Гл. 3. Предметы медитации

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Cattālīsakammaṭṭhānavaṇṇanā ¶
47. Tasmā yaṃ vuttaṃ cattālīsāya kammaṭṭhānesu aññataraṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvāti ettha saṅkhātaniddesato, upacārappanāvahato, jhānappabhedato, samatikkamato, vaḍḍhanāvaḍḍhanato, ārammaṇato, bhūmito, gahaṇato, paccayato, cariyānukūlatoti imehi tāva dasahākārehi kammaṭṭhānavinicchayo veditabbo. ¶ Now, it was said above, “and he should apprehend from among the forty meditation subjects one that suits his own temperament” (§60). Here the exposition of the meditation subject should be first understood in these ten ways: (1) as to enumeration, (2) as to which bring only access and which absorption, (3) at to the kinds of jhāna, (4) as to surmounting, (5) as to extension and non-extension, (6) as to object, (7) as to plane, (8) as to apprehending, (9) as to condition, (10) as to suitability to temperament. ¶
Tattha saṅkhātaniddesatoti cattālīsāya kammaṭṭhānesūti hi vuttaṃ, tatrimāni cattālīsa kammaṭṭhānāni dasa kasiṇā, dasa asubhā, dasa anussatiyo, cattāro brahmavihārā, cattāro āruppā, ekā saññā, ekaṃ vavatthānanti. ¶ 104. 1. Herein, as to enumeration: it was said above, “from among the forty meditation subjects” (§28). Herein, the forty meditation subjects are these: ten kasiṇas (totalities), ten kinds of foulness, ten recollections, four divine abidings, four immaterial states, one perception, one defining. ¶ Здесь что касается перечисления. Выше было сказано "из сорока предметов медитации". Здесь 40 предметов медитации - это 10 касин (цельностей), 10 непривлекательных, десять воспоминаний, четыре возвышенных состояния, четыре нематериальных уровня, одно распознавание, одно определение. ¶
Tattha pathavīkasiṇaṃ, āpokasiṇaṃ, tejokasiṇaṃ, vāyokasiṇaṃ, nīlakasiṇaṃ, pītakasiṇaṃ, lohitakasiṇaṃ, odātakasiṇaṃ, ālokakasiṇaṃ, paricchinnākāsakasiṇanti ime dasa kasiṇā. ¶ 105. Herein, the ten kasiṇas are these: earth kasiṇa, water kasiṇa, fire kasiṇa, air kasiṇa, blue kasiṇa, yellow kasiṇa, red kasiṇa, white kasiṇa, light kasiṇa, and limited-space kasiṇa. 27 ¶ Таковы здесь 10 касин: касина земли, воды, огня, воздуха, синяя, жёлтая, красная, белая, свет, ограниченное пространство. ¶
Uddhumātakaṃ, vinīlakaṃ, vipubbakaṃ, vicchiddakaṃ, vikkhāyitakaṃ, vikkhittakaṃ, hatavikkhittakaṃ, lohitakaṃ, puḷuvakaṃ, aṭṭhikanti ime dasa asubhā. ¶ The ten kinds of foulness are these: the bloated, the livid, the festering, the cut- up, the gnawed, the scattered, the hacked and scattered, the bleeding, the worm- infested, and a skeleton. 28 ¶ Десять непривлекательных: раздувшийся труп, посиневший труп, гниющий труп, разрубленный надвое труп, обглоданный животными труп, труп, расчленённый на части, труп убитого человека, разрубленный и выброшенный по частям, кровоточащий труп, труп, населённый и поедаемый червями, скелет. ¶ Comm.NT: 28.Here ten kinds of foulness are given. But in the Suttas only either five or six of this set appear to be mentioned, that is, “Perception o...
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Buddhānussati, dhammānussati, saṅghānussati, sīlānussati, cāgānussati, devatānussati, maraṇānussati, kāyagatāsati, ānāpānassati, upasamānussatīti imā dasa anussatiyo. ¶ The ten kinds of recollection are these: recollection of the Buddha (the Enlightened One), recollection of the Dhamma (the Law), recollection of the Sangha (the Community), recollection of virtue, recollection of generosity, recollection of deities, recollection (or mindfulness) of death, mindfulness occupied with the body, mindfulness of breathing, and recollection of peace. [111] ¶ Десять воспоминаний: воспоминание о Будде, Дхамме, Сообществе, нравственности, щедрости, божествах, памятование о теле, дыхании, покое. ¶
Mettā, karuṇā, muditā, upekkhāti ime cattāro brahmavihārā. ¶ The four divine abidings are these: loving-kindness, compassion, gladness, and equanimity. ¶ Четыре возвышенных состояния: дружелюбие, сострадание, сопереживающая радость и безмятежное наблюдение. ¶
Ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ, viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ, ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ, nevasaññānāsaññāyatananti ime cattāro āruppā. The four immaterial states are these: the base consisting of boundless space, the base consisting of boundless consciousness, the base consisting of nothingness, and the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception. Четыре нематериальных уровня: сфера бесконечного пространства, сфера бесконечного сознания, сфера отсутствия чего бы то ни было, сфера ни распозавания ни отсутствия распознавания.
Āhāre paṭikūlasaññā ekā saññā. The one perception is the perception of repulsiveness in nutriment. Одно распознавание - это распознавание непривлекательности пищи.
