Гл. 20. Знание возникновения и прекращения

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Гл. 17. Объяснение колеса бытия
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Udayabbayañāṇakathā ¶ [KNOWLEDGE OF RISE AND FALL—I] ¶
723. So evaṃ aniccānupassanādipaṭipakkhānaṃ niccasaññādīnaṃ pahānena visuddhañāṇo sammasanañāṇassa pāraṃ gantvā, yaṃ taṃ sammasanañāṇānantaraṃ "paccuppannānaṃ dhammānaṃ vipariṇāmānupassane paññā udayabbayānupassane ñāṇa"nti (paṭi. ma. mātikā 1.6) udayabbayānupassanaṃ vuttaṃ, tassa adhigamāya yogaṃ ārabhati. 93.Having purified his knowledge in this way by abandoning the perceptions of permanence, etc., which oppose the contemplations of impermanence, etc., he passes on from comprehension knowledge and begins the task of attaining that of contemplation of rise and fall, which is expressed thus: “Understanding [630] of contemplating present states’ change is knowledge of contemplation of rise and fall” (Paṭis I 1), and which comes next after comprehension knowledge.
Ārabhamāno ca saṅkhepato tāva ārabhati. 94.When he does so, he does it first in brief. Занимаясь этим, он сначала прибегает к краткому методу.
Tatrāyaṃ pāḷi – ¶ Here is the text: ¶ Вот какой здесь текст: ¶
"Kathaṃ paccuppannānaṃ dhammānaṃ vipariṇāmānupassane paññā udayabbayānupassane ñāṇaṃ? “How is it that understanding of contemplating present states’ change is knowledge of contemplation of rise and fall? "Каким образом мудрость в отслеживании изменений явлений в настоящем является знанием отслеживания возникновения и прекращения?
Jātaṃ rūpaṃ paccuppannaṃ, tassa nibbattilakkhaṇaṃ udayo, vipariṇāmalakkhaṇaṃ vayo, anupassanā ñāṇaṃ. Present materiality is born [materiality]; the characteristic of its generation is rise, the characteristic of its change is fall, the contemplation is knowledge. Тело в настоящем является рождённым, характеристика его порождения является возникновением, характеристика его изменения является прекращением, отслеживание является знанием.
Jātā vedanā… saññā… saṅkhārā… viññāṇaṃ… jātaṃ cakkhu - pe - jāto bhavo paccuppanno, tassa nibbattilakkhaṇaṃ udayo, vipariṇāmalakkhaṇaṃ vayo, anupassanā ñāṇa"nti (paṭi. ma. 1.49). ¶ Present feeling … perception … formations … consciousness … eye … (etc.) … Present becoming is born [becoming]; the characteristic of its generation is rise, the characteristic of its change is fall, the contemplation is knowledge” (Paṭis I 54).30 ¶ Ощущение в настоящем ... распознавание... умственные конструкции... сознание... зрение .... (и т.д.) бывание в настоящем является рождённым, характеристика его возникновения является возникновением, характеристика его изменения является прекращением, отслеживание является знанием." ¶ 30. Подкомментарий
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So iminā pāḷinayena jātassa nāmarūpassa nibbattilakkhaṇaṃ jātiṃ uppādaṃ abhinavākāraṃ "udayo"ti, vipariṇāmalakkhaṇaṃ khayaṃ bhaṅgaṃ "vayo"ti samanupassati. 95. In accordance with the method of this text he sees the characteristic of generation, the birth, the arising, the aspect of renewal, of born materiality, as “rise,” and he sees its characteristic of change, its destruction, its dissolution, as “fall. ” Согласно методу этого текста он видит характеристико порождения, рождение, возникновение, аспект возобновления рождённого тела как "возникновение" и видит его характеристику изменения, разрушение, разложение как "прекращение".
So evaṃ pajānāti "imassa nāmarūpassa uppattito pubbe anuppannassa rāsi vā nicayo vā natthi, uppajjamānassāpi rāsito vā nicayato vā āgamanaṃ nāma natthi, nirujjhamānassāpi disāvidisāgamanaṃ nāma natthi, niruddhassāpi ekasmiṃ ṭhāne rāsito nicayato nidhānato avaṭṭhānaṃ nāma natthi. 96. He understands thus: “There is no heap or store of unarisen mentality- materiality [existing] prior to its arising. When it arises, it does not come from any heap or store; and when it ceases, it does not go in any direction. There is nowhere any depository in the way of a heap or store or hoard of what has ceased. Он познаёт так: "Нет кучи или хранилища невозникшего умственно-материального до его возникновения. Возникнув, оно не приходит из какой-то кучи или хранилища, и когда оно прекращается, оно не уходит ни в каком направлении. Нигде нет хранилища в виде кучи, склада или свалки того, что прекратилось.
