Гл. 10. Сфера ни распознавания ни отсутствия распознавания

Опубликовано khantibalo от 6 марта, 2019 - 17:13

Конспект

Желая достичь сферы ни распознавания ни отсутствия распознавания сначала следует развить пятифакторный навык в сфере отсутствия чего бы то ни было. Затем следует рассмотреть опасность этой сферы, состоящую в том, что её близким врагом является сфера безграничного сознания и недостаточную умиротворённость в сравнении с этим достижением. Также можно рассматривать недостатки распознавания.

Практика состоит в направлении внимания на достижение сферы отсутствия чего бы то ни было, чьим предметом было отсутствие, путём направления внимания как "умиротворённое, умиротворённое".

Таким образом достигается сосредоточение доступа и полная поглощённость.

Стандартная формула в ДН16
 

Особенность здесь заключается в том, что хотя он направляет внимание на него как "умиротворённое", у него нет озабоченности или внимания "я устремлюсь к этому достижению" или "я достигну это" или "я выйду из него" и т.п.
В этом случае его распознавание таково, что он зовётся ни распознающим ни не распознающим.
Аналогично с ощущением (ни ощущение ни отсутствие ощущения), сознанием и соприкосновением.
Здесь распознавание не может распознавать, но из-за присутствия его в форме остаточной конструкции его нельзя назвать отсутствием распознавания.

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Nevasaññānāsaññāyatanakathā ¶ [(4) THE BASE CONSISTING OF NEITHER PERCEPTION NOR NON-PERCEPTION] ¶
285. Nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ bhāvetukāmena pana pañcahākārehi ākiñcaññāyatanasamāpattiyaṃ ciṇṇavasībhāvena "āsannaviññāṇañcāyatanapaccatthikā ayaṃ samāpatti, no ca nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ viya santā"ti vā "saññā rogo, saññā gaṇḍo, saññā sallaṃ, etaṃ santaṃ, etaṃ paṇītaṃ yadidaṃ nevasaññānāsaññā"ti vā evaṃ ākiñcaññāyatane ādīnavaṃ, upari ānisaṃsañca disvā ākiñcaññāyatane nikantiṃ pariyādāya nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ santato manasikaritvā "sāva abhāvaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā pavattitā ākiñcaññāyatanasamāpatti santā santā"ti punappunaṃ āvajjitabbā, manasikātabbā, paccavekkhitabbā, takkāhatā vitakkāhatā kātabbā. ¶ 40. When, however, he wants to develop the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception, he must first achieve mastery in the five ways in the attainment of the base consisting of nothingness. Then he should see the danger in the base consisting of nothingness and the advantage in what is superior to it in this way: “This attainment has the base consisting of boundless consciousness as its near enemy, and it is not as peaceful as the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception,” or in this way: “Perception is a boil, perception is a dart … this is peaceful, this is sublime, that is to say, neither perception nor non-perception” (M II 231). So having ended his attachment to the base consisting of nothingness, he should give attention to the base consisting of neither perception non non-perception as peaceful. He should advert again and again to that attainment of the base consisting of nothingness that has occurred making non-existence its object, adverting to it as “peaceful, peaceful,” and he should give his attention to it, review it and strike at it with thought and applied thought. ¶
Tassevaṃ tasmiṃ nimitte punappunaṃ mānasaṃ cārentassa nīvaraṇāni vikkhambhanti, sati santiṭṭhati, upacārena cittaṃ samādhiyati. 41. As he directs his mind again and again on to that sign in this way, the hindrances are suppressed, mindfulness is established, and his mind becomes concentrated in access.
So taṃ nimittaṃ punappunaṃ āsevati, bhāveti, bahulīkaroti. He cultivates that sign again and again, develops and repeatedly practices it.
Tassevaṃ karoto viññāṇāpagame ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ viya ākiñcaññāyatanasamāpattisaṅkhātesu catūsu khandhesu nevasaññānāsaññāyatanacittaṃ appeti. As he does so, consciousness belonging to the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception arises in absorption making its object the four [mental] aggregates that constitute the attainment of the base consisting of nothingness, just as the [consciousness belonging to the] base consisting of nothingness did the disappearance of the [previous] consciousness.