Catudhātuvavatthānaṃ ekaṃ vavatthānanti evaṃ saṅkhātaniddesato vinicchayo veditabbo. ¶ The one defining is the defining of the four elements. This is how the exposition should be understood “as to enumeration. ” ¶ Одно определение - это определение четырёх элементов. Так нужно понимать объяснение в отношении перечисления. ¶
Upacārappanāvahatoti ṭhapetvā kāyagatāsatiñca ānāpānassatiñca avasesā aṭṭha anussatiyo, āhāre paṭikūlasaññā, catudhātuvavatthānanti imāneva hettha dasakammaṭṭhānāni upacāravahāni. 106. 2 As to which bring access only and which absorption: the eight recollections— excepting mindfulness occupied with the body and mindfulness of breathing— the perception of repulsiveness in nutriment, and the defining of the four elements, are ten meditation subjects that bring access only. В отношении того, что приводит только к доступу, а что - к поглощённости: восемь воспоминаний ([10] минус памятование о теле и памятовании о дыхании), распознавание непривлекательности пищи и определение четырёх первоэлементов приводят только к доступу.
Sesāni appanāvahāni. The others bring absorption. Остальные приводят к поглощённости.
Evaṃ upacārappanāvahato. ¶ This is “as to which bring access only and which absorption. ” ¶
Jhānappabhedatoti appanāvahesu cettha ānāpānassatiyā saddhiṃ dasa kasiṇā catukkajjhānikā honti. 107. 3. As to the kind of jhāna: among those that bring absorption, the ten kasiṇas together with mindfulness of breathing bring all four jhānas. В части вида поглощённости: среди приводящих к полной поглощённости 10 касин и памятование о дыхании приводят ко всем 4 уровням.
Kāyagatāsatiyā saddhiṃ dasa asubhā paṭhamajjhānikā. The ten kinds of foulness together with mindfulness occupied with the body bring the first jhāna. 10 непривлекательных, а также памятование о теле приводят к 1 уровню.
Purimā tayo brahmavihārā tikajjhānikā. The first three divine abidings bring three jhānas. Первые три возвышенных состояния приводят к первым трём уровням.
Catutthabrahmavihāro cattāro ca āruppā catutthajjhānikāti evaṃ jhānappabhedato. ¶ The fourth divine abiding and the four immaterial states bring the fourth jhāna. This is “as to the kind of jhāna. ” ¶ Четвёртое возвышенное состояние и четыре нематериальных уровня приводят к 4 уровню поглощённости. Таково объяснение по видам поглощённости. ¶
Samatikkamatoti dve samatikkamā aṅgasamatikkamo ca ārammaṇasamatikkamo ca. 108. 4. As to surmounting: there are two kinds of surmounting, that is to say, surmounting of factors and surmounting of object.
Tattha sabbesupi tikacatukkajjhānikesu kammaṭṭhānesu aṅgasamatikkamo hoti vitakkavicārādīni jhānaṅgāni samatikkamitvā tesvevārammaṇesu dutiyajjhānādīnaṃ pattabbato. Herein, there is surmounting of factors in the case of all meditation subjects that bring three and four jhānas because the second jhāna, etc., have to be reached in those same objects by surmounting the jhāna factors of applied thought and sustained thought, and so on.
Tathā catutthabrahmavihāre. Likewise in the case of the fourth divine abiding;
Sopi hi mettādīnaṃyeva ārammaṇe somanassaṃ samatikkamitvā pattabboti. for that has to be reached by surmounting joy in the same object as that of loving-kindness, and so on.
Catūsu pana āruppesu ārammaṇasamatikkamo hoti. But in the case of the four immaterial states there is surmounting of the object;
Purimesu hi navasu kasiṇesu aññataraṃ samatikkamitvā ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ pattabbaṃ. for the base consisting of boundless space has to be reached by surmounting one or other of the first nine kasiṇas,
Ākāsādīni ca samatikkamitvā viññāṇañcāyatanādīni. and the base consisting of boundless consciousness, etc., have respectively to be reached by surmounting space, and so on.
Sesesu samatikkamo natthīti evaṃ samatikkamato. ¶ With the rest there is no surmounting. This is “as to surmounting. ” ¶
Vaḍḍhanāvaḍḍhanatoti imesu cattālīsāya kammaṭṭhānesu dasa kasiṇāneva vaḍḍhetabbāni. 109. 5. As to extension and non-extension: only the ten kasiṇas among these forty meditation subjects need be extended.
Yattakañhi okāsaṃ kasiṇena pharati, tadabbhantare dibbāya sotadhātuyā saddaṃ sotuṃ dibbena cakkhunā rūpāni passituṃ parasattānañca cetasā cittamaññātuṃ samattho hoti. For it is within just so much space as one is intent upon with the kasiṇa that one can hear sounds with the divine ear element, see visible objects with the divine eye, and know the minds of other beings with the mind.
Kāyagatāsati pana asubhāni ca na vaḍḍhetabbāni. 110.Mindfulness occupied with the body and the ten kinds of foulness need not be extended.
Kasmā? Why?
Okāsena paricchinnattā ānisaṃsābhāvā ca. Because they have a definite location and because there is no benefit in it.
Sā ca nesaṃ okāsena paricchinnatā bhāvanānaye āvibhavissati. The definiteness of their location will become clear in explaining the method of development (VIII.83–138 and VI.40, 41, 79).
