Гл. 17. Волевые конструкции обуславливают сознание

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Saṅkhārapaccayāviññāṇapadavitthārakathā ¶
620. Saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇapade – viññāṇanti cakkhuviññāṇādi chabbidhaṃ. 120. In the clause, with formations as condition, consciousness, consciousness is sixfold as eye-consciousness, and so on. В выражении "волевые конструкции обуславливают сознание" сознание означает шесть видов сознания - зрительное и прочее.
Tattha cakkhuviññāṇaṃ kusalavipākaṃ akusalavipākanti duvidhaṃ hoti. Herein, eye-consciousness is twofold, namely, profitable [kamma-]resultant and unprofitable [kamma-]resultant (see Table II for bracketed numbers that follow). Здесь зрительное сознание подразделяется на 2 вида: благотворное являющееся результатом [каммы] и неблаготворное являющееся результатом [каммы].
Tathā sotaghānajivhākaāyaviññāṇāni. Likewise ear-, nose-, tongue-, and body-consciousness ((34)–(38) and (50)–(54)). Аналогично со слуховым, обонятельным, вкусовым и осязательным сознанием.
Manoviññāṇaṃ kusalākusalavipākā dve manodhātuyo, tisso ahetukamanoviññāṇadhātuyo, aṭṭha sahetukāni kāmāvacaravipākacittāni, pañca rūpāvacarāni, cattāri arūpāvacarānīti bāvīsatividhaṃ hoti. But mind-consciousness is twenty- two-fold, namely, the two profitable and unprofitable resultant mind elements ((39) and (55)), the three root-causeless mind-consciousness elements ((40), (41) and (56)), the eight sense-sphere resultant consciousnesses with root-cause ((42)–(49)), the five of the fine-material sphere ((57)–(61)), and the four of the immaterial sphere ((62)–(65)). Но сознание рассудка подразделяется на 22 вида, а именно: двойка из благотворного и неблаготворного элемента рассудка являющегося результатом, тройка элементов сознания рассудка с отсутствием корневой причины, восьмёрка видов сознания с наличием корневой причины мира страсти, пятёрка мира тонких форм, и четвёрка бесформенного мира.
Iti imehi chahi viññāṇehi sabbānipi bāttiṃsa lokiyavipākaviññāṇāni saṅgahitāni honti. So all the thirty-two mundane resultant consciousnesses ((34)–(65)) are included by these six kinds of consciousness. В эти шесть разновидностей сознания включаются все 32 мирских видов сознания, являющихся результатом.
Lokuttarāni pana vaṭṭakathāya na yujjantīti na gahitāni. ¶ But the supramundane kinds do not belong to the exposition of the round [of becoming], and so they are not included. ¶ Но надмирские разновидности не относятся к объяснению круга бытия, поэтому они не включаются. ¶
Tattha siyā "kathaṃ panetaṃ jānitabbaṃ idaṃ vuttappakāraṃ viññāṇaṃ saṅkhārapaccayā hotī"ti? 121. Here it may be asked: “But how is it to be known that this consciousness of the kind stated actually has formations as its condition?” Здесь можно спросить: "Но как можно узнать, что волевые конструкции действительно обуславливают сознание обозначенного вида?".
Upacitakammābhāve vipākābhāvato. —Because there is no kamma-result when there is no stored-up kamma. - Потому что нет результата каммы при отсутствии накопленной каммы. Upacitakamma - это видимо накопленная камма (совершённые поступки), последствия (плоды) которой ещё не проявились
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Vipākaṃ hetaṃ, vipākañca na upacitakammābhāve uppajjati. For this consciousness is kamma-result, and kamma-result does not arise in the absence of stored-up kamma. Ведь это сознание является результатом каммы, и результат каммы не появляется при отсутствии накопленной каммы.
Yadi uppajjeyya sabbesaṃ sabbavipākāni uppajjeyyuṃ, na ca uppajjantīti jānitabbametaṃ saṅkhārapaccayā idaṃ viññāṇaṃ hotīti. ¶ If it did, then all kinds of kamma-resultant consciousnesses would arise in all kinds of beings, and they do not do so. This is how it should be known that such consciousness has formations as its condition. ¶ Если бы он появлялся, то все виды сознания, являющиеся результатом каммы возникали бы у всех видов существ, а этого не происходит. Вот как следует понимать, что волевые конструкции обуславливают такое сознание. ¶
Katarasaṅkhārapaccayā kataraṃ viññāṇanti ce. 122. But which kind of consciousness has which kind of formations as its condition? Но какой вид волевых конструкций обуславливает какой вид сознания?
Kāmāvacarapuññābhisaṅkhārapaccayā tāva kusalavipākāni pañca cakkhuviññāṇādīni, manoviññāṇe ekā manodhātu, dve manoviññāṇadhātuyo, aṭṭha kāmāvacaramahāvipākānīti soḷasa. Firstly, the following sixteen kinds arise with the sense-sphere formation of merit as condition: the five profitable resultants beginning with eye- consciousness ((34)–(38)), and in the case of mind-consciousness one kind of mind element (39) and two kinds of mind-consciousness element ((40)–(41)), and the eight kinds of sense-sphere resultant ((42)–(49)),
Yathāha – ¶ according as it is said: ¶
"Kāmāvacarassa kusalassa kammassa kaṭattā upacitattā vipākaṃ cakkhuviññāṇaṃ uppannaṃ hoti… sota… ghāna… jivhā… kāyaviññāṇaṃ … vipākā manodhātu uppannā hoti. Owing to profitable kamma of the sense sphere having been performed, stored up, resultant eye-consciousness” (Dhs §431), “ear-, nose-, tongue-, body- consciousness” (Dhs §443), “resultant mind element arises” (Dhs §455),
Somanassasahagatā manoviññāṇadhātu uppannā hoti. “mind- consciousness element accompanied by joy arises” (Dhs §469),
Upekkhāsahagatā manoviññāṇadhātu uppannā hoti. “mind- consciousness element accompanied by equanimity arises” (Dhs §484),
Somanassasahagatā ñāṇasampayuttā. “accompanied by joy and associated with knowledge …
Somanassasahagatā ñāṇasampayuttā sasaṅkhārena. accompanied by joy, associated with knowledge and prompted …
Somanassasahagatā ñāṇavippayuttā. accompanied by joy and dissociated from knowledge …
Somanassasahagatā ñāṇavippayuttā sasaṅkhārena. accompanied by joy, dissociated from knowledge and prompted …
Upekkhāsahagatā ñāṇasampayuttā. accompanied by equanimity and associated with knowledge …
Upekkhāsahagatā ñāṇasampayuttā sasaṅkhārena. accompanied by equanimity, associated with knowledge and prompted …
Upekkhāsahagatā ñāṇavippayuttā. accompanied by equanimity and dissociated from knowledge …
Upekkhāsahagatā ñāṇavippayuttā sasaṅkhārenā"ti (dha. sa. 431, 498). ¶ accompanied by equanimity, dissociated from knowledge and prompted” (Dhs §498). ¶
Rūpāvacarapuññābhisaṅkhārapaccayā pana pañca rūpāvacaravipākāni. 123. There are five kinds of resultant fine-material-sphere consciousness ((57)– (61)) with the fine-material-sphere formation of merit as condition,
Yathāha – ¶ according as it is said: ¶
"Tasseva rūpāvacarassa kusalassa kammassa kaṭattā upacitattā vipākaṃ vivicceva kāmehi paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ - pe - pañcamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharatī"ti (dha. sa. 499). “Owing to that same profitable kamma of the fine-material sphere having been performed, stored up, [by the development of that same profitable jhāna,] [546] secluded from sense desires … he enters upon and dwells in the resultant first jhāna … fifth jhāna” (Dhs §499).
Evaṃ puññābhisaṅkhārapaccayā ekavīsatividhaṃ viññāṇaṃ hoti. ¶ 124. There are seven kinds of consciousness with the formation of demerit as condition: ¶
Apuññābhisaṅkhārapaccayāpana akusalavipākāni pañca cakkhuviññāṇādīni, ekā manodhātu, ekā manoviññāṇadhātūti evaṃ sattavidhaṃ viññāṇaṃ hoti. the five unprofitable resultants beginning with eye-consciousness ((50)–(54)), one mind element (55), and one mind-consciousness element (56),
Yathāha – ¶ according as it is said: ¶
"Akusalassa kammassa kaṭattā upacitattā vipākaṃ cakkhuviññāṇaṃ uppannaṃ hoti… sota… ghāna… jivhā… kāyaviññāṇaṃ… vipākā manodhātu vipākā manoviññāṇadhātu uppannā hotī"ti (dha. sa. 556). ¶ “Because of unprofitable kamma having been performed and stored up, resultant eye-consciousness has arisen … ear- … nose- … tongue- … body-consciousness has arisen” (Dhs §556), “resultant mind element” (Dhs §562), “resultant mind-consciousness element has arisen” (Dhs §564). ¶
Āneñjābhisaṅkhārapaccayā pana cattāri arūpavipākānīti evaṃ catubbidhaṃ viññāṇaṃ hoti. 125.There are four kinds of immaterial resultant consciousness ((62)–(65)) with the formation of the imperturbable as condition,
Yathāha – ¶ according as it is said: ¶
"Tasseva arūpāvacarassa kusalassa kammassa kaṭattā upacitattā vipākaṃ sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ samatikkamā ākāsānañcāyatanasaññāsahagataṃ - pe - viññāṇañcā - pe - ākiñcaññā - pe - nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasahagataṃ sukhassa ca dukkhassa ca pahānā catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharatī"ti (dha. sa. 501). ¶ “Owing to that same profitable kamma of the immaterial sphere having been performed, stored up [by the development of that same profitable immaterial jhāna, with the abandoning of bodily pleasure and pain … he enters upon and dwells in the resultant fourth jhāna, which,] with the complete surmounting of perceptions of material form … is accompanied by the base consisting of boundless space” (Dhs §501), “accompanied by the base consisting of boundless consciousness” (Dhs §502), “accompanied by the base consisting of nothingness” (Dhs §503), “accompanied by the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception” (Dhs §504). ¶
621. Evaṃ yaṃ saṅkhārapaccayā yaṃ viññāṇaṃ hoti, taṃ ñatvā idānissa evaṃ pavatti veditabbā – sabbameva hi idaṃ pavattipaṭisandhivasena dvedhā pavattati. 126. After knowing what kind of consciousness has what formations as its condition, one should now understand how it occurs as follows. Now, this resultant consciousness all occurs in two ways, namely, (a) in the course of an individual existence (or continuity), and (b) at the rebirth-linking [moment]. Узнав какие разновидности сознания обусловлены какими волевыми конструкциями, следует понять как это происходит следующим образом. Всё это результирующее сознание происходит двумя способами: (1) в процессе существования (непрерывности) индивидуума и (2) при воссоединении ума. Ну вот это уже вносит некоторую ясность. В МН9 сознание объясняется просто как 6 видов сознания, а тут ещё и добавляется момент ума воссоединения. Суд...