Yathā pana vīṇāya vādiyamānāya uppannasaddassa neva uppattito pubbe sannicayo atthi, na uppajjamāno sannicayato āgato, na nirujjhamānassa disāvidisāgamanaṃ atthi, na niruddho katthaci sannicito tiṭṭhati, atha kho vīṇañca upavīṇañca purisassa ca tajjaṃ vāyāmaṃ paṭicca ahutvā sambhoti, hutvā paṭiveti. But just as there is no store, prior to its arising, of the sound that arises when a lute is played, nor does it come from any store when it arises, nor does it go in any direction when it ceases, nor does it persist as a store when it has ceased (cf. S IV 197), but on the contrary, not having been, it is brought into being owing to the lute, the lute’s neck, and the man’s appropriate effort, and having been, it vanishes— Но подобно тому как до возникновения нет хранилища звука, который возникает когда играют на лютне, и возникая он не приходит ни из какого хранилища, прекращаясь он не отправляется в каком-либо направлении, а прекратившись он не сохраняется в виде хранилища, наоборот, сначала его не было, но потом он появился благодаря лютне, грифу лютни и должным усилиям человека. Существуя он исчезает.
Evaṃ sabbepi rūpārūpino dhammā ahutvā sambhonti, hutvā paṭiventī"ti. ¶ so too all material and immaterial states, not having been, are brought into being, and having been, they vanish.” ¶ Так и все материальные и нематериальные явления - их не было, они порождаются, просуществовав они исчезают. ¶
724. Evaṃ saṅkhepato udayabbayamanasikāraṃ katvā puna yāni etasseva udayabbayañāṇassa vibhaṅge – ¶ 97. Having given attention to rise and fall in brief thus, he again [does so in detail according to condition and instant by seeing those characteristics] as given in the exposition of that same knowledge of rise and fall thus: ¶ Таким образом направив внимание на возникновение и прекращение кратко, он вновь [направляет внимание, но уже подробно] как даётся в объяснении этого же знания возникновения и прекращения: ¶
"Avijjāsamudayā rūpasamudayoti paccayasamudayaṭṭhena rūpakkhandhassa udayaṃ passati. “(1) He sees the rise of the materiality aggregate in the sense of conditioned arising thus: With the arising of ignorance there is the arising of materiality; Он видит возникновение совокупности тел в смысле обусловленного возникновения так: "с возникновением неведения есть возникновение тела"
Taṇhāsamudayā… kammasamudayā… āhārasamudayā rūpasamudayoti paccayasamudayaṭṭhena rūpakkhandhassa udayaṃ passati. (2) … with the arising of craving … (3) … with the arising of kamma … (4) he sees the rise of the materiality aggregate in the sense of conditioned arising thus: With the arising of nutriment there is the arising of materiality; С возникновением жажды... с возникновением каммы... он видит возникновение совокупности тел в смысле обусловленного возникновения так: "с возникновением пищи есть возникновение тела".
Nibbattilakkhaṇaṃ passantopi rūpakkhandhassa udayaṃ passati. (5) one who sees the characteristic of generation sees the rise of the materiality aggregate. Тот, кто видит характеристику порождения видит возникновение совокупности тел.
Rūpakkhandhassa udayaṃ passanto imāni pañca lakkhaṇāni passati. ¶ One who sees the rise of the materiality aggregate sees these five characteristics. ¶ Тот, кто видит возникновение совокупности тел видит эти 5 характеристик. ¶
"Avijjānirodhā rūpanirodhoti paccayanirodhaṭṭhena rūpakkhandhassa vayaṃ passati. “(1) He sees the fall of the materiality aggregate in the sense of conditioned cessation thus: With the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of materiality; Он видит прекращение совокупности тел в смысле обусловленного прекращения так: "с прекращением неведения есть прекращение тела.
Taṇhānirodhā… kammanirodhā… āhāranirodhā rūpanirodhoti paccayanirodhaṭṭhena rūpakkhandhassa vayaṃ passati. (2) … with the cessation of craving … (3) … with the cessation of kamma … (4) he sees the fall of the materiality aggregate in the sense of conditioned cessation thus: With the cessation of nutriment there is the cessation of materiality; [631] С прекращением жажды... с прекращением каммы... Он видит прекращение совокупности тел в смысле обусловленного прекращения так: "с прекращением пищи есть прекращение тела".