Tesu pana vaḍḍhitesu kuṇaparāsiyeva vaḍḍhati, na koci ānisaṃso atthi. If the latter are extended, it is only a quantity of corpses that is extended and there is no benefit.
Vuttampi cetaṃ sopākapañhābyākaraṇe, "vibhūtā bhagavā rūpasaññā avibhūtā aṭṭhikasaññā"ti. And this is said in answer to the question of Sopāka: “Perception of visible forms is quite clear, Blessed One, perception of bones is not clear” (Source untraced29);
Tatra hi nimittavaḍḍhanavasena rūpasaññā vibhūtāti vuttā. for here the perception of visible forms is called “quite clear” in the sense of extension of the sign,
Aṭṭhikasaññā avaḍḍhanavasena avibhūtāti vuttā. ¶ while the perception of bones is called “not quite clear” in the sense of its non-extension. ¶
Yaṃ panetaṃ "kevalaṃ aṭṭhisaññāya, apharī pathaviṃ ima"nti (theragā. 18) vuttaṃ, taṃ lābhissa sato upaṭṭhānākāravasena vuttaṃ. 111. But the words “I was intent upon this whole earth with the perception of a skeleton” (Th 18) are said of the manner of appearance to one who has acquired that perception.
Yatheva hi dhammāsokakāle karavīkasakuṇo samantā ādāsabhittīsu attano chāyaṃ disvā sabbadisāsu karavīkasaññī hutvā madhuraṃ giraṃ nicchāresi, evaṃ theropi aṭṭhikasaññāya lābhittā sabbadisāsu upaṭṭhitaṃ nimittaṃ passanto kevalāpi pathavī aṭṭhikabharitāti cintesīti. ¶ For just as in [the Emperor] Dhammāsoka’s time the Karavīka bird uttered a sweet song when it saw its own reflection in the looking glass walls all round and perceived Karavīkas in every direction,30 so the Elder [Siṅgāla Pitar] thought, when he saw the sign appearing in all directions through his acquisition of the perception of a skeleton, that the whole earth was covered with bones. ¶
Yadi evaṃ yā asubhajjhānānaṃ appamāṇārammaṇatā vuttā, sā virujjhatīti. 112. If that is so, then is what is called “the measurelessness of the object of jhāna produced on foulness”31 contradicted?
Sā ca na virujjhati. It is not contradicted.
Ekacco hi uddhumātake vā aṭṭhike vā mahante nimittaṃ gaṇhāti. For one man apprehends the sign in a large bloated corpse or skeleton,
Ekacco appake. another in a small one.
Iminā pariyāyena ekaccassa parittārammaṇaṃ jhānaṃ hoti. In this way the jhāna of the one has a limited object
Ekaccassa appamāṇārammaṇanti. and of the other a measureless object.
Yo vā etaṃ vaḍḍhane ādīnavaṃ apassanto vaḍḍheti. Taṃ sandhāya "appamāṇārammaṇa"nti vuttaṃ. Or alternatively, “With a measureless object” (Dhs 182–84 in elision) is said of it referring to one who extends it, seeing no disadvantage in doing so.
Ānisaṃsābhāvā pana na vaḍḍhetabbānīti. ¶ But it need not be extended because no benefit results. ¶
Yathā ca etāni, evaṃ sesānipi na vaḍḍhetabbāni. 113. The rest need not be extended likewise.
Kasmā? Why?
Tesu hi ānāpānanimittaṃ tāva vaḍḍhayato vātarāsiyeva vaḍḍhati, okāsena ca paricchinnaṃ. When a man extends the sign of in-breaths and out-breaths, only a quantity of wind is extended, and it has a definite location, [the nose-tip].
Iti sādīnavattā okāsena ca paricchinnattā na vaḍḍhetabbaṃ. So it need not be extended because of the disadvantage and because of the definiteness of the location.
Brahmavihārā sattārammaṇā, tesaṃ nimittaṃ vaḍḍhayato sattarāsiyeva vaḍḍheyya, na ca tena attho atthi, tasmā tampi na vaḍḍhetabbaṃ. And the divine abidings have living beings as their object. When a man extends the sign of these, only the quantity of living beings would be extended, and there is no purpose in that. So that also need not be extended.
Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ "mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā"ti (dī. ni. 1.556) ādi, taṃ pariggahavaseneva vuttaṃ. 114.When it is said, “Intent upon one quarter with his heart endued with loving- kindness” (D I 250), etc., that is said for the sake of comprehensive inclusion.
Ekāvāsadviāvāsādinā hi anukkamena ekissā disāya satte pariggahetvā bhāvento ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvāti vutto. For it is when a man develops it progressively by including living beings in one direction by one house, by two houses, etc., that he is said to be “intent upon one direction,” [113]
Na nimittaṃ vaḍḍhento. not when he extends the sign.
Paṭibhāganimittameva cettha natthi. And there is no counterpart sign here that he might extend.
Yadayaṃ vaḍḍheyya, parittaappamāṇārammaṇatāpettha pariggahavaseneva veditabbā. Also the state of having a limited or measureless object can be understood here according to the way of inclusion, too.
Āruppārammaṇesupi ākāsaṃ kasiṇugghāṭimattā. 115. As regards the immaterial states as object, space need not be extended since it is the mere removal of the kasiṇa [materiality];
Tañhi kasiṇāpagamavaseneva manasi kātabbaṃ. for that should be brought to mind only as the disappearance of the kasiṇa [materiality];
Tato paraṃ vaḍḍhayatopi na kiñci hoti. if he extends it, nothing further happens.
