Гл. 14. Классификация совокупностей

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Atītādivibhāgakathā ¶ [C. CLASSIFICATION OF THE AGGREGATES] ¶
493. Bhagavatā pana – ¶ But by the Blessed One [in the Suttanta- Bhājaniya] in this way: ¶
"Yaṃkiñci rūpaṃ atītānāgatapaccuppannaṃ ajjhattaṃ vā bahiddhā vā oḷārikaṃ vā sukhumaṃ vā hīnaṃ vā paṇītaṃ vā yaṃ dūre santike vā, tadekajjhaṃ abhisaṃyūhitvā abhisaṅkhipitvā ayaṃ vuccati rūpakkhandho. “Any materiality whatever, whether past, future or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near: all that together in the mass and in the gross is called the materiality aggregate.
Yā kāci vedanā… yā kāci saññā… ye keci saṅkhārā… yaṃkiñci viññāṇaṃ atītānāgatapaccuppannaṃ - pe - abhisaṅkhipitvā ayaṃ vuccati viññāṇakkhandho"ti (vibha. 2,26) – ¶ Any feeling whatever … Any perception whatever … Any formations whatever … Any consciousness whatever, whether past, future or present … all that together in the mass and in the gross is called the consciousness aggregate” (Vibh 1–9; cf. M III 17). ¶
Evaṃ khandhā vitthāritā. ¶ - the aggregates have been given in detail ¶
Tattha yaṃkiñcīti anavasesapariyādānaṃ. [MATERIALITY] 186. Herein, the word whatever includes without exception.
Rūpanti atippasaṅganiyamanaṃ. Materiality prevents over-generalization.
Evaṃ padadvayenāpi rūpassa anavasesapariggaho kato hoti. Thus materiality is comprised without exception by the two expressions.
Athassa atītādinā vibhāgaṃ ārabhati. Then he undertakes its exposition as past, future and present, etc.;
Tañhi kiñci atītaṃ, kiñci anāgatādibhedanti. for some of it is classed as past and some as future, and so on.
Esa nayo vedanādīsu. ¶ So also in the case of feeling, and so on. ¶
494. Tattha rūpaṃ tāva addhāsantatisamayakhaṇavasena catudhā atītaṃ nāma hoti. Herein, the materiality called (i) past is fourfold, according to (a) extent, (b) continuity, (c) period, and (d) moment.
Tathā anāgatapaccuppannaṃ. ¶ Likewise (ii) the future and (iii) the present. 71 ¶ Подкомментарий:
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Tattha addhāvasena tāva ekassa ekasmiṃ bhave paṭisandhito pubbe atītaṃ, cutito uddhaṃ anāgataṃ, ubhinnamantare paccuppannaṃ. ¶ 187. Herein, (a) firstly, according to extent: in the case of a single becoming of one [living being], previous to rebirth-linking is past, subsequent to death is future, between these two is present. ¶
Santativasena sabhāgaekautusamuṭṭhānaṃ ekāhārasamuṭṭhānañca pubbāpariyavasena vattamānampi paccuppannaṃ, tato pubbe visabhāgautuāhārasamuṭṭhānaṃ atītaṃ, pacchā anāgataṃ. 188. (b) According to continuity: that [materiality] which has like or single origination72 by temperature and single origination by nutriment, though it occurs successively, [473] is present. That which, previous to that, was of unlike origination by temperature and nutriment is past. That which is subsequent is future. Подкомментарий:
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Cittajaṃ ekavīthiekajavanaekasamāpattisamuṭṭhānaṃ paccuppannaṃ, tato pubbe atītaṃ, pacchā anāgataṃ. That which is born of consciousness and has its origination in one cognitive series, in one impulsion, in one attainment, is present. Previous to that is past. Subsequent to that is future.