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Tattha dve pañcaviññāṇāni, dve manodhātuyo, somanassasahagatā ahetukamanoviññāṇadhātūti imāni terasa pañcavokārabhave pavattiyaññeva pavattanti. Herein, there are the two fivefold consciousnesses ((34)–(38) and (50)–(54)), two mind elements ((39) and (55)), and root-causeless mind-consciousness element accompanied by joy (40), that is, thirteen which occur only in the course of an existence in the five-constituent kind of becoming.20 20. For five-constituent becoming, etc., see §§253–54. cf. §180.
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Sesāni ekūnavīsati tīsu bhavesu yathānurūpaṃ pavattiyampi paṭisandhiyampi pavattanti. ¶ The remaining nineteen occur in the three kinds of becoming, either in the course of an existence or at rebirth-linking, as appropriate. ¶
Kathaṃ? How?
Kusalavipākāni tāva cakkhuviññāṇādīni pañca kusalavipākena akusalavipākena vā nibbattassa yathākkamaṃ paripākaṃ upagatindriyassa cakkhādīnaṃ āpāthagataṃ iṭṭhaṃ iṭṭhamajjhattaṃ vā rūpādiārammaṇaṃ ārabbha cakkhādipasādaṃ nissāya dassanasavanaghāyanasāyanaphusanakiccaṃ sādhayamānāni pavattanti. 127. Firstly, in one who has been reborn by means of either profitable-result or unprofitable result: according as his faculties mature, so the five profitable- resultant eye-, etc., consciousnesses occur accomplishing the respective functions of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching ((d)–(h)), contingent respectively upon a desirable or desirable-neutral visible datum, etc., as object that has come into the focus of the eye, etc., and having the sensitivity of the eye, etc., as [material] support. В том, кто родился благодаря благотворному результату или неблаготворному результату: по мере развития способностей восприятия у него возникают пять видов благотворных результирующих видов сознания зрения... осязания, исполняющих соответствующие функции зрения... осязания, зависящие от желаемых или нежелаемых зрительных образов... осязаемых объектов как объектов, попавших в поле зрения глаза и прочего и имеющие чувствительность глаза и прочего как поддержку.
Tathā akusalavipākāni pañca. And likewise the five unprofitable-resultant consciousnesses; Аналогично с неблаготворными результирующими видами сознания.
Kevalañhi tesaṃ aniṭṭhaṃ aniṭṭhamajjhattaṃ vā ārammaṇaṃ hoti. Ayameva viseso. the only difference being this, that the visible data, etc., as object for these are undesirable or undesirable-neutral. Единственным отличием является то, что зрительные образы... осязаемые объекты, являющиеся объектом для сознания, являются нежелательными или нежелательно-нейтральными.
Dasapi cetāni niyatadvārārammaṇavatthuṭṭhānāni niyatakiccāneva ca bhavanti. ¶ And these ten are invariable as to their door, object, physical basis, and position [in the cognitive series], and invariable as to their functions. ¶
Tato kusalavipākānaṃ cakkhuviññāṇādīnaṃ anantarā kusalavipākā manodhātu tesaṃyeva ārammaṇaṃ ārabbha hadayavatthuṃ nissāya sampaṭicchanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā pavattati. 128. After that, next to the profitable-resultant eye-, etc., consciousness, the profitable-resultant mind element (39) occurs accomplishing the function of receiving (i), contingent upon the same object as that of the former, and having the heart-basis as support. And next after the unprofitable-resultant eye-, etc., consciousness,
Tathā akusalavipākānaṃ anantarā akusalavipākā. the unprofitable-resultant mind element (55) occurs likewise.
Idañca pana dvayaṃ aniyatadvārārammaṇaṃ niyatavatthuṭṭhānaṃ niyatakiccañca hoti. ¶ But these two, while variable as to door and object, are invariable as to physical basis and position, and invariable as to function. ¶
Somanassasahagatā pana ahetukamanoviññāṇadhātu kusalavipākamanodhātuyā anantarā tassā eva ārammaṇaṃ ārabbha hadayavatthuṃ nissāya santīraṇakiccaṃ sādhayamānā chasu dvāresu balavārammaṇe kāmāvacarasattānaṃ yebhuyyena lobhasampayuttajavanāvasāne bhavaṅgavīthiṃ pacchinditvā javanena gahitārammaṇe tadārammaṇavasena ca sakiṃ vā dvikkhattuṃ vā pavattatīti majjhimaṭṭhakathāyaṃ vuttaṃ. 129. Then next to the profitable-resultant mind element, the root-causeless mind-consciousness element accompanied by joy (40) occurs accomplishing the function of investigation (j), contingent upon the same object as that of the mind element, and having the heart-basis as support. And when the object is a vivid one in any of the six doors belonging to sense-sphere beings, usually at the end of impulsions associated with greed it holds up the [renewal of the] course of the life-continuum (b) by occurring either once or twice as registration (m), having the same object as that apprehended by the impulsions—so it is said in the Majjhima Commentary.21 Комм. НТ: 21. This refers to the old Sinhalese commentary no longer extant.
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Abhidhammaṭṭhakathāyaṃ pana tadārammaṇe dve cittavārā āgatā. But in the Abhidhamma Commentary two turns of consciousness have been handed down with respect to registration.
Idaṃ pana cittaṃ tadārammaṇanti ca piṭṭhibhavaṅganti cāti dve nāmāni labhati. This consciousness has two names, “registration” (tad-ārammaṇa—lit. having that object that the preceding impulsions had) and “aftermath life-continuum” (piṭṭhi- bhavaṅga—see XIV.122).
Aniyatadvārārammaṇaṃ niyatavatthukaṃ aniyataṭṭhānakiccañca hotīti. It is variable as to door and object, it is invariable as to physical basis, and it is variable as to position and function.
Evaṃ tāva terasa pañcavokārabhave pavattiyaññeva pavattantīti veditabbāni. ¶ This, in the first place, it should be understood, is how thirteen kinds of consciousness occur only in the course of an individual existence in the five- constituent kind of becoming. ¶
Sesesu ekūnavīsatiyā na kiñci attano anurūpāya paṭisandhiyā na pavattati. 130. As to the remaining nineteen ((41)–(49) and (56)–(65)), there is none that does not occur as a rebirth-linking (a) appropriate to it (see §133).
Pavattiyaṃ pana kusalākusalavipākā tāva dve ahetukamanoviññāṇadhātuyo pañcadvāre kusalākusalavipākamanodhātūnaṃ anantarā santīraṇakiccaṃ, chasu dvāresu pubbe vuttanayeneva tadārammaṇakiccaṃ, attanā dinnapaṭisandhito uddhaṃ asati bhavaṅgupacchedake cittuppāde bhavaṅgakiccaṃ, ante cutikiccañcāti cattāri kiccāni sādhayamānā niyatavatthukā aniyatadvārārammaṇaṭṭhānakiccā hutvā pavattanti. ¶ But in the course of an individual existence, firstly, two, namely, profitable-resultant and unprofitable-resultant root-causeless mind-consciousness elements ((41) and (56)) occur accomplishing four functions, that is to say, the function of investigating in the five doors (j) next after profitable-resultant and unprofitable-resultant mind element, the function of registration (m) in the six doors in the way already stated, the function of life-continuum (b) that continues after rebirth-linking given by themselves, as long as there is no thought-arising to interrupt the life- continuum, and lastly the function of death (n) at the end [of the course of an existence]. And so these two are invariable as to [possession of heart-] basis, and variable as to door, object, position, and function. ¶
Aṭṭha kāmāvacarasahetukacittāni vuttanayeneva chasu dvāresu tadārammaṇakiccaṃ, attanā dinnapaṭisandhito uddhaṃ asati bhavaṅgupacchedake cittuppāde bhavaṅgakiccaṃ, ante cutikiccañcāti tīṇi kiccāni sādhayamānāni niyatavatthukāni aniyatadvārārammaṇaṭṭhānakiccāni hutvā pavattanti. ¶ 131. The eight sense-sphere consciousnesses with root-cause ((42)–(49)) occur accomplishing three functions, namely, the function of registration (m) in the six doors in the way already stated, the function of life-continuum (b) after rebirth- linking given by themselves, as long as there is no thought-arising to interrupt the life-continuum, and lastly the function of death (n) at the end. And they are invariable as to [possession of heart-] basis, and variable as to door, position, and function. ¶
Pañca rūpāvacarāni cattāri ca āruppāni attanā dinnapaṭisandhito uddhaṃ asati bhavaṅgupacchedake cittuppāde bhavaṅgakiccaṃ, ante cutikiccañcāti kiccadvayaṃ sādhayamānāni pavattanti. 132. The five fine-material consciousnesses ((57)–(61)) and the four immaterial consciousnesses ((62)–(65)) occur accomplishing two functions, namely, the function of life-continuum (b) that continues after rebirth-linking given by themselves, as long as there is no thought-arising to interrupt the life-continuum, and the function of death (n) at the end.