Viññāṇaṃ sabhāvadhammattā. Na hi sakkā sabhāvadhammaṃ vaḍḍhetuṃ. And consciousness need not be extended since it is a state consisting in an individual essence, and it is not possible to extend a state consisting in an individual essence.
Viññāṇāpagamo viññāṇassa abhāvamattattā. The disappearance of consciousness need not be extended since it is mere non-existence of consciousness.
Nevasaññānāsaññāyatanārammaṇaṃ sabhāvadhammattāyeva na vaḍḍhetabbaṃ. And the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception as object need not be extended since it too is a state consisting in an individual essence. 32
Sesāni animittattā. 116. The rest need not be extended because they have no sign.
Paṭibhāganimittañhi vaḍḍhetabbaṃ nāma bhaveyya. For it is the counterpart sign33 that would be extendable,
Buddhānussatiādīnañca neva paṭibhāganimittaṃ ārammaṇaṃ hoti, tasmā taṃ na vaḍḍhetabbanti evaṃ vaḍḍhanāvaḍḍhanato. ¶ and the object of the recollection of the Buddha, etc., is not a counterpart sign. Consequently there is no need for extension there. This is “as to extension and non-extension. ” ¶
Ārammaṇatoti imesu ca cattālīsāya kammaṭṭhānesu dasakasiṇā, dasaasubhā, ānāpānassati, kāyagatāsatīti imāni dvāvīsatipaṭibhāganimittārammaṇāni. 117.6. As to object: of these forty meditation subjects, twenty-two have counterpart signs as object, that is to say, the ten kasiṇas, the ten kinds of foulness, mindfulness of breathing, and mindfulness occupied with the body;
Sesāni na paṭibhāganimittārammaṇāni. the rest do not have counterpart signs as object.
Tathā dasasu anussatīsu ṭhapetvā ānāpānassatiñca kāyagatāsatiñca avasesā aṭṭha anussatiyo, āhāre paṭikūlasaññā, catudhātuvavatthānaṃ, viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ, nevasaññānāsaññāyatananti imāni dvādasa sabhāvadhammārammaṇāni. Then twelve have states consisting in individual essences as object, that is to say, eight of the ten recollections—except mindfulness of breathing and mindfulness occupied with the body—the perception of repulsiveness in nutriment, the defining of the elements, the base consisting of boundless consciousness, and the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception; and twenty-two have [counterpart] signs as object,
Dasa kasiṇā, dasa asubhā, ānāpānassati, kāyagatāsatīti imāni dvāvīsati nimittārammaṇāni. that is to say, the ten kasiṇas, the ten kinds of foulness, mindfulness of breathing, and mindfulness occupied with the body;
Sesāni cha na vattabbārammaṇāni. while the remaining six have “not-so- classifiable”34 objects.
Tathā vipubbakaṃ, lohitakaṃ, puḷuvakaṃ, ānāpānassati, āpokasiṇaṃ, tejokasiṇaṃ, vāyokasiṇaṃ, yañca ālokakasiṇe sūriyādīnaṃ obhāsamaṇḍalārammaṇanti imāni aṭṭha calitārammaṇāni, tāni ca kho pubbabhāge, paṭibhāgaṃ pana sannisinnameva hoti. Then eight have mobile objects in the early stage though the counterpart is stationary, that is to say, the festering, the bleeding, the worm-infested, mindfulness of breathing, the water kasiṇa, the fire kasiṇa, the air kasiṇa, and in the case of the light kasiṇa the object consisting of a circle of sunlight, etc.;
Sesāni na calitārammaṇānīti evaṃ ārammaṇato. ¶ the rest have immobile objects.35 This is “as to object.” ¶
Bhūmitoti ettha ca dasa asubhā, kāyagatāsati, āhāre paṭikūlasaññāti imāni dvādasa devesu nappavattanti. 118.7. As to plane: here the twelve, namely, the ten kinds of foulness, mindfulness occupied with the body, and perception of repulsiveness in nutriment, do not occur among deities.
Tāni dvādasa, ānāpānassati cāti imāni terasa brahmaloke nappavattanti. These twelve and mindfulness of breathing do not occur in the Brahmā-world.
Arūpabhave pana ṭhapetvā cattāro āruppe aññaṃ nappavattati. But none except the four immaterial states occur in the immaterial becoming.
Manussesu sabbānipi pavattantīti evaṃ bhūmito. ¶ All occur among human beings. This is “as to plane. ” [114] ¶
Gahaṇatoti diṭṭhaphuṭṭhasutaggahaṇatopettha vinicchayo veditabbo. 119. 8. As to apprehending: here the exposition should be understood according to the seen, the touched and the heard.
Tatra ṭhapetvā vāyokasiṇaṃ sesā nava kasiṇā, dasa asubhāti imāni ekūnavīsati diṭṭhena gahetabbāni. Herein, these nineteen, that is to say, nine kasiṇas omitting the air kasiṇa and the ten kinds of foulness, must be apprehended by the seen.
Pubbabhāge cakkhunā oloketvā nimittaṃ nesaṃ gahetabbanti attho. The meaning is that in the early stage their sign must be apprehended by constantly looking with the eye.