Appanānayo panettha vuttanayeneva veditabbo. And here too the method of explaining the absorption should be understood in the way already described.
Ettāvatā cesa "sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharatī"ti (vibha. 508; dī. ni. 2.129) vuccati. ¶ 42.And at this point it is said: “By completely surmounting the base consisting of nothingness he enters upon and dwells in the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception” (Vibh 245). ¶
286. Idhāpi sabbasoti idaṃ vuttanayameva. 43. Herein, completely is already explained.
Ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samatikkammāti etthāpi pubbe vuttanayeneva jhānampi ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ ārammaṇampi. By … surmounting the base consisting of nothingness: here too the jhāna is called the “base consisting of nothingness” in the way already stated, and its object is so called too.
Ārammaṇampi hi purimanayeneva ākiñcaññañca taṃ tatiyassa āruppajjhānassa ārammaṇattā devānaṃ devāyatanaṃ viya adhiṭṭhānaṭṭhena āyatanañcāti ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ. For the object too is “nothingness” (ākiñcaññaṃ) in the way already stated, and then because it is the object of the third immaterial jhāna, it is its “base” in the sense of habitat, as the “deities’ base” is for deities, thus it is the “base consisting of nothingness.”
Tathā ākiñcaññañca taṃ tasseva jhānassa sañjātihetuttā kambojā assānaṃ āyatanantiādīni viya sañjātidesaṭṭhena āyatanañcātipi ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ. Likewise: it is “nothingness,” and then, because it is the cause of the jhāna’s being of that species, it is its “base” in the sense of locality of the species, as Kambojā is the “base” of horses, thus it is the “base consisting of nothingness” in this way also.
Evametaṃ jhānañca ārammaṇañcāti ubhayampi appavattikaraṇena ca amanasikaraṇena ca samatikkamitvāva yasmā idaṃ nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja vihātabbaṃ, tasmā ubhayampetaṃ ekajjhaṃ katvā ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samatikkammāti idaṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ. ¶ So it should be understood that the words, “By … surmounting the base consisting of nothingness” include both [the jhāna and its object] together, since the base consisting of neither perception nor non- perception is to be entered upon and dwelt in precisely by surmounting, by causing the non-occurrence of, by not giving attention to, both the jhāna and its object. ¶
Nevasaññānāsaññāyatananti ettha pana yāya saññāya bhāvato taṃ nevasaññānāsaññāyatananti vuccati. 44.Base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception: then there is he who so practices that there is in him the perception on account of the presence of which this [attainment] is called the “the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception,”
Yathā paṭipannassa sā saññā hoti, taṃ tāva dassetuṃ vibhaṅge "nevasaññīnāsaññī"ti uddharitvā "taññeva ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ santato manasi karoti, saṅkhārāvasesasamāpattiṃ bhāveti, tena vuccati nevasaññīnāsaññī"ti (vibha. 619) vuttaṃ. and in the Vibhaṅga, in order to point out that [person], firstly one specified as “neither percipient nor non-percipient,” it is said, “gives attention to that same base consisting of nothingness as peaceful, he develops the attainment with residual formations, hence ‘neither percipient nor non- percipient’ is said” (Vibh 263).
Tattha santato manasi karotīti "santā vatāyaṃ samāpatti, yatra hi nāma natthibhāvampi ārammaṇaṃ karitvā ṭhassatī"ti evaṃ santārammaṇatāya taṃ santāti manasi karoti. ¶ 45. Herein, he gives attention … as peaceful, means that he gives attention to it as “peaceful” because of the peacefulness of the object thus: “How peaceful this attainment is; for it can make even non-existence its object and still subsist!” ¶
Santato ce manasi karoti, kathaṃ samatikkamo hotīti? If he brings it to mind as “peaceful” then how does there come to be surmounting?