Tesu rūpāvacarāni niyatavatthārammaṇāni aniyataṭṭhānakiccāni, itarāni niyatavatthukāni niyatārammaṇāni aniyataṭṭhānakiccāni hutvā pavattantīti evaṃ tāva bāttiṃsavidhampi viññāṇaṃ pavattiyaṃ saṅkhārapaccayā pavattati. As regards these, those of the fine- material sphere are invariable as to [possession of heart-]basis and as to their object, and they are variable as to position and function, while the others occur invariably without [heart-] basis, and they are invariable as to object, and variable as to position and function. This, in the first place, is how the thirty-twofold resultant consciousness occurs in the course of an individual existence with formations as condition.
Tatrāssa te te saṅkhārā kammapaccayena ca upanissayapaccayena ca paccayā honti. ¶ And there [in the course of an existence] these several formations are conditions, as kamma condition and decisive-support condition, for this [thirty-twofold resultant consciousness]. ¶
622. Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ "sesesu ekūnavīsatiyā na kiñci attano anurūpāya paṭisandhiyā na pavattatī"ti, taṃ atisaṃkhittattā dubbijānaṃ. 133. But what was said above, namely, “as to the remaining nineteen, there is none that does not occur as a rebirth-linking appropriate to it” (§130), is hard to understand since it is too brief.
Tenassa vitthāranayadassanatthaṃ vuccati – kati paṭisandhiyo, kati paṭisandhicittāni, kena kattha paṭisandhi hoti, kiṃ paṭisandhiyā ārammaṇanti? ¶ Hence, in order to show the details it may be asked: (i) How many kinds of rebirth-linking are there? (ii) How many kinds of rebirth- linking consciousness? (iii) Where and by what means does rebirth-linking come about? (iv) What does rebirth-linking [consciousness] have as its object? ¶
Asaññapaṭisandhiyā saddhiṃ vīsati paṭisandhiyo. 134. (i) Including the rebirth-linking of non-percipient beings there are twenty kinds of rebirth-linking.
Vuttappakārāneva ekūnavīsati paṭisandhicittāni. (ii) There are nineteen kinds of rebirth-linking consciousnesses, as already described.
Tattha akusalavipākāya ahetukamanoviññāṇadhātuyā apāyesu paṭisandhi hoti. (iii) Herein, rebirth-linking by means of the unprofitable-resultant root- causeless mind-consciousness element (56) comes about in the states of loss.
Kusalavipākāya manussaloke jaccandhajātibadhirajātiummattakajātieḷamūganapuṃsakādīnaṃ. Rebirth-linking by means of the profitable-resultant (41) comes about in the human world among those blind from birth, born deaf, born mad, born drivelling (see M I 20; M-a I 118), the sexless, and so on.
Aṭṭhahi sahetukakāmāvacaravipākehi kāmāvacaradevesu ceva manussesu ca puññavantānaṃ paṭisandhi hoti. Rebirth-linking by means of the eight principal resultant consciousnesses with root-cause ((42)–(49)) comes about among deities of the sense sphere and the meritorious among men.
Pañcahi rūpāvacaravipākehi rūpībrahmaloke. That by means of the five fine-material resultant kinds comes about in the fine-material Brahmā-world.
Catūhi arūpāvacaravipākehi arūpaloketi. That by means of the four immaterial-sphere resultant kinds comes about in the immaterial world.
Yena ca yattha paṭisandhi hoti, sā eva tassa anurūpā paṭisandhi nāma. So rebirth-linking [consciousness] conforms to the means by which, and the place in which, it comes about.
Saṅkhepato pana paṭisandhiyā tīṇi ārammaṇāni honti atītaṃ paccuppannaṃ navattabbañca. (iv) Briefly, rebirth-linking [consciousness] has three kinds of objects, namely, past, present, and not-so-classifiable (see Ch. III, n. 32).
Asaññā paṭisandhi anārammaṇāti. ¶ Non-percipient rebirth- linking [consciousness] has no object. ¶
Tattha viññāṇañcāyatananevasaññānāsaññāyatanapaṭisandhīnaṃ atītameva ārammaṇaṃ. 135. Herein, in the base consisting of boundless consciousness and the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception, the object of rebirth-linking is past.
Dasannaṃ kāmāvacarānaṃ atītaṃ vā paccuppannaṃ vā. That of the ten kinds of sense-sphere rebirth-linking is past or present.
Sesānaṃ navattabbameva. That of the rest is not-so-classifiable.
Evaṃ tīsu ārammaṇesu pavattamānā pana paṭisandhi yasmā atītārammaṇassa vā navattabbārammaṇassa vā cuticittassa anantarameva pavattati. But while the rebirth-linking consciousness occurs thus with three kinds of objects, the death consciousness, next to which it occurs, has only a past or a not-so-classifiable object,
Paccuppannārammaṇaṃ pana cuticittaṃ nāma natthi. there being no death consciousness with a present object.
Tasmā dvīsu ārammaṇesu aññatarārammaṇāya cutiyā anantarā tīsu ārammaṇesu aññatarārammaṇāya paṭisandhiyā sugatiduggativasena pavattanākāro veditabbo. ¶ Consequently, it should be understood how it occurs in the happy destinies and the unhappy destinies as follows, that is to say, how rebirth-linking consciousness with one of three kinds of objects occurs next to death consciousness with one of two kinds of objects. ¶ Следовательно, нужно понимать как оно происходит в благих и дурных уделах как будет дальше объяснено, а именно как момент ума (сознание) воссоединения с тремя видами объектов происходит [сразу после] момента ума (сознания) ухода с одним из двух видов объектов. ¶ Тут во второй части предложения похоже что-то пропущено. По скану бумажного издания 1999 года проверил - там то же самое.
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623. Seyyathidaṃ – kāmāvacarasugatiyaṃ tāva ṭhitassa pāpakammino puggalassa "tānissa tasmiṃ samaye olambantī"tiādivacanato (ma. ni. 3.248) maraṇamañce nipannassa yathūpacitaṃ pāpakammaṃ vā kammanimittaṃ vā manodvāre āpāthamāgacchati. 136.[From happy to unhappy destiny.] For example, firstly in the case of a person in the happy destinies of the sense-sphere who is an evildoer, when he is lying on his deathbed, his evil kamma according as it has been stored up, or its sign, comes into focus in the mind door. For it is said, “Then [the evil deeds that he did in the past] … cover him [and overspread him and envelop him]” (M III 164), and so on. [Из благого удела в дурной удел] Например, в случае существа, находящегося в благом уделе мира страсти, являющегося злодеем, когда он лежит на смертном одре, его накопившаяся дурная камма или её знак приходит в фокус врат рассудка. Ведь сказано: "Затем [совершённые им дурные поступки] покрывают его [охватывают его и оборачивают его]" и т.п.
Taṃ ārabbha uppannāya tadārammaṇapariyosānāya javanavīthiyā anantaraṃ bhavaṅgavisayaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā cuticittaṃ uppajjati. Then next to the cognitive series of impulsions ending in registration22 that arose contingent upon that [kamma or its sign], death consciousness arises making the life-continuum’s objective field its object. Комм. НТ: 22.Vibh-a (Be) adds “suddhāya va javanavīthiyā” here, as in §140 below in all texts.
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Tasmiṃ niruddhe tadeva āpāthagataṃ kammaṃ vā kammanimittaṃ vā ārabbha anupacchinnakilesabalavināmitaṃ duggatipariyāpannaṃ paṭisandhicittaṃ uppajjati. When it has ceased, rebirth- linking consciousness arises contingent upon that same kamma or kamma sign that had come into focus, and it does so located in the unhappy destiny, being driven there by the force of defilements that have not been cut off. Когда момент ума ухода закончился, возникает момент ума (сознание) воссоединения, связанный с той каммой или знаком каммы, пришедшем в фокус, и этот момент ума расположен в дурном уделе, будучи направлен туда силой умственных загрязнений, которые не были отсечены.
Ayaṃ atītārammaṇāya cutiyā anantarā atītārammaṇā paṭisandhi. ¶ This is the kind of rebirth-linking that has a past object and comes next to death consciousness with a past object. ¶ Это вид воссоединения ума, имеющий прошлый объект, возникающий сразу после ухода с прошлым объектом. ¶
Aparassa maraṇasamaye vuttappakārakammavasena narakādīsu aggijālavaṇṇādikaṃ duggatinimittaṃ manodvāre āpāthamāgacchati, tassa dvikkhattuṃ bhavaṅge uppajjitvā niruddhe taṃ ārammaṇaṃ ārabbha ekaṃ āvajjanaṃ, maraṇassa āsannabhāvena mandībhūtavegattā pañca javanāni, dve tadārammaṇānīti tīṇi vīthicittāni uppajjanti. 137.In another’s case, owing to kamma of the kind already described, there comes into focus at the mind door at the time of death the sign of the unhappy destinies with the appearance of fire and flames, etc., in the hells, and so on. 23 So when the life-continuum has twice arisen and ceased, three sorts of cognitive- series consciousness arise contingent upon that object, namely, the one adverting, impulsions numbering five because of the slowing down due to the nearness of death, and two registrations. В случае с другим существом благодаря вышеописанной камме в фокус врат рассудка в момент смерти приходит знак дурных уделов с изображением огня, языков пламени и прочего в аду и т.п. Поэтому когда жизненный континуум дважды возник и прекратился, возникает три вида моментов ума в зависимости от объекта, а именно:... 23.