Kāyagatāsatiyaṃ tacapañcakaṃ diṭṭhena, sesaṃ sutenāti evaṃ tassā ārammaṇaṃ diṭṭhasutena gahetabbaṃ. In the case of mindfulness occupied with the body the five parts ending with skin must be apprehended by the seen and the rest by the heard, so its object must be apprehended by the seen and the heard.
Ānāpānassati phuṭṭhena, vāyokasiṇaṃ diṭṭhaphuṭṭhena, sesāni aṭṭhārasa sutena gahetabbāni. Mindfulness of breathing must be apprehended by the touched; the air kasiṇa by the seen and the touched; the remaining eighteen by the heard.
Upekkhābrahmavihāro, cattāro āruppāti imāni cettha na ādikammikena gahetabbāni. The divine abiding of equanimity and the four immaterial states are not apprehendable by a beginner;
Sesāni pañcatiṃsa gahetabbānīti evaṃ gahaṇato. ¶ but the remaining thirty-five are. This is “as to apprehending. ” ¶
Paccayatoti imesu pana kammaṭṭhānesu ṭhapetvā ākāsakasiṇaṃ sesā nava kasiṇā āruppānaṃ paccayā honti, dasa kasiṇā abhiññānaṃ, tayo brahmavihārā catutthabrahmavihārassa, heṭṭhimaṃ heṭṭhimaṃ āruppaṃ uparimassa uparimassa, nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ nirodhasamāpattiyā, sabbānipi sukhavihāravipassanābhavasampattīnanti evaṃ paccayato. ¶ 120.9. As to condition: of these meditation subjects nine kasiṇas omitting the space kasiṇa are conditions for the immaterial states. The ten kasiṇas are conditions for the kinds of direct-knowledge. Three divine abidings are conditions for the fourth divine abiding. Each lower immaterial state is a condition for each higher one. The base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception is a condition for the attainment of cessation. All are conditions for living in bliss, for insight, and for the fortunate kinds of becoming. This is “as to condition. ” ¶
Cariyānukūlatoti cariyānaṃ anukūlatopettha vinicchayo veditabbo. 121.10. As to suitability to temperament: here the exposition should be understood according to what is suitable to the temperaments. По соответствию темпераменту: здесь объяснение следует понимать согласно тому, что подходит темпераментам.
Seyyathidaṃ – rāgacaritassa tāva ettha dasa asubhā, kāyagatāsatīti ekādasa kammaṭṭhānāni anukūlāni. That is to say: first, the ten kinds of foulness and mindfulness occupied with the body are eleven meditation subjects suitable for one of greedy temperament. А именно: десять непривлекательных и памятование о теле являются 11 предметами медитации, подходящих "алчному" темпераменту.
Dosacaritassa cattāro brahmavihārā, cattāri vaṇṇakasiṇānīti aṭṭha. The four divine abidings and four colour kasiṇas are eight suitable for one of hating temperament. Четыре возвышенных состояния и четыре касин цветов являются восьмёркой, подходящей ненавидящему темпераменту.
Mohacaritassa, vitakkacaritassa ca ekaṃ ānāpānassati kammaṭṭhānameva. Mindfulness of breathing is the one [recollection as a] meditation subject suitable for one of deluded temperament and for one of speculative temperament. Памятование о дыхании является предметом медитации [из числа воспоминаний], подходящих заблуждающемуся и склонному к пустым размышлениям.
Saddhācaritassa purimā cha anussatiyo. The first six recollections are suitable for one of faithful temperament. Первые шесть воспоминаний подходят убеждённому темпераменту.
Buddhicaritassa maraṇassati, upasamānussati, catudhātuvavatthānaṃ, āhāre paṭikūlasaññāti cattāri. Mindfulness of death, the recollection of peace, the defining of the four elements, and the perception of repulsiveness in nutriment, are four suitable for one of intelligent temperament. Памятование о смерти, воспоминание о покое, определение четырёх элементов, распознавание непривлекательности пищи, являются четвёркой, подходящей для интеллектуального темперамента.
Sesakasiṇāni, cattāro ca āruppā sabbacaritānaṃ anukūlāni. The remaining kasiṇas and the immaterial states are suitable for all kinds of temperament. Остальные касины и нематериальные уровни подходят всем темпераментам.
Kasiṇesu ca yaṃkiñci parittaṃ vitakkacaritassa, appamāṇaṃ mohacaritassāti. ¶ And anyone of the kasiṇas should be limited for one of speculative temperament and measureless for one of deluded temperament. ¶ И любая из касин должна быть ограничена [по размеру] для склонного к пустым размышлениям и безгранична для заблуждающегося. ¶
Evamettha cariyānukūlato vinicchayo veditabboti sabbañcetaṃ ujuvipaccanīkavasena ca atisappāyavasena ca vuttaṃ. This is how the exposition should be understood here “as to suitability to temperament. ” 122. All this has been stated in the form of direct opposition and complete suitability. Так следует понимать объяснение согласно соответствию темпераменту. Всё это сказано в смысле прямой противоположности и полного соответствия.
Rāgādīnaṃ pana avikkhambhikā saddhādīnaṃ vā anupakārā kusalabhāvanā nāma natthi. But there is actually no profitable development that does not suppress greed, etc., and help faith, and so on. Но на самом деле нет благотворного развития, которое не подавляло бы страсть и прочее и не помогало бы убеждённости и прочему.