Asamāpajjitukāmatāya. Because there is no actual desire to attain it.
So hi kiñcāpi taṃ santato manasi karoti, atha khvassa "ahametaṃ āvajjissāmi, samāpajjissāmi, adhiṭṭhahissāmi, vuṭṭhahissāmi, paccavekkhissāmī"ti esa ābhogo samannāhāro manasikāro na hoti. For although he gives attention to it as “peaceful,” yet there is no concern in him or reaction or attention such as “I shall advert to this” or “I shall attain this” or “I shall resolve upon [the duration of] this.”
Kasmā? Why not?
Ākiñcaññāyatanato nevasaññānāsaññāyatanassa santatarapaṇītataratāya. ¶ Because the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception is more peaceful and better than the base consisting of nothingness. ¶
Yathā hi rājā mahacca rājānubhāvena hatthikkhandhavaragato nagaravīthiyaṃ vicaranto dantakārādayo sippike ekaṃ vatthaṃ daḷhaṃ nivāsetvā ekena sīsaṃ veṭhetvā dantacuṇṇādīhi samokiṇṇagatte anekāni dantavikatiādīni sippāni karonte disvā "aho vata re chekā ācariyā īdisānipi nāma sippāni karissantī"ti evaṃ tesaṃ chekatāya tussati, na cassa evaṃ hoti "aho vatāhaṃ rajjaṃ pahāya evarūpo sippiko bhaveyya"nti. 46.Suppose a king is proceeding along a city street with the great pomp of royalty,10 splendidly mounted on the back of an elephant, and he sees craftsmen wearing one cloth tightly as a loin-cloth and another tied round their heads, working at the various crafts such as ivory carving, etc., their limbs covered with ivory dust, etc.; now while he is pleased with their skill, thinking, “How skilled these craft-masters are, and what crafts they practice!” he does not, however, think, “Oh that I might abandon royalty and become a craftsman like that!”
Taṃ kissa hetu? Why not?
Rajjasiriyā mahānisaṃsatāya. Because of the great benefits in the majesty of kings;
So sippino samatikkamitvāva gacchati. he leaves the craftsmen behind and proceeds on his way.
Evameva esa kiñcāpi taṃ samāpattiṃ santato manasi karoti, atha khvassa "ahametaṃ samāpattiṃ āvajjissāmi, samāpajjissāmi, adhiṭṭhahissāmi, vuṭṭhahissāmi, paccavekkhissāmī"ti neva esa ābhogo samannāhāro manasikāro hoti. ¶ So too, though this [meditator] gives attention to that attainment as “peaceful,” yet there is no concern in him or reaction or attention such as “I shall advert to this attainment” or “I shall attain this” or “I shall resolve upon [the duration of] it” or “I shall emerge from it” or “I shall review it. ” ¶
So taṃ santato manasikaronto pubbe vuttanayena taṃ paramasukhumaṃ appanāppattaṃ saññaṃ pāpuṇāti, yāya nevasaññīnāsaññī nāma hoti, saṅkhārāvasesasamāpattiṃ bhāvetīti vuccati. 47.As he gives attention to it as “peaceful” in the way already described, [337] he reaches the ultra-subtle absorbed perception in virtue of which he is called “neither percipient nor non-percipient,” and it is said of him that “He develops the attainment with residual formations. ”
Saṅkhārāvasesasamāpattinti accantasukhumabhāvappattasaṅkhāraṃ catutthāruppasamāpattiṃ. ¶ The attainment with residual formations is the fourth immaterial attainment whose formations have reached a state of extreme subtlety. ¶
287. Idāni yaṃ taṃ evamadhigatāya saññāya vasena nevasaññānāsaññāyatananti vuccati, taṃ atthato dassetuṃ "nevasaññānāsaññāyatananti nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ samāpannassa vā upapannassa vā diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārissa vā cittacetasikā dhammā"ti (vibha. 620) vuttaṃ. 48.Now, in order to show the meaning of the kind of perception that has been reached, on account of which [this jhāna] is called the “base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception,” it is said: “‘Base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception’: states of consciousness or its concomitants in one who has attained the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception or in one who has been reborn there or in one who is abiding in bliss there in this present life” (Vibh 263).