Vipariṇāmalakkhaṇaṃ passantopi rūpakkhandhassa vayaṃ passati. (5) one who sees the characteristic of change sees the fall of the materiality aggregate. Тот, кто видит характеристику изменения видит прекращение совокупности тел.
Rūpakkhandhassa vayaṃ passantopi imāni pañca lakkhaṇāni passati" (paṭi. ma. 1.50). ¶ One who sees the fall of the materiality aggregate sees these five characteristics” (Paṭis I 55f.). ¶ Тот, кто видит прекращение совокупности тел видит эти пять характеристик. ¶
Tathā "avijjāsamudayā vedanāsamudayoti paccayasamudayaṭṭhena vedanākkhandhassa udayaṃ passati. Likewise: “(1) He sees the rise of the feeling aggregate in the sense of conditioned arising thus: With the arising of ignorance there is the arising of feeling;
Taṇhāsamudayā… kammasamudayā… phassasamudayā vedanāsamudayoti paccayasamudayaṭṭhena vedanākkhandhassa udayaṃ passati. (2) … with the arising of craving … (3) … with the arising of kamma … (4) he sees the rise of the feeling aggregate in the sense of conditioned arising thus: With the arising of contact there is the arising of feeling;
Nibbattilakkhaṇaṃ passantopi vedanākkhandhassa udayaṃ passati. (5) one who sees the characteristic of generation sees the rise of the feeling aggregate.
Vedanākkhandhassa udayaṃ passanto imāni pañca lakkhaṇāni passati. One who sees the rise of the feeling aggregate sees those five characteristics.
Avijjānirodhā… taṇhānirodhā… kammanirodhā… phassanirodhā vedanānirodhoti paccayanirodhaṭṭhena vedanākkhandhassa vayaṃ passati. “(1) He sees the fall of the feeling aggregate in the sense of conditioned cessation thus: With the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of feeling; (2) … with the cessation of craving … (3) … with the cessation of kamma … (4) he sees the fall of the feeling aggregate in the sense of conditioned cessation thus: With the cessation of contact there is the cessation of feeling;
Vipariṇāmalakkhaṇaṃ passantopi vedanākkhandhassa vayaṃ passati. (5) one who sees the characteristic of change sees the fall of the feeling aggregate.
Vedanākkhandhassa vayaṃ passanto imāni pañca lakkhaṇāni passati" (paṭi. ma. 1.50). ¶ One who sees the fall of the feeling aggregate sees these five characteristics” (Paṭis I 55f.). ¶
Vedanākkhandhassa viya ca saññāsaṅkhāraviññāṇakkhandhānaṃ. And as in the case of the feeling aggregate, [that is, substituting “contact” for the “nutriment” in the case of materiality,] so for the perception and formations aggregates.
Ayaṃ pana viseso, viññāṇakkhandhassa phassaṭṭhāne "nāmarūpasamudayā, nāmarūpanirodhā"ti – ¶ So also for the consciousness aggregate with this difference, that for the phrases containing “contact” there are substituted “with the arising of mentality-materiality” and “with the cessation of mentality-materiality. ” ¶
Evaṃ ekekassa khandhassa udayabbayadassane dasa dasa katvā paññāsa lakkhaṇāni vuttāni. So there are fifty characteristics stated with the ten in the case of each aggregate by seeing rise and fall,
Tesaṃ vasena evampi rūpassa udayo evampi rūpassa vayo, evampi rūpaṃ udeti, evampi rūpaṃ vetīti paccayato ceva khaṇato ca vitthārena manasikāraṃ karoti. ¶ by means of which he gives attention in detail according to condition and according to instant (moment) in this way: “The rise of materiality is thus; its fall is thus; so it rises, so it falls.” ¶
725. Tassevaṃ manasikaroto "iti kirime dhammā ahutvā sambhonti, hutvā paṭiventī"ti ñāṇaṃ visadataraṃ hoti. 98. As he does so his knowledge becomes clearer thus: “So, it seems, these states, not having been, are brought into being; having been, they vanish. ” По мере этого его знание становится яснее следующим образом: "Выходит, этих явлений не было, они порождаются, просуществовав они исчезают."