Vuttampi cetaṃ meghiyasutte – ¶ And this is said in the Meghiya Sutta: ¶ И также в Мегхия Сутте сказано: ¶
"Cattāro dhammā uttari bhāvetabbā. “[One] should, in addition,36 develop these four things: "Помимо этого следует развивать эти четыре вещи:
Asubhā bhāvetabbā rāgassa pahānāya. foulness should be developed for the purpose of abandoning greed (lust). непривлекательность следует развивать для устранения алчности
Mettā bhāvetabbā byāpādassa pahānāya. Loving-kindness should be developed for the purpose of abandoning ill will. дружелюбие следует развивать для устранения недоброжелательности
Ānāpānassati bhāvetabbā vitakkupacchedāya. Mindfulness of breathing should be developed for the purpose of cutting off applied thought. памятование о дыхании следует развивать для устранения рассуждения
Aniccasaññā bhāvetabbā asmimānasamugghātāyā"ti. ¶ Perception of impermanence should be cultivated for the purpose of eliminating the conceit, ‘I am’” (A IV 358). ¶ распознавание изменчивости следует развивать для устранения самомнения "я есть" ¶
Rāhulasuttepi "mettaṃ, rāhula, bhāvanaṃ bhāvehī"tiādinā (ma. ni. 2.120) nayena ekasseva satta kammaṭṭhānāni vuttāni. Also in the Rāhula Sutta, in the passage beginning, “Develop loving-kindness, Rāhula” (M I 424), seven meditation subjects are given for a single temperament. И также в Рахула Сутте во фрагменте, начинающемся "Рахула, развивай дружелюбие" семь предметов медитации даются одному темпераменту. конспект МН62 https://www.theravada.su/node/2688
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Tasmā vacanamatte abhinivesaṃ akatvā sabbattha adhippāyo pariyesitabboti ayaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvāti ettha kammaṭṭhānakathā vinicchayo. ¶ So instead of insisting on the mere letter, the intention should be sought in each instance. This is the explanatory exposition of the meditation subject referred to by the words he should apprehend…one [meditation subject] (§28). ¶ Поэтому вместо того, чтобы настаивать на одной букве, следует в каждом случае искать намерение.... ¶
48. Gahetvāti imassa pana padassa ayamatthadīpanā. 123. Now the words and he should apprehend are illustrated as follows.
"Tena yoginā kammaṭṭhānadāyakaṃ kalyāṇamittaṃ upasaṅkamitvā"ti ettha vuttanayeneva vuttappakāraṃ kalyāṇamittaṃ upasaṅkamitvā buddhassa vā bhagavato ācariyassa vā attānaṃ niyyātetvā sampannajjhāsayena sampannādhimuttinā ca hutvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ yācitabbaṃ. ¶ After approaching the good friend of the kind described in the explanation of the words then approach the good friend, the giver of a meditation subject (§28 and §57–73), the meditator should dedicate himself to the Blessed One, the Enlightened One, or to a teacher, and he should ask for the meditation subject with a sincere inclination [of the heart] and sincere resolution. ¶
Tatra "imāhaṃ bhagavā attabhāvaṃ tumhākaṃ pariccajāmī"ti evaṃ buddhassa bhagavato attā niyyātetabbo. 124.Herein, he should dedicate himself to the Blessed One, the Enlightened One, in this way: “Blessed One, I relinquish this my person to you.”
Evañhi aniyyātetvā pantesu senāsanesu viharanto bheravārammaṇe āpāthamāgate santhambhituṃ asakkonto gāmantaṃ osaritvā gihīhi saṃsaṭṭho hutvā anesanaṃ āpajjitvā anayabyasanaṃ pāpuṇeyya. For without having thus dedicated himself, when living in a remote abode he might be unable to stand fast if a frightening object made its appearance, and he might return to a village abode, become associated with laymen, take up improper search and come to ruin.
Niyyātitattabhāvassa panassa bheravārammaṇe āpāthamāgatepi bhayaṃ na uppajjati. But when he has dedicated himself in this way no fear arises in him if a frightening object makes its appearance;
"Nanu tayā, paṇḍita, purimameva attā buddhānaṃ niyyātito"ti paccavekkhato panassa somanassameva uppajjati. in fact only joy arises in him as he reflects: “Have you not wisely already dedicated yourself to the Enlightened One?”
Yathā hi purisassa uttamaṃ kāsikavatthaṃ bhaveyya, tassa tasmiṃ mūsikāya vā kīṭehi vā khādite uppajjeyya domanassaṃ. 125. Suppose a man had a fine piece of Kāsi cloth. He would feel grief if it were eaten by rats or moths;
Sace pana taṃ acīvarakassa bhikkhuno dadeyya, athassa taṃ tena bhikkhunā khaṇḍākhaṇḍaṃ kariyamānaṃ disvāpi somanassameva uppajjeyya. but if he gave it to a bhikkhu needing robes, he would feel only joy if he saw the bhikkhu tearing it up [to make his patched cloak].
Evaṃsampadamidaṃ veditabbaṃ. ¶ And so it is with this. ¶
Ācariyassa niyyātentenāpi "imāhaṃ, bhante, attabhāvaṃ tumhākaṃ pariccajāmī"ti vattabbaṃ. 126. When he dedicates himself to a teacher, he should say: “I relinquish this my person to you, venerable sir.”