Tesu idha samāpannassa cittacetasikā dhammā adhippetā. Of these, what is intended here is the states of consciousness and its concomitants in one who has attained.
Vacanattho panettha oḷārikāya saññāya abhāvato sukhumāya ca bhāvato nevassa sasampayuttadhammassa jhānassa saññā nāsaññanti nevasaññānāsaññaṃ. 49.The word meaning here is this: that jhāna with its associated states neither has perception nor has no perception because of the absence of gross perception and the presence of subtle perception, thus it is “neither perception nor non- perception” (n’ eva-saññā-nāsaññaṃ).
Nevasaññānāsaññañca taṃ manāyatanadhammāyatanapariyāpannattā āyatanañcāti nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ. It is “neither perception nor non-perception” and it is a “base” (āyatana) because it is included in the mind-base (manāyatana) and the mental-object base (dhammāyatana), thus it is the “base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception” (nevasaññānāsaññāyatana).
Atha vā yāyamettha saññā, sā paṭusaññākiccaṃ kātuṃ asamatthatāya nevasaññā, saṅkhārāvasesasukhumabhāvena vijjamānattā nāsaññāti nevasaññānāsaññā. 50. Or alternatively: the perception here is neither perception, since it is incapable of performing the decisive function of perception, nor yet non- perception, since it is present in a subtle state as a residual formation, thus it is “neither perception nor non-perception.”
Nevasaññānāsaññā ca sā sesadhammānaṃ adhiṭṭhānaṭṭhena āyatanañcāti nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ. ¶ It is “neither perception nor non- perception” and it is a “base” in the sense of a foundation for the other states, thus it is the “base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception. ” ¶
Na kevalañcettha saññāva edisī, atha kho vedanāpi nevavedanānāvedanā, cittampi nevacittaṃnācittaṃ, phassopi nevaphassonāphasso. And here it is not only perception that is like this, but feeling as well is neither-feeling-nor-non-feeling, consciousness is neither-consciousness-nor- non-consciousness, and contact is neither-contact-nor-non-contact,
Esa nayo sesasampayuttadhammesu. and the same description applies to the rest of the associated states;
Saññāsīsena panāyaṃ desanā katāti veditabbā. but it should be understood that this presentation is given in terms of perception.
Pattamakkhanatelappabhutīhi ca upamāhi esa attho vibhāvetabbo. ¶ 51.And the meaning should be illustrated by the similes beginning with the smearing of oil on the bowl. ¶
Sāmaṇero kira telena pattaṃ makkhetvā ṭhapesi, taṃ yāgupānakāle thero pattamāharāti āha. A novice smeared a bowl with oil, it seems, and laid it aside. When it was time to drink gruel, an elder told him to bring the bowl.
So "patte telamatthi, bhante"ti āha. He said, “Venerable sir, there is oil in the bowl.”
Tato "āhara, sāmaṇera, telaṃ, nāḷiṃ pūressāmī"ti vutte "natthi, bhante, tela"nti āha. But then when he was told, “Bring the oil, novice, I shall fill the oil tube,” he replied, “There is no oil, venerable sir.”
Tattha yathā antovutthattā yāguyā saddhiṃ akappiyaṭṭhena "telamatthī"ti hoti. Herein, just as “There is oil” is in the sense of incompatibility with the gruel because it has been poured into [the bowl]
Nāḷipūraṇādīnaṃ vasena "natthī"ti hoti. and just as “There is no oil” is in the sense of filling the oil tube, etc.,
Evaṃ sāpi saññā paṭusaññākiccaṃ kātuṃ asamatthatāya nevasaññā, saṅkhārāvasesasukhumabhāvena vijjamānattā nāsaññā hoti. ¶ so too this perception is “neither perception” since it is incapable of performing the decisive function of perception and it is “nor non- perception” because it is present in a subtle form as a residual formation. ¶
Kiṃ panettha saññākiccanti? 52.But in this context what is perception’s function?