Tassevaṃ paccayato ceva khaṇato ca dvedhā udayabbayaṃ passato saccapaṭiccasamuppādanayalakkhaṇabhedā pākaṭā honti. ¶ When he thus sees rise and fall in the two ways, according to condition and according to instant, the several truths, aspects of the dependent origination, methods, and characteristics become evident to him. ¶
726. Yañhi so avijjādisamudayā khandhānaṃ samudayaṃ, avijjādinirodhā ca khandhānaṃ nirodhaṃ passati, idamassa paccayato udayabbayadassanaṃ. 99.When he sees the arising of aggregates with the arising of ignorance and the cessation of aggregates with the cessation of ignorance, this is his seeing of rise and fall according to condition.
Yaṃ pana nibbattilakkhaṇavipariṇāmalakkhaṇāni passanto khandhānaṃ udayabbayaṃ passati, idamassa khaṇato udayabbayadassanaṃ, uppattikkhaṇeyeva hi nibbattilakkhaṇaṃ. When he sees the rise and fall of aggregates by seeing the characteristic of generation and the characteristic of change, this is his seeing of rise and fall according to instant. For it is only at the instant of arising that there is the characteristic of generation,
Bhaṅgakkhaṇe ca vipariṇāmalakkhaṇaṃ. ¶ and only at the instant of dissolution that there is the characteristic of change. ¶
727. Iccassevaṃ paccayato ceva khaṇato ca dvedhā udayabbayaṃ passato paccayato udayadassanena samudayasaccaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti janakāvabodhato. 100.So when he sees rise and fall in the two ways, according to condition and according to instant thus, the truth of origination becomes evident to him through seeing rise according to condition owing to his discovery of the progenitor.
Khaṇato udayadassanena dukkhasaccaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti jātidukkhāvabodhato. The truth of suffering becomes evident to him through seeing rise according to instant owing to his discovery of the suffering due to birth.
Paccayato vayadassanena nirodhasaccaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti paccayānuppādena paccayavataṃ anuppādāvabodhato. The truth of cessation becomes evident to him through seeing fall according to condition owing to his discovery of the non-arising of things produced by conditions when their conditions do not arise.
Khaṇato vayadassanena dukkhasaccameva pākaṭaṃ hoti maraṇadukkhāvabodhato. The truth of suffering becomes evident to him too through seeing fall according to instant owing to his discovery of the suffering due to death.
Yañcassa udayabbayadassanaṃ, maggovāyaṃ lokikoti maggasaccaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti tatra sammohavighātato. ¶ And his seeing of rise and fall becomes evident to him as the truth of the path thus: “This is the mundane path” owing to abolition of confusion about it. ¶
728. Paccayato cassa udayadassanena anulomo paṭiccasamuppādo pākaṭo hoti, "imasmiṃ sati idaṃ hotī"ti (ma. ni. 1.404; saṃ. ni. 2.21; udā. 1) avabodhato. 101.The dependent origination in forward order becomes evident to him through seeing rise according to condition owing to his discovery that “When this exists, that comes to be” (M I 262).
Paccayato vayadassanena paṭilomo paṭiccasamuppādo pākaṭo hoti, "imassa nirodhā idaṃ nirujjhatī"ti (ma. ni. 1.406; saṃ. ni. 2.21; udā. 2) avabodhato. The dependent origination in reverse order becomes evident to him through seeing fall according to condition owing to his discovery that “When this does not exist, that does not come to be” (M I 264).
Khaṇato pana udayabbayadassanena paṭiccasamuppannā dhammā pākaṭā honti saṅkhatalakkhaṇāvabodhato. Dependently- arisen states become evident to him through seeing rise and fall according to instant owing to his discovery of the characteristic of the formed;
Udayabbayavanto hi saṅkhatā, te ca paṭiccasamuppannāti. ¶ for the things possessed of rise and fall are formed and conditionally arisen. ¶
729. Paccayato cassa udayadassanena ekattanayo pākaṭo hoti hetuphalasambandhena santānassa anupacchedāvabodhato. 102.The method of identity becomes evident to him through seeing rise according to condition owing to his discovery of unbroken continuity in the connection of cause with fruit.
Atha suṭṭhutaraṃ ucchedadiṭṭhiṃ pajahati. Then he more thoroughly abandons the annihilation view.
Khaṇato udayadassanena nānattanayo pākaṭo hoti navanavānaṃ uppādāvabodhato. The method of diversity becomes evident to him through seeing rise according to instant owing to his discovery that each [state] is new [as it arises].
Atha suṭṭhutaraṃ sassatadiṭṭhiṃ pajahati. Then he more thoroughly abandons the eternity view.