Evaṃ aniyyātitattabhāvo hi atajjanīyo vā hoti, dubbaco vā anovādakaro, yenakāmaṃgamo vā ācariyaṃ anāpucchāva yatthicchati, tattha gantā, tamenaṃ ācariyo āmisena vā dhammena vā na saṅgaṇhāti, gūḷhaṃ ganthaṃ na sikkhāpeti. For one who has not dedicated his person thus becomes unresponsive to correction, hard to speak to, and unamenable to advice, or he goes where he likes without asking the teacher. Consequently the teacher does not help him with either material things or the Dhamma, and he does not train him in the cryptic books.37
So imaṃ duvidhaṃ saṅgahaṃ alabhanto sāsane patiṭṭhaṃ na labhati, nacirasseva dussīlyaṃ vā gihibhāvaṃ vā pāpuṇāti. Failing to get these two kinds of help, [116] he finds no footing in the Dispensation, and he soon comes down to misconducting himself or to the lay state.
Niyyātitattabhāvo pana neva atajjanīyo hoti, na yenakāmaṃgamo, suvaco ācariyāyattavuttiyeva hoti. But if he has dedicated his person, he is not unresponsive to correction, does not go about as he likes, is easy to speak to, and lives only in dependence on the teacher.
So ācariyato duvidhaṃ saṅgahaṃ labhanto sāsane vuḍḍhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullaṃ pāpuṇāti cūḷapiṇḍapātikatissattherassa antevāsikā viya. ¶ He gets the twofold help from the teacher and attains growth, increase, and fulfilment in the Dispensation. Like the Elder Cūḷa- Piṇḍapātika-Tissa’s pupils. ¶
Therassa kira santikaṃ tayo bhikkhū āgamaṃsu. 127.Three bhikkhus came to the elder, it seems.
Tesu eko "ahaṃ, bhante, tumhākamatthāyā"ti vutte sataporise papāte patituṃ ussaheyyanti āha. One of them said, “Venerable sir, I am ready to fall from a cliff the height of one hundred men, if it is said to be to your advantage.”
Dutiyo "ahaṃ, bhante, tumhākamatthāyā"ti vutte imaṃ attabhāvaṃ paṇhito paṭṭhāya pāsāṇapiṭṭhe ghaṃsento niravasesaṃ khepetuṃ ussaheyyanti āha. The second said, “Venerable sir, I am ready to grind away this body from the heels up without remainder on a flat stone, if it is said to be to your advantage.”
Tatiyo "ahaṃ, bhante, tumhākamatthāyā"ti vutte assāsapassāse uparundhitvā kālakiriyaṃ kātuṃ ussaheyyanti āha. The third said, “Venerable sir, I am ready to die by stopping breathing, if it is said to be to your advantage.”
Thero bhabbāvatime bhikkhūti kammaṭṭhānaṃ kathesi. Observing, “These bhikkhus are certainly capable of progress,” the elder expounded a meditation subject to them.
Te tassa ovāde ṭhatvā tayopi arahattaṃ pāpuṇiṃsūti ayamānisaṃso attaniyyātane. Following his advice, the three attained Arahantship. This is the benefit in self-dedication.
Tena vuttaṃ "buddhassa vā bhagavato ācariyassa vā attānaṃ niyyātetvā"ti. ¶ Hence it was said above “dedicating himself to the Blessed One, the Enlightened One, or to a teacher. ” ¶
49. Sampannajjhāsayena sampannādhimuttinā ca hutvāti ettha pana tena yoginā alobhādīnaṃ vasena chahākārehi sampannajjhāsayena bhavitabbaṃ. 128. With a sincere inclination [of the heart] and sincere resolution (§ 123): the meditator’s inclination should be sincere in the six modes beginning with non- greed.
Evaṃ sampannajjhāsayo hi tissannaṃ bodhīnaṃ aññataraṃ pāpuṇāti. For it is one of such sincere inclination who arrives at one of the three kinds of enlightenment,
Yathāha, "cha ajjhāsayā bodhisattānaṃ bodhiparipākāya saṃvattanti, alobhajjhāsayā ca bodhisattā lobhe dosadassāvino, adosajjhāsayā ca bodhisattā dose dosadassāvino, amohajjhāsayā ca bodhisattā mohe dosadassāvino, nekkhammajjhāsayā ca bodhisattā gharāvāse dosadassāvino, pavivekajjhāsayā ca bodhisattā saṅgaṇikāya dosadassāvino, nissaraṇajjhāsayā ca bodhisattā sabbabhavagatīsu dosadassāvino"ti. according as it is said: “Six kinds of inclination lead to the maturing of the enlightenment of the Bodhisattas. With the inclination to non- greed, Bodhisattas see the fault in greed. With the inclination to non-hate, Bodhisattas see the fault in hate. With the inclination to non-delusion, Bodhisattas see the fault in delusion. With the inclination to renunciation, Bodhisattas see the fault in house life. With the inclination to seclusion, Bodhisattas see the fault in society. With the inclination to relinquishment, Bodhisattas see the fault in all kinds of becoming and destiny (Source untraced.)”
Ye hi keci atītānāgatapaccuppannā sotāpannasakadāgāmianāgāmikhīṇāsavapaccekabuddhasammāsambuddhā, sabbe te imeheva chahākārehi attanā attanā pattabbaṃ visesaṃ pattā. For stream-enterers, once-returners, non-returners, those with cankers destroyed (i.e. Arahants), Paccekabuddhas, and Fully Enlightened Ones, whether past, future or present, all arrive at the distinction peculiar to each by means of these same six modes.
