circumstances mentioned in the Jayaddisa Birth-story.
Yathāha : The following statement occurs in that story:
«Putto yadā homi jayaddisassa, When born as very son of the king, Jayaddisa,
Pañcālaraṭṭhādhipatissa atrajo. Pañcala's sovran chief,
Cajitvāna pāṇaṃ pitaraṃ pamocayiṃ, To free my sire did I renounce my life,
Kammāsapādampi cahaṃ pasādayi»nti. And make even Speckled Foot have faith in me. [4]
Keci pana dha-kāreneva atthaṃ vaṇṇayanti. Some [keci] however explain spelling the word thus: Kammasadhamma.
Kururaṭṭhavāsīnaṃ kira kuruvattadhammo tasmiṃ kammāso jāto, tasmā taṃ ṭhānaṃ kammāso ettha dhammo jātoti kammāsadhammanti vuccati. It is said that the traditional Kuru virtuous practice [Kuruvattadhamma] became (black or diversified or) stained [kammaso jato] in that place. Therefore, it was called Kammasadhamma.
Tattha niviṭṭhanigamassāpi etadeva nāmaṃ. The market-town established there, too, got the same name.
Bhummavacanena kasmā na vuttanti? Why was it not said Kammasadamme Kurunam nigame using the locative?
Avasanokāsato.
Bhagavato kira tasmiṃ nigame vasanokāso koci vihāro nāhosi. Because, it is said, there was no monastery (or dwelling place) at which the Blessed One could stay, in that market-town.
Nigamato pana apakkamma aññatarasmiṃ udakasampanne ramaṇīye bhūmibhāge mahāvanasaṇḍo ahosi. Away from the market-town, however, there was a huge dense jungle in a delightful region, watered well.
Tattha bhagavā vihāsi. In that jungle, the Blessed One lived,
Taṃ nigamaṃ gocaragāmaṃ katvā, tasmā evamettha attho veditabbo «kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo, taṃ gocaragāmaṃ katvā»ti. making the market-town his place for gathering alms.
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