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Tato bhavaṅgavisayaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā ekaṃ cuticittaṃ. After that, one death consciousness arises making the life-continuum’s objective field its object. После этого возникает один момент ума ухода, делая своим объектом область жизненного континуума.
Ettāvatā ekādasa cittakkhaṇā atītā honti. At this point eleven consciousnesses have elapsed. В этот момент завершились 11 моментов ума.
Athassa avasesapañcacittakkhaṇāyuke tasmiññeva ārammaṇe paṭisandhicittaṃ uppajjati. Then, having that same object, which has a life span of the remaining five conscious moments, his rebirth-linking consciousness arises. Затем, с тем же объектом, имеющим срок жизни в течение оставшихся пяти моментов ума, возникает момент ума (сознание) воссоединения.
Ayaṃ atītārammaṇāya cutiyā anantarā paccuppannārammaṇā paṭisandhi. ¶ This is the kind of rebirth-linking that has a present object and comes next to death with a past object. ¶ Это вид воссоединения ума, имеющий настоящий объект и возникающий сразу после ухода с прошлым объектом. ¶
Aparassa maraṇasamaye pañcannaṃ dvārānaṃ aññatarasmiṃ rāgādihetubhūtaṃ hīnamārammaṇaṃ āpāthamāgacchati. 138. In another’s case, at the time of death there comes into focus in one of the five doors an inferior object that is a cause of greed, and so on.
Tassa yathākkamena uppanne voṭṭhabbanāvasāne maraṇassa āsannabhāvena mandībhūtavegattā pañca javanāni, dve tadārammaṇāni ca uppajjanti. When a series of consciousnesses up to determining have arisen in due succession, there arise impulsions numbering five because of slowing down due to the nearness of death, and two registrations.
Tato bhavaṅgavisayaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā ekaṃ cuticittaṃ. After that, one death consciousness arises making the life-continuum’s objective field its object.
Ettāvatā ca dve bhavaṅgāni, āvajjanaṃ, dassanaṃ, sampaṭicchanaṃ, santīraṇaṃ, voṭṭhabbanaṃ, pañca javanāni, dve tadārammaṇāni, ekaṃ cuticittanti pañcadasa cittakkhaṇā atītā honti. At this point fifteen consciousnesses have elapsed, namely, two life-continuums, one each adverting, seeing, receiving, investigating and determining, five impulsions, two registrations, and one death consciousness.
Athāvasesaekacittakkhaṇāyuke tasmiññeva ārammaṇe paṭisandhicittaṃ uppajjati. Then, having that same object, which has a life span of the remaining one conscious moment, his rebirth-linking consciousness arises.
Ayampi atītārammaṇāya cutiyā anantarā paccuppannārammaṇā paṭisandhi. This also is the kind of rebirth-linking that has a present object and comes next to a death consciousness with a past object. Это также вид воссоединения ума, имеющий настоящий объект и возникающий сразу после ухода с прошлым объектом.
Esa tāva atītārammaṇāya sugaticutiyā anantarā atītapaccuppannārammaṇāya duggatipaṭisandhiyā pavattanākāro. ¶ This, firstly, is how rebirth-linking in an unhappy destiny with past and present objects occurs next to death consciousness in a happy destiny with a past object. ¶
624. Duggatiyaṃ ṭhitassa pana upacitānavajjakammassa vuttanayeneva taṃ anavajjakammaṃ vā kammanimittaṃ vā manodvāre āpāthamāgacchatīti kaṇhapakkhe sukkapakkhaṃ ṭhapetvā sabbaṃ purimanayeneva veditabbaṃ. 139.[From unhappy to happy destiny.] In the case of one in an unhappy destiny who has stored up blameless kamma all should be understood in the same way, substituting the bright for the dark side thus: His good kamma, [according as it has been stored up], or its sign, comes into focus in the mind door [and continuing] in the way already stated. [Из дурного удела в благой удел] В случае существа в дурном уделе, имеющего накопленную непорицаемую камму, всё следует понимать аналогично, заменяя тёмный аспект на светлый: Его благая камма [в соответствии с тем, что она была накоплена] или её знак приходит в фокус врат рассудка [и продолжается] уже описанным способом.
Ayaṃ atītārammaṇāya duggaticutiyā anantarā atītapaccuppannārammaṇāya sugatipaṭisandhiyā pavattanākāro. ¶ This is how rebirth-linking occurs in a happy destiny with past and present objects next to death consciousness in an unhappy destiny with a past object. ¶ Вот как воссоединение ума происходит в благом уделе, имея прошлый и настоящий объект, следующий за моментом ума ухода в дурном уделе с прошлым объектом. ¶
625. Sugatiyaṃ ṭhitassa pana upacitānavajjakammassa "tānissa tasmiṃ samaye olambantī"tiādivacanato maraṇamañce nipannassa yathūpacitaṃ anavajjakammaṃ vā kammanimittaṃ vā manodvāre āpāthamāgacchati. 140.[From happy to happy destiny.] In the case of one in a happy destiny who has stored up blameless kamma, when he is lying on his death-bed, his blameless kamma according as it has been stored up, or its sign, comes into focus in the mind door. For it is said, “Then [the good deeds he did in the past] … cover him [and overspread him and envelop him]” (M III 171), and so on. [Из благого удела в благой удел] В случае существа в благом уделе имеющего накопленную непорицаемую камму, когда он лежит на смертном одре, его непорицаемая камма, в соответствии с тем, что она была накоплена или её знак приходит в фокус врат рассудка. Ведь сказано: "Тогда [совершённые в прошлом благотворные поступки] покрывают его [охватывают его и оборачивают его]" и т.п.
Tañca kho upacitakāmāvacarānavajjakammasseva. And that applies only in the case of one who has stored up blameless sense-sphere kamma. И это относится только к тому, кто обладает непорицаемой каммой мира страсти.
Upacitamahaggatakammassa pana kammanimittameva āpāthamāgacchati. But in the case of one who has stored up kamma of the exalted spheres only the sign of the kamma comes into focus. Но что касается того, кто обладает каммой возвышенных уровней, в фокус его врат рассудка приходит только знак.
Taṃ ārabbha uppannāya tadārammaṇapariyosānāya suddhāya vā javanavīthiyā anantaraṃ bhavaṅgavisayaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā cuticittaṃ uppajjati. Then next to the cognitive series of impulsions ending in registration, or of simple impulsions, that arose contingent upon that [kamma or its sign], death consciousness arises making the life- continuum’s objective field its object. ... возникает момент ума (сознание) ухода, делая своим объектом область жизненного континуума.
Tasmiṃ niruddhe tameva āpāthagataṃ kammaṃ vā kammanimittaṃ vā ārabbha anupacchinnakilesabalavināmitaṃ sugatipariyāpannaṃ paṭisandhicittaṃ uppajjati. When it has ceased, rebirth-linking consciousness arises contingent upon that same kamma or sign of kamma that had come into focus, and it does so located in the happy destiny, being driven there by the force of defilements that have not been cut off. Когда он прекратился, возникает момент ума (сознание) воссоединения, зависящий от той самой каммы или знака, пришедшего в фокус и он возникает в благом уделе, направляемый туда силой неотсечённых загрязнений.
Ayaṃ atītārammaṇāya cutiyā anantarā atītārammaṇā vā navattabbārammaṇā vā paṭisandhi. ¶ This is the kind of rebirth-linking that has a past or a not-so-classifiable object and comes next to death consciousness with a past object. ¶
Aparassa maraṇasamaye kāmāvacaraanavajjakammavasena manussaloke mātukucchivaṇṇasaṅkhātaṃ vā devaloke uyyānavimānakapparukkhādivaṇṇasaṅkhātaṃ vā sugatinimittaṃ manodvāre āpāthamāgacchati, tassa duggatinimitte dassitānukkameneva cuticittānantaraṃ paṭisandhicittaṃ uppajjati. 141.In another’s case, owing to blameless sense-sphere kamma, there comes into focus in the mind door at the time of death the sign of a happy destiny, in other words, the appearance of the mother’s womb24 in the case of the human world or the appearance of pleasure groves, divine palaces, wishing trees, etc., in the case of the divine world. His rebirth-linking consciousness arises next to the death consciousness in the order shown for the sign of an unhappy destiny. В случае с другим существом, благодаря непорицаемой камме мира страсти в фокус врат рассудка в момент смерти приходит знак благого удела, другими словами, образ чрева матери в случае мира людей или образ парков развлечений, божественных дворцов, деревьев желаний и прочего в случае божественных миров. Его момент ума (сознание) воссоединения возникает сразу после момента ума (сознание) ухода в том же порядке, что указан для знака дурного удела. 24. The Sammohavinodanī adds more details here: “When hell appears it does so like a metal cauldron; when the human world appears, the mother’s womb a...