Kammasamuṭṭhānassa pāṭiyekkaṃ santativasena atītādibhedo natthi, tesaññeva pana utuāhāracittasamuṭṭhānānaṃ upatthambhakavasena tassa atītādibhāvo veditabbo. ¶ There is no special classification into past continuity, etc., of that which has its origination in kamma, but its pastness, etc., should be understood according as it supports those which have their origination through temperature, nutriment, and consciousness. ¶
Samayavasenaekamuhuttapubbaṇhasāyanharattindivādīsu samayesu santānavasena pavattamānaṃ taṃ taṃ samayaṃ paccuppannaṃ nāma, tato pubbe atītaṃ, pacchā anāgataṃ. ¶ 189. (c) According to period: any period among those such as one minute, morning, evening, day-and-night, etc., that occurs as a continuity, is called present. Previous to that is past. Subsequent is future. ¶
Khaṇavasena uppādādikhaṇattayapariyāpannaṃ paccuppannaṃ, tato pubbe anāgataṃ, pacchā atītaṃ. 190.(d) According to moment: what is included in the trio of moments, [that is to say, arising, presence, and dissolution] beginning with arising is called present. At a time previous to that it is future. At a time subsequent to that it is past. 73 Comm NT: 73. In these two paragraphs “past” and “future” refer not to time, as in the other paragraphs, but to the materiality.
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Apica atikkantahetupaccayakiccaṃ atītaṃ, niṭṭhitahetukiccaṃ aniṭṭhitapaccayakiccaṃ paccuppannaṃ, ubhayakiccaṃ asampattaṃ anāgataṃ. 191. Furthermore, that whose functions of cause and condition74 have elapsed is past. That whose function of cause is finished and whose function of condition is unfinished is present. That which has not attained to either function is future. Подкомментарий:
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Sakiccakkhaṇe vā paccuppannaṃ, tato pubbe anāgataṃ, pacchā atītaṃ. Or alternatively, the moment of the function is present. At a time previous to that it is future. At a time subsequent to that it is past.
Ettha ca khaṇādikathāva nippariyāyā. And here only the explanations beginning with the moment are absolutely literal.
Sesā sapariyāyā. ¶ The rest are in a figurative [or relative] sense. ¶
495. Ajjhattabahiddhābhedo vuttanayo eva. 192. (iv)–(v) The division into internal and external is as already stated (§73).
Apica idha niyakajjhattampi ajjhattaṃ parapuggalikampi ca bahiddhāti veditabbaṃ. Besides, it is internal in the sense of one’s own75 that should be understood here as internal and that of another person as external. Comm. NT: 75. Niyakajjhatta—“internally in the sense of one’s own”: four kinds of ajjhatta (internal, lit. “belonging to oneself”) are mentioned in th...
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Oḷārikasukhumabhedo vuttanayova. ¶ (vi)–(vii) Gross and subtle are also as already stated (§73). ¶
496. Hīnapaṇītabhedo duvidho pariyāyato nippariyāyato ca. 193. (viii)–(ix) Inferior and superior are twofold, namely, figuratively (relatively) and absolutely (literally).
Tattha akaniṭṭhānaṃ rūpato sudassīnaṃ rūpaṃ hīnaṃ. Herein, the materiality of the Sudassin deities is inferior to the materiality of the Akaniṭṭha (Highest) deities.
Tadeva sudassānaṃ rūpato paṇītaṃ. That same materiality [of the Sudassin deities] is superior to the materiality of the Sudassa deities.
Evaṃ yāva narakasattānaṃ rūpaṃ, tāva pariyāyato hīnapaṇītatā veditabbā. Thus, firstly, should inferiority and superiority be understood figuratively (relatively) down as far as the denizens of hell.
Nippariyāyato pana yattha akusalavipākaṃ uppajjati, taṃ hīnaṃ. But absolutely (literally) it is inferior where it arises as unprofitable result,
Yattha kusalavipākaṃ, taṃ paṇītaṃ. ¶ and it is superior where it arises as profitable result.76 ¶ Comm NT: 76. Profitable result is superior because it produces a desirable object (see Vism- mhṭ 498). This question is treated at length at Vibh-a 9f...
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Dūre santiketi idampi vuttanayameva. 194. (x)–(xi) Far and near: this is also as already described (§73).