Ārammaṇasañjānanañceva vipassanāya ca visayabhāvaṃ upagantvā nibbidājananaṃ. It is the perceiving of the object, and it is the production of dispassion if [that attainment and its object are] made the objective field of insight.
Dahanakiccamiva hi sukhodake tejodhātu sañjānanakiccaṃ pesā paṭuṃ kātuṃ na sakkoti. But it is not able to make the function of perceiving decisive, as the heat element in tepid11 water is not able to make the function of burning decisive;
Sesasamāpattīsu saññā viya vipassanāya visayabhāvaṃ upagantvā nibbidājananampi kātuṃ na sakkoti. and it is not able to produce dispassion by treatment of its objective field with insight in the way that perception is in the case of the other attainments.
Aññesu hi khandhesu akatābhiniveso bhikkhu nevasaññānāsaññāyatanakkhandhe sammasitvā nibbidaṃ pattuṃ samattho nāma natthi apica āyasmā sāriputto. 53.There is in fact no bhikkhu capable of reaching dispassion by comprehension of aggregates connected with the base consisting of neither perception nor non- perception unless he has already done his interpreting with other aggregates (see XX.2f. and XXI.23). And furthermore, when the venerable Sāriputta,
Pakativipassako pana mahāpañño sāriputtasadisova sakkuṇeyya. or someone very wise and naturally gifted with insight as he was, is able to do so,
Sopi "evaṃ kirime dhammā ahutvā sambhonti, hutvā paṭiventī"ti (ma. ni. 3.95) evaṃ kalāpasammasanavaseneva, no anupadadhammavipassanāvasena. even he has to do it by means of comprehension of groups (XX.2) in this way, “So it seems, these states, not having been, come to be; having come to be, they vanish” (M III 28), and not by means of [actual direct] insight into states one by one as they arise.
Evaṃ sukhumattaṃ gatā esā samāpatti. ¶ Such is the subtlety that this attainment reaches. ¶
Yathā ca pattamakkhanatelūpamāya, evaṃ maggudakūpamāyapi ayamattho vibhāvetabbo. 54.And this meaning should be illustrated by the simile of the water on the road, as it was by the simile of the oil-smearing on the bowl.
Maggappaṭipannassa kira therassa purato gacchanto sāmaṇero thokaṃ udakaṃ disvā "udakaṃ, bhante, upāhanā omuñcathā"ti āha. A novice was walking in front of an elder, it seems, who had set out on a journey. He saw a little water and said, “There is water, venerable sir, remove your sandals.”
Tato therena "sace udakamatthi, āhara nhānasāṭikaṃ, nhāyissāmā"ti vutte "natthi, bhante"ti āha. Then the elder said, “If there is water, bring me the bathing cloth and let us bathe,” but the novice said, “There is none, venerable sir.”
Tattha yathā upāhanatemanamattaṭṭhena "udakamatthī"ti hoti, nhāyanaṭṭhena "natthī"ti hoti. Herein, just as “There is water” is in the sense of mere wetting of the sandals, and “There is none” is in the sense of bathing,
Evampi sā paṭusaññākiccaṃ kātuṃ asamatthatāya nevasaññā, saṅkhārāvasesasukhumabhāvena vijjamānattā nāsaññā hoti. ¶ so too, this perception is “neither perception” since it is incapable of performing the decisive function of perception, and it is “nor non-perception” because it is present in a subtle form as a residual formation. ¶
Na kevalañca etāheva, aññāhipi anurūpāhi upamāhi esa attho vibhāvetabbo. 55. And this meaning should be illustrated not only by these similes but by other appropriate ones as well.
Upasampajja viharatīti idaṃ vuttanayamevāti. ¶ Enters upon and dwells in is already explained. ¶
Ayaṃ nevasaññānāsaññāyatanakammaṭṭhāne vitthārakathā. This is the detailed explanation of the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception as a meditation subject.
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Редакция перевода от 18.09.2019 12:32