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Ayaṃ atītārammaṇāya cutiyā anantarā paccuppannārammaṇā paṭisandhi. ¶ This is the kind of rebirth-linking that has a present object and comes next to death consciousness with a past object. ¶
Aparassa maraṇasamaye ñātakā "ayaṃ tāta tavatthāya buddhapūjā karīyati cittaṃ pasādehī"ti vatvā pupphadāmapaṭākādivasena rūpārammaṇaṃ vā, dhammassavanatūriyapūjādivasena saddārammaṇaṃ vā, dhūmavāsagandhādivasena gandhārammaṇaṃ vā, "idaṃ tāta sāyassu tavatthāya dātabbadeyyadhamma"nti vatvā madhuphāṇitādivasena rasārammaṇaṃ vā, "idaṃ tāta phusassu tavatthāya dātabbadeyyadhamma"nti vatvā cīnapaṭṭasomārapaṭṭādivasena phoṭṭhabbārammaṇaṃ vā pañcadvāre upasaṃharanti, tassa tasmiṃ āpāthagate rūpādiārammaṇe yathākkamena uppannavoṭṭhabbanāvasāne maraṇassa āsannabhāvena mandībhūtavegattā pañca javanāni, dve tadārammaṇāni ca uppajjanti. 142. In another’s case, relatives present [objects to him] at the five sense doors, such as a visible datum as object, perhaps flowers, garlands, flags, banners, etc., saying, “This is being offered to the Blessed One for your sake, dear, set your mind at rest”; or a sound as object, perhaps, preaching of the Dhamma, offerings of music, etc.; or an odour as object, perhaps incense, scents, perfumes, etc.; or a taste as object, perhaps honey, molasses, etc., saying, “Taste this, dear, it is a gift to be given for your sake”; or a tangible datum as object, perhaps Chinese silk, silk of Somāra, saying, “Touch this, dear, it is a gift to be given for your sake. ” Now, when that visible datum, or whatever it may be, as object has come into focus for him and the consciousnesses ending in determining have arisen in due succession, there arise in him impulsions numbering five because of slowing down due to the nearness of death, and two registrations;
Tato bhavaṅgavisayaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā ekaṃ cuticittaṃ, tadavasāne tasmiññeva ekacittakkhaṇaṭṭhitike ārammaṇe paṭisandhicittaṃ uppajjati. after that, one death consciousness, making the life-continuum’s objective field its object. At the end of that, having that same object, which lasts only a single conscious moment, rebirth-linking consciousness arises.
Ayampi atītārammaṇāya cutiyā anantarā paccuppannārammaṇā paṭisandhi. ¶ This also is the kind of rebirth-linking with a present object and comes next to a death consciousness with a past object. ¶
626. Aparassa pana pathavīkasiṇajjhānādivasena paṭiladdhamahaggatassa sugatiyaṃ ṭhitassa maraṇasamaye kāmāvacarakusalakamma-kammanimitta-gatinimittānaṃ vā aññataraṃ, pathavīkasiṇādikaṃ vā nimittaṃ, mahaggatacittaṃ vā manodvāre āpāthamāgacchati, cakkhusotānaṃ vā aññatarasmiṃ kusaluppattihetubhūtaṃ paṇītamārammaṇaṃ āpāthamāgacchati, tassa yathākkamena uppannavoṭṭhabbanāvasāne maraṇassa āsannabhāvena mandībhūtavegattā pañca javanāni uppajjanti. 143. But in the case of another who is in a happy destiny and has obtained exalted [consciousness] through earth-kasiṇa jhāna, etc., at the time of his death there comes into focus at the mind door the sense-sphere profitable kamma or the sign of the kamma or the sign of the destiny, or else the sign of the earth kasiṇa, etc., or else the exalted consciousness, [551] or else there comes into focus a superior object of the eye or ear that is a cause for profitable rebirth. When the consciousnesses ending in determining have arisen in due succession, there arise in him impulsions numbering five because of slowing down due to the nearness of death. Но в случае того, кто находясь в благом уделе и достиг возвышенного ума с помощью поглощённости на касине земли и т.п. в момент смерти в фокус врат рассудка попадает благая камма мира страсти или знак этой каммы или знак удела или знак касины земли и т.п. или возвышенный ум или в фокус приходит превосходный видимый или слышимый объект, являющийся причиной благоприятного перерождения. ...
Mahaggatagatikānaṃ pana tadārammaṇaṃ natthi, tasmā javanānantaraṃyeva bhavaṅgavisayaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā ekaṃ cuticittaṃ uppajjati. But in those who belong to an exalted destiny there is no registration. So the one death consciousness arises next to the impulsion and making the life-continuum’s objective field its object.
Tassāvasāne kāmāvacaramahaggatasugatīnaṃ aññatarasugatipariyāpannaṃ yathūpaṭṭhitesu ārammaṇesu aññatarārammaṇaṃ paṭisandhicittaṃ uppajjati. At the end of that, rebirth- linking consciousness arises located in one of the happy destinies of the sense sphere or exalted sphere, and having as its object whichever one among the aforesaid objects has appeared.
Ayaṃ navattabbārammaṇāya sugaticutiyā anantarā atītapaccuppannanavattabbārammaṇānaṃ aññatarārammaṇā paṭisandhi. ¶ This is the kind of rebirth-linking with a past, present, or not-so-classifiable object next to death consciousness in a happy destiny with a not-so-classifiable object. ¶
Etenānusārena āruppacutiyāpi anantarā paṭisandhi veditabbā. 144. Rebirth-linking next to immaterial-sphere death should be understood in this way too. Воссоединение ума, следующее за смертью в бесформенном мире следует понимать аналогичным образом.
Ayaṃ atītanavattabbārammaṇāya sugaticutiyā anantarā atītanavattabbapaccuppannārammaṇāya paṭisandhiyā pavattanākāro. ¶ This is how rebirth-linking occurs with a past, present, or not-so- classifiable object next to death consciousness in a happy destiny with a past or not-so-classifiable object. ¶
627. Duggatiyaṃ ṭhitassa pana pāpakammino vuttanayeneva taṃ kammaṃ kammanimittaṃ gatinimittaṃ vā manodvāre. 145.[From unhappy to unhappy destiny.] In the case of one in an unhappy destiny who is an evil-doer, that kamma, or its sign, or the sign of the destiny, comes into focus in the mind door, [Из дурного удела в дурной удел] В случае существа в друном уделе, кто является злодеем, эта камма или её знак, или знак удела приходит в фокус врат рассудка
Pañcadvāre vā pana akusaluppatti hetubhūtaṃ ārammaṇaṃ āpāthamāgacchati, athassa yathākkamena cuticittāvasāne duggatipariyāpannaṃ tesu ārammaṇesu aññatarārammaṇaṃ paṭisandhicittaṃ uppajjati. or in the five doors, as the object that is the cause for the unprofitable rebirth. Then his rebirth-linking consciousness arises in due succession at the end of the death consciousness and located in the unhappy destiny and with one of those objects as its object. или в пять врат в качестве объекта, являющегося причиной неблагоприятного перерождения. Затем, его момент ума (сознание) воссоединения возникает в должной последовательности по окончании момента ума ухода и расположен он в дурном уделе и с одним из тех объектов в качестве объекта.
Ayaṃ atītārammaṇāya duggaticutiyā anantarā atītapaccuppannārammaṇāya paṭisandhiyā pavattanākāroti. This is how rebirth-linking occurs with a past or present object next to death in an unhappy destiny with a past object.
Ettāvatā ekūnavīsatividhassāpi viññāṇassa paṭisandhivasena pavatti dīpitā hoti. ¶ 146.Up to this point there has been shown the occurrence of the nineteenfold consciousness as rebirth-linking. ¶
628. Tayidaṃ sabbampi evaṃ, ¶ Also all this [is further classified; for] ¶
Pavattamānaṃ sandhimhi, dvedhā kammena vattati; ¶ While it occurs in linking thus, It has a double class beside ¶
Missādīhi ca bhedehi, bhedassa duvidhādiko. ¶ Through kamma, and as mixed and not, And is still further classified. ¶
Idañhi ekūnavīsatividhampi vipākaviññāṇaṃ paṭisandhimhi pavattamānā dvedhā kammena vattati. 147. When this nineteenfold kamma-resultant consciousness occurs thus in rebirth-linking, it does so by means of kamma in two ways; Когда это сознание 19 видов, являющееся результатом каммы возникает образом при воссоединении ума, оно делает это посредством каммы двумя способами.
Yathāsakañhi ekassa janakakammaṃ nānākkhaṇikakammapaccayena ceva upanissayapaccayena ca paccayo hoti. for according to the way in which the kamma that generates it occurs, the kamma can be its condition both as kamma condition acting from a different time and as decisive-support condition, Ведь в зависимости от того как происходит порождающая его камма, камма может быть его условием как каммическое условие, действующее с другого времени и как способствующая предпосылка.
Vuttañhetaṃ "kusalākusalaṃ kammaṃ vipākassa upanissayapaccayena paccayo"ti (paṭṭhā. 1.1.423). since this is said: “Profitable … [and] unprofitable kamma is a condition, as decisive-support condition, for [its] result” (Paṭṭh I 167, 169).
Evaṃ vattamānassa panassa missādīhi bhedehi duvidhādikopi bhedo veditabbo. ¶ 148. It should be understood that when it occurs thus, its double class, etc., is mixed and not, and it is still further classified. ¶ Следует понимать, что когда оно так происходит, его двойное деление и т.п. является смешанным и несмешанным и также оно имеет дополнительное деление. ¶
Seyyathidaṃ – idañhi paṭisandhivasena ekadhā pavattamānampi rūpena saha missāmissabhedato duvidhaṃ. For example: though this [type of consciousness] occurs in one way only as rebirth-linking, still it is twofold as divided into mixed and unmixed with materiality; [552] Например, хотя этот [вид сознания] происходит в одной форме только как воссоединение ума, он всё равно делится на два вида - смешанный с материальным и не смешанный с материальным.