Apica okāsatopettha upādāyupādāya dūrasantikatā veditabbā. ¶ Besides, relative farness and nearness should be understood here according to location. ¶
497. Tadekajjhaṃ abhisaṃyūhitvā abhisaṅkhipitvāti taṃ atītādīhi padehi visuṃ visuṃ niddiṭṭhaṃ rūpaṃ sabbaṃ ruppanalakkhaṇasaṅkhāte ekavidhabhāve paññāya rāsiṃ katvā rūpakkhandhoti vuccatīti ayamettha attho. 195. All that together in the mass and in the gross: by making all that materiality, separately described by the words “past,” etc., into a collection by understanding its oneness, in other words, its characteristic of being molested (ruppana), it comes to be called the materiality (rūpa) aggregate. This is the meaning here.
Etena sabbampi rūpaṃ ruppanalakkhaṇe rāsibhāvūpagamanena rūpakkhandhoti dassitaṃ hoti. 196. By this, too, it is shown that the materiality aggregate is all materiality, which all comes into the collection with the characteristic of being molested;
Na hi rūpato añño rūpakkhandho nāma atthi. ¶ for there is no materiality aggregate apart from materiality. ¶
498. Yathā ca rūpaṃ, evaṃ vedanādayopi vedayitalakkhaṇādīsu rāsibhāvūpagamanena. And just as in the case of materiality, so also feeling, etc., [are respectively shown as the feeling aggregate, etc.,] since they come under the collections with the [respective] characteristics of being felt, etc.;
Na hi vedanādīhi aññe vedanākkhandhādayo nāma atthi. ¶ for there is no feeling aggregate apart from feeling and so on. ¶
Atītādivibhāge panettha santativasena khaṇādivasena ca vedanāya atītānāgatapaccuppannabhāvo veditabbo. [FEELING] 197. In the classification (i)–(iii) into past, etc., the past, future, and present state of feeling should be understood according to continuity and according to moment and so on.
Tattha santativasena ekavīthiekajavanaekasamāpattipariyāpannā ekavīthivisayasamāyogappavattā ca paccuppannā, tato pubbe atītā, pacchā anāgatā. Herein, according to continuity, that included in a single cognitive series, a single impulsion, a single attainment, and that occurring in association with an objective field of one kind,77 is present. Before that is past. Subsequent is future. Подкомментарий:
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Khaṇādivasena khaṇattayapariyāpannā pubbantāparantamajjhattagatā sakiccañca kurumānā vedanā paccuppannā, tato pubbe atītā, pacchā anāgatā. According to moment, etc.: that feeling included in the trio of moments, which is in between the past time and the future time, and which is performing its own function, is present. Before that is past. Subsequent is future.
Ajjhattabahiddhābhedo niyakajjhattavasena veditabbo. ¶ 198.(iv)–(v)The classification into internal and external should be understood according to the internal in the sense of one’s own. ¶
499. Oḷārikasukhumabhedo "akusalā vedanā oḷārikā, kusalābyākatā vedanā sukhumā"tiādinā (vibha. 11) nayena vibhaṅge vuttena jātisabhāvapuggalalokiyalokuttaravasena veditabbo. (vi)–(vii) The classification into gross and subtle should be understood (a) according to kind, (b) individual essence, (c) person, and (d) the mundane and supramundane, as stated in the Vibhaṅga in the way beginning “Unprofitable feeling is gross, profitable and indeterminate feeling is subtle, [profitable and unprofitable feeling is gross, indeterminate feeling is subtle]” (Vibh 3), and so on.
Jātivasena tāva akusalā vedanā sāvajjakiriyahetuto, kilesasantāpabhāvato ca avūpasantavuttīti kusalavedanāya oḷārikā, sabyāpārato, saussāhato, savipākato, kilesasantāpabhāvato, sāvajjato ca vipākābyākatāya oḷārikā, savipākato, kilesasantāpabhāvato, sabyābajjhato, sāvajjato ca kiriyābyākatāya oḷārikā. 199. (a) According to kind, firstly: unprofitable feeling is a state of disquiet, because it is the cause of reprehensible actions and because it produces burning of defilement, so it is gross [compared] with profitable feeling. And because it is accompanied by interestedness and drive and result, and because of the burning of the defilements, and because it is reprehensible, it is gross compared with resultant indeterminate. Also because it is accompanied by result, because of the burning of the defilements, and because it is attended by affliction and is reprehensible, it is gross compared with functional indeterminate.