Paccayato cassa udayabbayadassanena abyāpāranayo pākaṭo hoti dhammānaṃ avasavattibhāvāvabodhato. The method of uninterestedness becomes evident to him through seeing rise and fall according to condition owing to his discovery of the inability of states to have mastery exercised over them.
Atha suṭṭhutaraṃ attadiṭṭhiṃ pajahati. Then he more thoroughly abandons the self view.
Paccayato pana udayadassanena evaṃdhammatānayo pākaṭo hoti paccayānurūpena phalassa uppādāvabodhato. The method of ineluctable regularity becomes evident to him through seeing rise according to condition owing to his discovery of the arising of the fruit when the suitable conditions are there.
Atha suṭṭhutaraṃ akiriyadiṭṭhiṃ pajahati. ¶ Then he more thoroughly abandons the moral-inefficacy-of-action view. ¶
730. Paccayato cassa udayadassanena anattalakkhaṇaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti dhammānaṃ nirīhakattapaccayapaṭibaddhavuttitāvabodhato. 103.The characteristic of not-self becomes evident to him through seeing rise according to condition owing to his discovery that states have no curiosity and that their existence depends upon conditions.
Khaṇato udayabbayadassanena aniccalakkhaṇaṃ pākaṭaṃ hoti hutvā abhāvāvabodhato, pubbantāparantavivekāvabodhato ca. The characteristic of impermanence becomes evident to him through seeing rise and fall according to instant owing to his discovery of non-existence after having been and owing to his discovery that they are secluded from past and future.
Dukkhalakkhaṇampi pākaṭaṃ hoti udayabbayehi paṭipīḷanāvabodhato. The characteristic of pain becomes evident to him [through that] too owing to his discovery of oppression by rise and fall.
Sabhāvalakkhaṇampi pākaṭaṃ hoti udayabbayaparicchinnāvabodhato. And the characteristic of individual essence becomes evident to him [through that] too owing to his discovery of delimitation [of states] by rise and fall.31 31. Подкомментарий
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Sabhāvalakkhaṇe saṅkhatalakkhaṇassa tāvakālikattampi pākaṭaṃ hoti udayakkhaṇe vayassa, vayakkhaṇe ca udayassa abhāvāvabodhatoti. ¶ And in the characteristic of individual essence the temporariness of the characteristic of what is formed becomes evident to him [through that] too owing to his discovery of the non-existence of fall at the instant of rise and the non- existence of rise at the instant of fall. 32 ¶ 32. Подкомментарий
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731. Tassevaṃ pākaṭībhūtasaccapaṭiccasamuppādanayalakkhaṇabhedassa "evaṃ kira nāmime dhammā anuppannapubbā uppajjanti, uppannā nirujjhantī"ti niccanavāva hutvā saṅkhārā upaṭṭhahanti. 104.When the several truths, aspects of the dependent origination, methods, and characteristics have become evident to him thus, then formations appear to him as perpetually renewed: “So these states, it seems, being previously unarisen, critic, and being arisen, they cease.” critic - ошибка распознавания, должно быть arise
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Na kevalañca niccanavā, sūriyuggamane ussāvabindu viya udakabubbuḷo viya udake daṇḍarāji viya āragge sāsapo viya vijjuppādo viya ca parittaṭṭhāyino. And they are not only perpetually renewed, but they are also short-lived like dew-drops at sunrise (A IV 137), like a bubble on water (S III 14 I), like a line drawn on water (A IV 137), like a mustard seed on an awl’s point (Nidd I 42), like a lightning flash (Nidd I 43).
Māyāmarīcisupinantaalātacakkagandhabbanagarapheṇakadaliādayo viya assārā nissārāti cāpi upaṭṭhahanti. ¶ And they appear without core, like a conjuring trick (S III 141), like a mirage (Dhp 46), like a dream (Sn 807), like the circle of a whirling firebrand (source untraced), like a goblin city (source untraced), like froth (Dhp 46), like a plantain trunk (S III 142), and so on. ¶
Ettāvatānena "vayadhammameva uppajjati, uppannañca vayaṃ upetī"ti iminā ākārena samapaññāsa lakkhaṇāni paṭivijjhitvā ṭhitaṃ udayabbayānupassanaṃ nāma taruṇavipassanāñāṇaṃ adhigataṃ hoti, yassādhigamā āraddhavipassakoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati. At this point he has attained tender insight-knowledge called contemplation of rise and fall, which has become established by penetrating the fifty characteristics in this manner: “Only what is subject to fall arises; and to be arisen necessitates fall. ” With the attainment of this he is known as a “beginner of insight. ”
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Редакция перевода от 22.10.2019 19:27