Kāmarūpārūpabhavabhedato tividhaṃ. it is threefold as divided according to sense-desire, fine-material, and immaterial becoming (M I 50); Он делится на три вида - бывание в мире страсти, в мире тонких форм и в бесформенном мире.
Aṇḍajajalābuja-saṃsedaja-opapātikayonivasena catubbidhaṃ. it is fourfold as egg-born, womb-born, putrescence- (moisture-) born, and of apparitional generation (M I 73); Он делится на четыре вида - рождение из яйца, из чрева, из влаги и как призрак.
Gativasena pañcavidhaṃ. it is fivefold according to destiny (M I 73); Он делится на пять видов согласно уделу.
Viññāṇaṭṭhitivasena sattavidhaṃ. it is sevenfold according to the stations of consciousness (D III 253), Он делится на семь видов согласно уровням сознания.
Sattāvāsavasena aṭṭhavidhaṃ hoti. ¶ and it is eightfold according to the abodes of beings [excluding non-percipient beings] (see D III 263). ¶ Он делится на восемь видов согласно сферам проживания существ [за исключением невосприимчивых существ]. ¶
629. Tattha, ¶ 149. Herein: ¶
Missaṃ dvidhā bhāvabhedā, sabhāvaṃ tattha ca dvidhā; ¶ The mixed is double, sexed and not, And that with sex is double too; ¶
Dve vā tayo vā dasakā, omato ādinā saha. ¶ The least decads the first has got Respectively are three and two. ¶
Missaṃ dvidhā bhāvabhedāti yaṃ hetaṃ ettha aññatra arūpabhavā rūpamissaṃ paṭisandhiviññāṇaṃ uppajjati, taṃ rūpabhave itthindriyapurisindriyasaṅkhātena bhāvena vinā uppattito. 150. The mixed is double, sexed and not: that rebirth-linking consciousness, which, leaving aside the immaterial becoming, arises here mixed with materiality, is twofold as “with sex” and “without sex,”25 Комм. НТ: 25. Sa-bhāva (with sex) and a-bhāva (without sex) are not to be confused with sabhāva (individual essence) and abhāva (absence, non-existenc...
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Kāmabhave aññatra jātipaṇḍakapaṭisandhiyā bhāvena saha uppattito sa-bhāvaṃ, a-bhāvanti duvidhaṃ hoti. ¶ because it arises in the fine-material sphere without the sex called femininity faculty and masculinity faculty, and because—leaving aside the rebirth-linking of one born as a eunuch—it arises in the sense-sphere becoming together with that [twofold] sex. ¶
Sabhāvaṃtattha ca dvidhāti tatthāpi ca yaṃ sa-bhāvaṃ, taṃ itthipurisabhāvānaṃ aññatarena saha uppattito duvidhameva hoti. ¶ And that with sex is double too: there also that with sex is twofold because it arises in association with either the female or the male sex. ¶
Dve vā tayo vā dasakā omato ādinā sahāti yaṃ hetamettha "missaṃ amissa"nti duke ādibhūtaṃ rūpamissaṃ paṭisandhiviññāṇaṃ, tena saha vatthukāyadasakavasena dve vā, vatthukāyabhāvadasakavasena tayo vā dasakā omato uppajjanti, natthi ito paraṃ rūpaparihānīti. 151. The least decads the first has got respectively are three or two: together with the rebirth-linking consciousness that is mixed with materiality and comes first in the pair “mixed and unmixed,” there arise, at the least, the two decads (see 18.5f.) of physical basis and body, or else the three decads of physical basis, body, and sex. There is no reducing the materiality below that.
Taṃ panetaṃ evaṃ omakaparimāṇaṃ uppajjamānaṃ aṇḍajajalābujanāmikāsu dvīsu yonīsu jātiuṇṇāya ekena aṃsunā uddhaṭasappimaṇḍappamāṇaṃ kalalanti laddhasaṅkhaṃ hutvā uppajjati. 152. But when that minimal amount arises in the two kinds of generation termed egg-born and womb-born, it amounts to no more than a drop of cream of ghee on a single fibre of new-born [kid’s] wool, and it is known as the “embryo in the first stage” (S I 206).
Tattha yonīnaṃ gativasena sambhavabhedo veditabbo. ¶ 153. Herein, how the different kinds of generation come about may be understood according to the kind of destiny. ¶
630. Etāsu hi, ¶ For as regards these: ¶
Niraye bhummavajjesu, devesu ca na yoniyo; ¶ No first three generations are In hell, or with the deities, ¶
Tisso purimikā honti, catassopi gatittaye. ¶ Save those of earth; all four are found In the three other destinies. ¶
Tattha devesu cāti casaddena yathā niraye ca bhummavajjesu ca devesu, evaṃ nijjhāmataṇhikapetesu ca purimikā tisso yoniyo na santīti veditabbā. 154. Herein, by the words with deities it should be understood that, as in hell and among deities—excepting earth deities—so also among the ghosts consumed with thirst, the first three kinds of generation are not found;
Opapātikā eva hi te honti. for they are apparitional only.
Sese pana tiracchānapettivisayamanussasaṅkhāte gatittaye pubbe vajjitabhummadevesu ca catassopi yoniyo honti. But in the remaining three kinds of destiny, in other words, among animals, ghosts and human beings, and among the earth deities excepted above, there are all four kinds of generation.
Tattha, ¶ 155. Now: ¶
Tiṃsa nava ceva rūpīsu, sattati ukkaṃsatotha rūpāni; ¶ The fine material gods have thirty-nine; The apparitional and moisture-born ¶
Saṃsedupapātayonisu, atha vā avakaṃsato tiṃsa. ¶ Have seventy material instances At most, and they have thirty at the least. ¶
Rūpībrahmesu tāva opapātikayonikesu cakkhusotavatthudasakānaṃ jīvitanavakassa cāti catunnaṃ kalāpānaṃ vasena tiṃsa ca nava ca paṭisandhiviññāṇena saha rūpāni uppajjanti. 156.Firstly, among the fine-material Brahmās of apparitional generation there arise together with rebirth-linking consciousness thirty and also nine material instances [553] with the four groups, namely, the decads of the eye, ear, and physical basis, and the ennead of life.
Rūpī brahme pana ṭhapetvā aññesu saṃsedajaopapātikayonikesu ukkaṃsato cakkhusotaghānajivhākāyavatthubhāvadasakānaṃ vasena sattati, tāni ca niccaṃ devesu. But leaving the fine-material Brahmās aside, among the others of apparitional generation and those of the moisture-born generation there are seventy instances of materiality at the most with the decads of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, physical basis and sex. And these are invariably to be found among deities [of the sense sphere].
Tattha vaṇṇo gandho raso ojā catasso cāpi dhātuyo cakkhupasādo jīvitanti ayaṃ dasarūpaparimāṇo rūpapuñjo cakkhudasako nāma. Now, the group of material states comprising the ten material instances, namely, colour, odour, flavour, nutritive essence, and the four primary elements, with eye sensitivity and life, are called the “eye decad.”
Evaṃ sesā veditabbā. The remaining [groups of material states] should be understood in the same way.
Avakaṃsato pana jaccandhabadhiraaghānakanapuṃsakassa jivhākāyavatthudasakānaṃ vasena tiṃsa rūpāni uppajjanti. 157. At the least, thirty material instances arise with the decads of the tongue, body, and physical basis, in those who are blind from birth, deaf, noseless,26 and sexless. Комм. НТ: 26. Vism-mhṭ (p. 611) has a long discussion here of the difficulty of speaking of the Brahmā-world (where there are only the senses of seein...
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Ukkaṃsāvakaṃsānaṃ pana antare anurūpato vikappo veditabbo. ¶ Between the most and the least, the allotment should be understood according as appropriate. ¶
631. Evaṃ viditvā puna, ¶ 158. After knowing this, again: ¶
Khandhārammaṇagatihetu-vedanāpītivitakkavicārehi; Bhedābhedaviseso, cutisandhīnaṃ pariññeyyo. ¶ One ought to consider the [pair] death and birth Under aggregates, object, cause, destiny, feeling, Happiness, and then thinking applied and sustained, Distinguishing them by unlikeness and likeness. ¶
Yā hesā missāmissato duvidhā paṭisandhi, yā cassā atītānantarā cuti, tāsaṃ imehi khandhādīhi bhedābhedaviseso ñātabboti attho. ¶ 159. The meaning is this: there is rebirth-linking that is twofold as mixed and unmixed [with materiality], and there is the death consciousness next before it, and their unlikeness and likeness according to these aggregates, etc., must be known. ¶
Kathaṃ? How?
Kadāci hi catukkhandhāya āruppacutiyā anantarā catukkhandhāva ārammaṇatopi abhinnā paṭisandhi hoti. 160. Sometimes, next to a four-aggregate immaterial death there is a four- aggregate rebirth-linking having a like object;
Kadāci amahaggatabahiddhārammaṇāya mahaggataajjhattārammaṇā. sometimes there is an exalted rebirth-linking with an internal object next to an unexalted death with an external object.
Ayaṃ tāva arūpabhūmīsuyeva nayo. This, firstly, is the method in the case of the immaterial planes.
Kadāci pana catukkhandhāya arūpacutiyā anantarā pañcakkhandhā kāmāvacarapaṭisandhi. Sometimes there is a five-aggregate sense-sphere rebirth-linking next to a four- aggregate immaterial death.