Kusalābyākatā pana vuttavipariyāyato akusalāya sukhumā. But in the opposite sense profitable and indeterminate feeling are subtle compared with unprofitable feeling.
Dvepi kusalākusalavedanā sabyāpārato, saussāhato, savipākato ca yathāyogaṃ duvidhāyapi abyākatāya oḷārikā, vuttavipariyāyena duvidhāpi abyākatā tāhi sukhumā. Also the two, that is, profitable and unprofitable feeling, involve interestedness, drive and result, so they are respectively gross compared with the twofold indeterminate. And in the opposite sense the twofold indeterminate is subtle compared with them.
Evaṃ tāva jātivasena oḷārikasukhumatā veditabbā. ¶ This, firstly, is how grossness and subtlety should be understood according to kind. ¶
500. Sabhāvavasena pana dukkhā vedanā nirassādato, savipphārato, khobhakaraṇato, ubbejanīyato, abhibhavanato ca itarāhi dvīhi oḷārikā, itarā pana dve sātato, santato, paṇītato, manāpato, majjhattato ca yathāyogaṃ dukkhāya sukhumā. 200.(b) According to individual essence: painful feeling is gross compared with the others because it is without enjoyment, it involves intervention, causes disturbance, creates anxiety, and is overpowering. The other two are subtle compared with the painful because they are satisfying, peaceful, and superior, and respectively agreeable and neutral.
Ubho pana sukhadukkhā savipphārato, khobhakaraṇato, pākaṭato ca adukkhamasukhāya oḷārikā, sā vuttavipariyāyena tadubhayato sukhumā. Both the pleasant and the painful are gross compared with the neither-painful-nor-pleasant because they involve intervention, cause disturbance and are obvious. The latter is subtle in the way aforesaid compared with both the former.
Evaṃ sabhāvavasena oḷārikasukhumatā veditabbā. ¶ Thus should grossness and subtlety be understood according to individual essence. ¶
501. Puggalavasena pana asamāpannassa vedanā nānārammaṇe vikkhittabhāvato samāpannassa vedanāya oḷārikā, vipariyāyena itarā sukhumā. 201. (c) According to person: feeling in one who has no attainment is gross compared with that in one who has one, because it is distracted by a multiple object. In the opposite sense the other is subtle.
Evaṃ puggalavasena oḷārikasukhumatā veditabbā. ¶ This is how grossness and subtlety should be understood according to person. [475] ¶
Lokiyalokuttaravasenapana sāsavā vedanā lokiyā, sā āsavuppattihetuto, oghaniyato, yoganiyato, ganthaniyato, nīvaraṇiyato, upādāniyato, saṃkilesikato, puthujjanasādhāraṇato ca anāsavāya oḷārikā. 202. (d) According to the mundane and supramundane: feeling subject to cankers is mundane, and that is gross compared with that free from cankers, because it is the cause for the arising of cankers, is liable to the floods, liable to the bonds, liable to the ties, liable to the hindrances, liable to the clingings, defilable, and shared by ordinary men.
Sā vipariyāyena sāsavāya sukhumā. The latter, in the opposite sense, is subtle compared with that subject to cankers.
Evaṃ lokiyalokuttaravasena oḷārikasukhumatā veditabbā. ¶ This is how grossness and subtlety should be understood according to the mundane and supramundane. ¶
502. Tattha jātiādivasena sambhedo pariharitabbo. 203. Herein, one should beware of mixing up [the classifications] according to kind and so on.
Akusalavipākakaāyaviññāṇasampayuttā hi vedanā jātivasena abyākatattā sukhumāpi samānā sabhāvādivasena oḷārikā hoti. For although feeling associated with unprofitable resultant body-consciousness is subtle according to kind because it is indeterminate, it is nevertheless gross according to individual essence, and so on.