Tasmā imehi chahākārehi sampannajjhāsayena bhavitabbaṃ. That is why he should have sincerity of inclination in these six modes.
Tadadhimuttatāya pana adhimuttisampannena bhavitabbaṃ. 129. He should be whole-heartedly resolved on that.
Samādhādhimuttena samādhigarukena samādhipabbhārena, nibbānādhimuttena nibbānagarukena nibbānapabbhārena ca bhavitabbanti attho. ¶ The meaning is [117] that he should be resolved upon concentration, respect concentration, incline to concentration, be resolved upon Nibbāna, respect Nibbāna, incline to Nibbāna. ¶
50. Evaṃ sampannajjhāsayādhimuttino panassa kammaṭṭhānaṃ yācato cetopariyañāṇalābhinā ācariyena cittācāraṃ oloketvā cariyā jānitabbā. 130.When, with sincerity of inclination and whole-hearted resolution in this way, he asks for a meditation subject, then a teacher who has acquired the penetration of minds can know his temperament by surveying his mental conduct; and a teacher who has not can know it by putting such questions to him as:
Itarena kiṃ caritosi? “What is your temperament?”
Ke vā te dhammā bahulaṃ samudācaranti? or “What states are usually present in you?”
Kiṃ vā te manasikaroto phāsu hoti? or “What do you like bringing to mind?”
Katarasmiṃ vā te kammaṭṭhāne cittaṃ namatīti evamādīhi nayehi pucchitvā jānitabbā. or “What meditation subject does your mind favour? ”
Evaṃ ñatvā cariyānukūlaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ kathetabbaṃ. ¶ When he knows, he can expound a meditation subject suitable to that temperament. ¶
Kathentena ca tividhena kathetabbaṃ. And in doing so, he can expound it in three ways:
Pakatiyā uggahitakammaṭṭhānassa ekaṃ dve nisajjāni sajjhāyaṃ kāretvā dātabbaṃ. it can be expounded to one who has already learnt the meditation subject by having him recite it at one or two sessions;
Santike vasantassa āgatāgatakkhaṇe kathetabbaṃ. it can be expounded to one who lives in the same place each time he comes;
Uggahetvā aññatra gantukāmassa nātisaṃkhittaṃ nātivitthārikaṃ katvā kathetabbaṃ. ¶ and to one who wants to learn it and then go elsewhere it can be expounded in such a manner that it is neither too brief nor too long. ¶
Tattha pathavīkasiṇaṃ tāva kathentena cattāro kasiṇadosā, kasiṇakaraṇaṃ, katassa bhāvanānayo, duvidhaṃ nimittaṃ, duvidho samādhi, sattavidhaṃ sappāyāsappāyaṃ, dasavidhaṃ appanākosallaṃ, vīriyasamatā, appanāvidhānanti ime nava ākārā kathetabbā. 131. Herein, when first he is explaining the earth kasiṇa, there are nine aspects that he should explain. They are the four faults of the kasiṇa, the making of a kasiṇa, the method of development for one who has made it, the two kinds of sign, the two kinds of concentration, the seven kinds of suitable and unsuitable, the ten kinds of skill in absorption, evenness of energy, and the directions for absorption.
Sesakammaṭṭhānesupi tassa tassa anurūpaṃ kathetabbaṃ. In the case of the other meditation subjects, each should be expounded in the way appropriate to it.
Taṃ sabbaṃ tesaṃ bhāvanāvidhāne āvibhavissati. ¶ All this will be made clear in the directions for development. ¶
Evaṃ kathiyamāne pana kammaṭṭhāne tena yoginā nimittaṃ gahetvā sotabbaṃ. But when the meditation subject is being expounded in this way, the meditator must apprehend the sign as he listens.
Nimittaṃ gahetvāti idaṃ heṭṭhimapadaṃ, idaṃ uparimapadaṃ, ayamassa attho, ayamadhippāyo, idamopammanti evaṃ taṃ taṃ ākāraṃ upanibandhitvāti attho. 132. Apprehend the sign means that he must connect each aspect thus: “This is the preceding clause, this is the subsequent clause, this is its meaning, this is its intention, this is the simile.”
Evaṃ nimittaṃ gahetvā sakkaccaṃ suṇantena hi kammaṭṭhānaṃ suggahitaṃ hoti. When he listens attentively, apprehending the sign in this way, his meditation subject is well apprehended.
Athassa taṃ nissāya visesādhigamo sampajjati, na itarassāti ayaṃ gahetvāti imassa padassa atthaparidīpanā. ¶ Then, and because of that, he successfully attains distinction, but not otherwise. This clarifies the meaning of the words “and he must apprehend. ” ¶
Ettāvatā kalyāṇamittaṃ upasaṅkamitvā attano cariyānukūlaṃ cattālīsāya kammaṭṭhānesu aññataraṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvāti imāni padāni sabbākārena vitthāritāni hontīti. ¶ 133.At this point the clauses approach the good friend, the giver of a meditation subject, and he should apprehend from among the forty meditation subjects one that suits his own temperament (§28) have been expounded in detail in all their aspects. ¶
Iti sādhujanapāmojjatthāya kate visuddhimagge The third chapter called “The Description of Taking a Meditation Subject” in the Treatise on the Development of Concentration in the Path of Purification composed for the purpose of gladdening good people.
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