Kadāci pañcakkhandhāya kāmāvacaracutiyā rūpāvacaracutiyā vā anantarā catukkhandhā arūpapaṭisandhi. Sometimes there is a four-aggregate immaterial rebirth- linking next to a five-aggregate sense-sphere death or fine-material-sphere death.
Evaṃ atītārammaṇāya cutiyā paccuppannārammaṇā paṭisandhi. Thus there is rebirth-linking with a present object27 next to a death with a past object, Комм. НТ: 27. Sammohavinodanī (Be) has “rebirth-linking with a past, not so-classifiable, and present object next to” and so on.
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Ekaccasugaticutiyā ekaccaduggatipaṭisandhi. there is rebirth-linking in a certain unhappy destiny next to death in a certain happy destiny,
Ahetukacutiyā sahetukapaṭisandhi. there is rebirth-linking with root-cause next to root- causeless death,
Duhetukacutiyā tihetukapaṭisandhi. there is triple-root-cause rebirth-linking next to double-root- cause death,
Upekkhāsahagatacutiyā somanassasahagatapaṭisandhi. there is rebirth-linking accompanied by joy next to death accompanied by equanimity,
Appītikacutiyā sappītikapaṭisandhi. there is rebirth-linking with happiness next to death without happiness,
Avitakkacutiyā savitakkapaṭisandhi. there is rebirth-linking with applied thought next to death without applied thought,
Avicāracutiyā savicārapaṭisandhi. there is rebirth-linking with sustained thought next to death without sustained thought,
Avitakkāvicāracutiyā savitakkasavicārapaṭisandhīti tassa tassa viparītato ca yathāyogaṃ yojetabbaṃ. ¶ there is rebirth-linking with applied and sustained thought next to death without applied and sustained thought. In this way they can be coupled together by opposites as appropriate. ¶
632. Laddhapaccayamiti dhammamattametaṃ bhavantaramupeti; ¶ 161. A mere state that has got its conditions Ushers in the ensuing existence; ¶
Nāssa tato saṅkanti, na tato hetuṃ vinā hoti. ¶ While it does not migrate from the past, With no cause in the past it is not. ¶
Iti hetaṃ laddhapaccayaṃ rūpārūpadhammamattaṃ uppajjamānaṃ bhavantaramupetīti vuccati, na satto, na jīvo. 162. So it is a mere material and immaterial state, arising when it has obtained its conditions, that is spoken of, saying that it comes into the next becoming; it is not a lasting being, [554] not a soul. Так что речь лишь о материальном и нематериальном феномене, возникающем когда он обрёл свои условия. О нём говорится как о приходящем в следующее состояние бытия, это не вечное существо, не душа.
Tassa ca nāpi atītabhavato idha saṅkanti atthi. And it has neither transmigrated from the past becoming
Nāpi tato hetuṃ vinā idha pātubhāvo. nor yet is it manifested here without cause from that.
Tayidaṃ pākaṭena manussacutipaṭisandhikkamena pakāsayissāma. ¶ 163. We shall explain this by the normal process of human death and rebirth- linking. ¶ Мы объясним это путём обычного процесса смерти человека и воссоединения ума. ¶
Atītabhavasmiṃ hi sarasena upakkamena vā samāsannamaraṇassa asayhānaṃ sabbaṅgapaccaṅgasandhibandhanacchedakānaṃ māraṇantikavedanāsatthānaṃ sannipātaṃ asahantassa ātape pakkhittaharitatālapaṇṇamiva kamena upasussamāne sarīre niruddhesu cakkhādīsu indriyesu hadayavatthumatte patiṭṭhitesu kāyindriyamanindriyajīvitindriyesu taṅkhaṇāvasesahadayavatthusannissitaṃ viññāṇaṃ garukasamāsevitāsannapubbakatānaṃ aññataraṃ laddhāvasesapaccayasaṅkhārasaṅkhātaṃ kammaṃ, tadupaṭṭhāpitaṃ vā kammanimittagatinimittasaṅkhātaṃ visayaṃ ārabbha pavattati. When in the past becoming a man near to a natural or violent death is unable to bear the onset of the unbearable daggers of the [painful] feelings that end in death as they sever the ligatures of the joints in all the limbs, his body gradually withers like a green palm leaf lying in the glare of the sun, and when the faculties of the eye, etc., have ceased and the body faculty, mind faculty, and life faculty remain on in the heart-basis alone, then consciousness, which has as its support the heart-basis still remaining at that moment, either occurs contingent upon some kamma classed as “weighty,” “repeated,” performed “near” [to death] or previously,28 in other words, the formation that has obtained the remaining conditions, or contingent upon the objective field made to appear by that kamma, in other words, the sign of the kamma or sign of the destiny.29 Когда в прошлом состоянии бытия человек у порога естественной или насильственной смерти не может вытерпеть приход нестерпимых кинжалов [мучительных] ощущений, заканчивающихся смертью по мере того, как они рассекают связки суставов во всех частях тела, его тело постепенно иссыхает подобно зелёному пальмовому листу, лежащему под палящим солнцем и когда способности зрения и прочего прекратились и способность тела, способность ума и способность жить остаются только в сердечной основе, тогда сознание, чьей опорой является сердечная основа ещё остающаяся в тот момент, возникает или в зависимости от определённой каммы типа "весомая", "повторяющаяся" или совершённая незадолго до смерти или ранее, другими словами, волевая конструкция, обретшая оставшиеся условия или зависящая от сферы, вызванной этой каммой, другими словами знаком каммы или знаком удела. Комм НТ: 28. See the classification of kamma at XIX.74ff. “Repeated” (samāsevita) kamma is not mentioned there as such. Of “near” kamma Vism-mhṭ says,...
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Tadevaṃ pavattamānaṃ taṇhāvijjānaṃ appahīnattā avijjāpaṭicchāditādīnave tasmiṃ visaye taṇhā nāmeti, sahajātasaṅkhārā khipanti. And while it is occurring thus, because craving and ignorance have not been abandoned, craving pushes it and the conascent formations fling it forward30 on to that objective field, the dangers in which are concealed by ignorance. И пока это всё так происходит, поскольку жажда и неведение не были устранены, жажда толкает его и сопутствующие волевые конструкции тащут его на эту область, опасности в которой скрыты неведением. 30:
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Taṃ santativasena taṇhāya nāmiyamānaṃ saṅkhārehi khippamānaṃ orimatīrarukkhavinibaddharajjumālambitvā mātikātikkamako viya purimañca nissayaṃ jahati, aparañca kammasamuṭṭhāpitaṃ nissayaṃ assādayamānaṃ vā anassādayamānaṃ vā ārammaṇādīhiyeva paccayehi pavattatīti. ¶ And while, as a continuous process,31 it is being pushed by craving and flung forward by formations, it abandons its former support, like a man who crosses a river by hanging on to a rope tied to a tree on the near bank, and, whether or not it gets a further support originated by kamma, it occurs by means of the conditions consisting only in object condition, and so on. ¶ И хотя, будучи непрерывным процессом, его толкает жажда и тащат волевые конструкции, оно оставляет свою прошлую опору как человек, пересекающий реку, держась за верёвку, привязанную к дереву на ближнем берегу и, получает или нет оно дальнейшую поддержку, порождаемую каммой, оно возникает посредством условий, состоящем только из условия "объект" и т.д. ¶ 31.
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Ettha ca purimaṃ cavanato cuti. 164. The former of these [two states of consciousness] is called “death” (cuti) because of falling (cavana), Предыдущее из этих [двух состояний сознания] называется "уход" (смерть) из-за падения.
Pacchimaṃ bhavantarādipaṭisandhānato paṭisandhīti vuccati. and the latter is called “rebirth-linking” (paṭisandhi) because of linking (paṭisandhāna) across the gap separating the beginning of the next becoming. А последующее называется воссоединением из-за соединения поверх разрыва, разделяющего начало следующего состояния бытия.
Tadetaṃ nāpi purimabhavā idhāgataṃ, nāpi tato kammasaṅkhāranativisayādihetuṃ vinā pātubhūtanti veditabbaṃ. ¶ But it should be understood that it has neither come here from the previous becoming nor has it become manifest without the kamma, the formations, the pushing, the objective field, etc., as cause. ¶ Но следует понимать, что оно не пришло сюда из прошлого состояния бытия и также оно не проявилось без каммы, без волевых конструкций, без толкания, без области и др. в качестве причины. ¶
633. Siyuṃ nidassanānettha, paṭighosādikā atha; ¶ 165. An echo, or its like, supplies The figures here; connectedness ¶
Santānabandhato natthi, ekatā nāpi nānatā. ¶ By continuity denies Identity and otherness. ¶
Ettha cetassa viññāṇassa purimabhavato idha anāgamane, atītabhavapariyāpannahetūti ca uppāde paṭighosa-padīpa-muddā-paṭibimbappakārā dhammā nidassanāni siyuṃ. 166. And here let the illustration of this consciousness be such things as an echo, a light, a seal impression, a looking-glass image, for the fact of its not coming here from the previous becoming and for the fact that it arises owing to causes that are included in past becomings. И пусть здесь иллюстрацией этого сознания будут такие вещи как эхо, свет, отпечаток, образ в зеркале, благодаря тому факту, что оно не приходит сюда из прошлого состояния бытия и благодаря факту, что оно возникает благодаря причинам, входящим в прошлые состояния бытия.