Vuttañhetaṃ "abyākatā vedanā sukhumā. And this is said: “Indeterminate feeling is subtle,
Dukkhā vedanā oḷārikā. painful feeling is gross.
Samāpannassa vedanā sukhumā. The feeling in one with an attainment is subtle,
Asamāpannassa vedanā oḷārikā. that in one with no attainment is gross.
Sāsavā vedanā oḷārikā. Feeling free from cankers is subtle,
Anāsavā vedanā sukhumā"ti (vibha. 11). feeling accompanied by cankers is gross” (Vibh 3).
Yathā ca dukkhā vedanā, evaṃ sukhādayopi jātivasena oḷārikā sabhāvādivasena sukhumā honti. And like painful feeling, so also pleasant, etc., is gross according to kind and subtle according to individual essence.
Tasmā yathā jātiādivasena sambhedo na hoti, tathā vedanānaṃ oḷārikasukhumatā veditabbā. 204. Therefore feeling’s grossness and subtlety should be understood in such a way that there is no mixing up of the classifications according to kind and so on.
Seyyathidaṃ – abyākatā jātivasena kusalākusalāhi sukhumā. For instance, [when it is said] “The indeterminate according to kind is subtle compared with the profitable and the unprofitable,” the individual-essence class, etc.,
Tattha katamā abyākatā? “Which kind of indeterminate?
Kiṃ dukkhā? Is it the painful?
Kiṃ sukhā? Is it the pleasant?
Kiṃ samāpannassa? Is it that in one with an attainment?
Kiṃ asamāpannassa? Is it that in one with no attainment?
Kiṃ sāsavā ? Is it that subject to cankers?
Kiṃ anāsavāti? Is it that free from cankers?
Evaṃ sabhāvādibhedo na parāmasitabbo. - must not be insisted upon like this.
Esa nayo sabbattha. ¶ ” and so in each instance. ¶
Apica taṃ taṃ vā pana vedanaṃ upādāyupādāya vedanā oḷārikasukhumā daṭṭhabbāti vacanato akusalādīsupi lobhasahagatāya dosasahagatā vedanā aggi viya attano nissayadahanato oḷārikā, lobhasahagatā sukhumā. 205. Furthermore, because of the words “Or feeling should be regarded as gross or subtle in comparison with this or that feeling” (Vibh 4), among the unprofitable, etc., feeling accompanied by hate, too, is gross compared with that accompanied by greed because it burns up its own support, like a fire; and that accompanied by greed is subtle.
Dosasahagatāpi niyatā oḷārikā, aniyatā sukhumā. Also, that accompanied by hate is gross when the hate is constant, and subtle when it is inconstant.
Niyatāpi kappaṭṭhitikā oḷārikā, itarā sukhumā. And the constant is gross when giving result that lasts for the aeon, while the other is subtle.
Kappaṭṭhitikāsupi asaṅkhārikā oḷārikā, itarā sukhumā. And of those giving result lasting for the aeon the unprompted is gross, while the other is subtle.
Lobhasahagatā pana diṭṭhisampayuttā oḷārikā, itarā sukhumā. But that accompanied by greed is gross when associated with [false] view, while the other is subtle.
Sāpi niyatā kappaṭṭhitikā asaṅkhārikā oḷārikā, itarā sukhumā. That also when constant and giving result lasting for the aeon and unprompted is gross, while the others are subtle.
Avisesena ca akusalā bahuvipākā oḷārikā, appavipākā sukhumā. And without distinction the unprofitable with much result is gross, while that with little result is subtle.
Kusalā pana appavipākā oḷārikā, bahuvipākā sukhumā. ¶ But the profitable with little result is gross, while that with much result is subtle. ¶
Apica kāmāvacarakusalā oḷārikā. 206. Furthermore, the profitable of the sense sphere is gross;
Rūpāvacarā sukhumā. that of the fine- material sphere is subtle;
Tato arūpāvacarā. next to which the immaterial,
Tato lokuttarā. and next the supramundane [should be similarly compared].
Kāmāvacarā dānamayā oḷārikā. That of the sense sphere is gross in giving,
Sīlamayā sukhumā. while it is subtle in virtue;
Tato bhāvanāmayā. next, that in development.
Bhāvanāmayāpi duhetukā oḷārikā. Also, that in development is gross with two root-causes,
Tihetukā sukhumā. while with three root-causes it is subtle.
Tihetukāpi sasaṅkhārikā oḷārikā. Also that with three root-causes is gross when prompted,
Asaṅkhārikā sukhumā. while it is subtle when unprompted.
Rūpāvacarā ca paṭhamajjhānikā oḷārikā - pe - pañcamajjhānikā sukhumā. That of the fine-material sphere is gross in the first jhāna, [while it is subtle in the second jhāna. That also of the second jhāna is gross] … of the fifth jhāna is subtle.
Arūpāvacarā ca ākāsānañcāyatanasampayuttā oḷārikā - pe - nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasampayuttā sukhumāva. And that of the immaterial sphere associated with the base consisting of boundless space is gross … [476] that associated with the base consisting of neither-perception-nor-non-perception is subtle only.
Lokuttarā ca sotāpattimaggasampayuttā oḷārikā - pe - arahattamaggasampayuttā sukhumāva. And the supramundane associated with the stream-entry path is gross … that associated with the Arahant path is subtle only.
Esa nayo taṃ taṃ bhūmivipākakiriyavedanāsu ca dukkhādiasamāpannādisāsavādivasena vuttavedanāsu ca. ¶ The same method applies also to resultant and functional feeling in the various planes and to feeling stated according to pain, etc., according to one with no attainment, etc., and according to that subject to cankers, and so on. ¶
Okāsavasena cāpi niraye dukkhā oḷārikā. 207. Then according to location, painful feelings in hell are gross,
Tiracchānayoniyaṃ sukhumā - pe - paranimmitavasavattīsu sukhumāva. while in the animal generation they are subtle … Those among the Paranimmitavasavatti Deities are subtle only.
Yathā ca dukkhā, evaṃ sukhāpi sabbattha yathānurūpaṃ yojetabbā. And the pleasant should be construed throughout like the painful where suitable.
Vatthuvasena cāpi hīnavatthukā yā kāci vedanā oḷārikā, paṇītavatthukā sukhumā. ¶ 208. And according to physical basis, any feeling that has an inferior physical basis is gross, while one with a superior physical basis is subtle. ¶
Hīnapaṇītabhede yā oḷārikā, sā hīnā. (viii)–(ix) What is gross should be regarded as inferior in the inferior-superior classification,
Yā ca sukhumā, sā paṇītāti daṭṭhabbā. ¶ and what is subtle superior. ¶
503. Dūrapadaṃ pana "akusalā vedanā kusalābyākatāhi vedanāhi dūre". 209. [(x)–(xi) The word far is explained in the Vibhaṅga in the way beginning “The unprofitable is far from the profitable and indeterminate” (Vibh 4)
Santikepadaṃ "akusalā vedanā akusalāya vedanāya santike"tiādinā nayena vibhaṅge vibhattaṃ. and the word near in the way beginning “Unprofitable feeling is near to unprofitable feeling” (Vibh 4).
Tasmā akusalā vedanā visabhāgato, asaṃsaṭṭhato, asarikkhato ca kusalābyākatāhi dūre, tathā kusalābyākatā akusalāya. Therefore, unprofitable feeling is far from the profitable and the indeterminate because of dissimilarity, unconnectedness, and non- resemblance. The profitable and the indeterminate are likewise far from the unprofitable.
Esa nayo sabbavāresu. And so in all instances.
Akusalā pana vedanā sabhāgato, sarikkhato ca akusalāya santiketi. But unprofitable feeling is near to unprofitable feeling because of similarity and resemblance.
Idaṃ vedanākkhandhassa atītādivibhāge vitthārakathāmukhaṃ. This is the section of the detailed explanation dealing with the past, etc., classifications of the feeling aggregate.
Taṃtaṃvedanāsampayuttānaṃ pana saññādīnampi evameva veditabbaṃ. [PERCEPTION, FORMATIONS AND CONSCIOUSNESS] 210. This should also be understood of the perception, etc., associated with any kind of feeling.
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