Yathā hi paṭighosa-padīpa-muddā-chāyā saddādihetukā honti aññatra agantvā evamevaṃ idaṃ cittaṃ. ¶ For just as an echo, a light, a seal impression, and a shadow have respectively sound, etc., as their cause and come into being without going elsewhere, so also this consciousness. ¶ Ведь как эхо, свет, отпечаток и тень имеют в качестве условий звук и прочее и возникают не приходя ниоткуда, так и этот момент ума (сознание). ¶
Ettha ca santānabandhato natthi ekatā nāpi nānatā. 167.And with a stream of continuity there is neither identity nor otherness.
Yadi hi santānabandhe sati ekantamekatā bhaveyya, na khīrato dadhi sambhūtaṃ siyā. For if there were absolute identity in a stream of continuity, there would be no forming of curd from milk.
Athāpi ekantanānatā bhaveyya, na khīrassādhīno dadhi siyā. And yet if there were absolute otherness, the curd would not be derived from the milk.
Esa nayo sabbahetuhetusamuppannesu. And so too with all causally arisen things.
Evañca sati sabbalokavohāralopo siyā, so ca aniṭṭho. And if that were so there would be an end to all worldly usage, which is hardly desirable.
Tasmā ettha na ekantamekatā vā nānatā vā upagantabbāti. ¶ So neither absolute identity nor absolute otherness should be assumed here. ¶
634. Etthāha – nanu evaṃ asaṅkantipātubhāve sati ye imasmiṃ manussattabhāve khandhā, tesaṃ niruddhattā, phalapaccayassa ca kammassa tattha agamanato aññassa aññato ca taṃ phalaṃ siyā, upabhuñjake ca asati kassa taṃ phalaṃ siyā, tasmā na sundaramidaṃ vidhānanti. 168. Here it might be asked: “If no transmigration is manifested, then after the cessation of the aggregates in this human person, that fruit could be another person’s or due to other [kamma], since the kamma that is the condition for the fruit does not pass on there [to where the fruit is]? And whose is the fruit since there is no experiencer? Therefore this formulation seems to be unsatisfactory. ” Здесь можно спросить: "Если нет никакого переселения, то после прекращения совокупностей в этом человеке, этот плод может быть от другого человека или из-за другой [каммы], поскольку камма, являющаяся условием для плода не переходит туда [где проявляется плод]. И чей будет этот плод, раз нет испытывающего? Следовательно, эта формулировка кажется неудовлетворительной".
Tatridaṃ vuccati – ¶ 169. Here is the reply: ¶ Ответ следующий: ¶
Santāne yaṃ phalaṃ etaṃ, nāññassa na ca aññato; ¶ In continuity the fruit Is neither of nor from another; ¶
Bījānaṃ abhisaṅkhāro, etassatthassa sādhako. ¶ Seed’s forming processes will suit To show the purport of this matter. ¶
Ekasantānasmiṃ hi phalaṃ uppajjamānaṃ tattha ekantaekattanānattānaṃ paṭisiddhattā aññassāti vā aññatoti vā na hoti. 170. When a fruit arises in a single continuity, it is neither another’s nor from other [kamma] because absolute identity and absolute otherness are excluded32 there. Когда плод возникает в одной непрерывности он не является чужим и не происходит от другой [каммы] поскольку здесь исключается абсолютная идентичность и абсолютная не-идентичность. Комм. НТ: 32. Paṭisiddhattā—“because … excluded”: paṭisiddha is not in PED. Abhisaṅkhāra here might mean “planting work,” not “formative processes.”
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Etassa ca panatthassa bījānaṃ abhisaṅkhāro sādhako. The formative processes of seeds establish the meaning of this. Смысл этого показывает процесс роста [растений] из семян.
Ambabījādīnaṃ hi abhisaṅkhāresu katesu tassa bījassa santāne laddhapaccayo kālantare phalaviseso uppajjamāno na aññabījānaṃ, nāpi aññābhisaṅkhārapaccayā uppajjati, na ca tāni bījāni, te abhisaṅkhārā vā phalaṭṭhānaṃ pāpuṇanti, evaṃ sampadamidaṃ veditabbaṃ. For once the formative processes of a mango seed, etc., have been set afoot, when the particular fruit arises in the continuity of the seed’s [growth], later on owing to the obtaining of conditions, it does so neither as the fruit of other seeds nor from other formative processes as condition; and those seeds or formative processes do not themselves pass on to the place where the fruit is. This is the analogy here. Когда запущен процесс роста [растения из] семени манго и т.п., когда возникает конкретный плод в непрерывности роста растения из семени, в дальнейшем благодаря обретению условий, плод возникает ни как плод других семян и не благодаря другим процессам роста в качестве условий и те семена или процессы роста сами не переходят в место, где находится плод. Такова здесь аналогия.
Vijjāsipposadhādīhi cāpi bālasarīre upayuttehi kālantare vuḍḍhasarīrādīsu phaladehi ayamattho veditabbo. ¶ And the meaning can also be understood from the fact that the arts, crafts, medicine, etc., learnt in youth give their fruit later on in maturity. ¶ И также здесь можно понять смысл с помощью фактов, что искусства, ремёсла, медицинские и прочие навыки, полученные в молодости, дают свой плод позже в зрелости. ¶
Yampi vuttaṃ "upabhuñjake ca asati kassa taṃ phalaṃ siyā"ti, tattha, ¶ 171. Now, it was also asked, “Whose is the fruit, since there is no experiencer? ” Herein: ¶ И также спрашивают: "Чей плод, раз нет испытывающего?". Здесь: ¶
Phalassuppattiyā eva, siddhā bhuñjakasammuti; ¶ “Experiencer” is a convention For mere arising of the fruit; ¶
Phaluppādena rukkhassa, yathā phalati sammuti. ¶ They say “It fruits” as a convention, When on a tree appears its fruit. ¶
Yathā hi rukkhasaṅkhātānaṃ dhammānaṃ ekadesabhūtassa rukkhaphalassa uppattiyā eva rukkho phalatīti vā phalitoti vā vuccati, tathā devamanussasaṅkhātānaṃ khandhānaṃ ekadesabhūtassa upabhogasaṅkhātassa sukhadukkhaphalassa uppādeneva devo, manusso vā upabhuñjatīti vā, sukhito, dukkhitoti vā vuccati. 172. Just as it is simply owing to the arising of tree fruits, which are one part of the phenomena called a tree, that it is said “The tree fruits” or “The tree has fruited,” so it is simply owing to the arising of the fruit consisting of the pleasure and pain called experience, which is one part of the aggregates called “deities” and “human beings,” that it is said “A deity or a human being experiences or feels pleasure or pain.” Подобно тому, как благодаря появлению плодов на дереве, являющихся частью феномена, называемого деревом, говорят "плоды дерева" или "дерево плодоносит", так и лишь благодаря возникновения плода, состоящего из удовольствий и страданий, называемых опытом, являющегося частью совокупностей, называемых "божествами" или "людьми" говорится "божество или человек испытывает удовольствие или страдание".
Tasmā na ettha aññena upabhuñjakena nāma koci attho atthīti. ¶ There is therefore no need at all here for a superfluous experiencer. ¶ Следовательно, вообще не нужен никакой выдуманный "испытывающий". ¶
635. Yopi vadeyya "evaṃ santepi ete saṅkhārā vijjamānā vā phalassa paccayā siyuṃ, avijjamānā vā, yadi ca vijjamānā pavattikkhaṇeyeva nesaṃ vipākena bhavitabbaṃ, atha avijjamānā pavattito pubbe pacchā ca niccaṃ phalāvahā siyu"nti, so evaṃ vattabbo – ¶ 173. But it may be said: “That may be so; but then these formations must be the conditions for the fruit either when they are present or when they are not present, and if it is when they are present, their result must come about only at the moment of their occurrence; but if it is when they are not present, they must bear fruit constantly both before and after their occurrence. ” It can be replied: ¶ Но можно сказать: "Пусть так, но тогда эти волевые конструкции должны быть условиями для плода или когда они присутствуют или когда они не присутствуют. И если они являются условиями когда они присутствуют, их результат должен проявляться только в момент их присутствия. Если они являются условиями, когда они не присутствуют, они должны давать плод постоянно как до, так и после присутствия". Можно ответить так: ¶
Katattā paccayā ete, na ca niccaṃ phalāvahā; ¶ They are conditions when performed; They bear fruit once, but not again; ¶
Pāṭibhogādikaṃ tattha, veditabbaṃ nidassanaṃ. ¶ The agent and such similes Will serve to make the meaning plain. ¶
Katattāyeva hi saṅkhārā attano phalassa paccayā honti, na vijjamānattā, avijjamānattā vā. 174. Formations are conditions for their own fruit because they have been performed, not because of presence or non-presence, Волевые конструкции являются условиями своего плода поскольку они были совершены, а не из-за их присутствия или не присутствия.
Yathāha – "kāmāvacarassa kusalassa kammassa katattā upacitattā vipākaṃ cakkhuviññāṇaṃ uppannaṃ hotī"tiādi (dha. sa. 431). according as it is said: [556] “Due to profitable kamma of the sense sphere having been performed, stored up [in the past], resultant eye-consciousness arises [in the present]” (Dhs §431), and so on. Согласно сказанному: "Благодаря совершённой благотворной камме в мире страсти, которая была накоплена [в прошлом], в настоящем возникает зрительное сознание, являющееся результатом" и т.д.
Yathārahassa ca attano phalassa paccayā hutvā na puna phalāvahā honti vipākattā. Having become conditions for their own fruit according to their capacity, they do not again bear fruit since the result has already ripened. Став условиями для собственного плода согласно своим возможностям, они не дают плоды вновь, поскольку результат уже проявился.
Etassa catthassa vibhāvane idaṃ pāṭibhogādikaṃ nidassanaṃ veditabbaṃ. And in explaining the meaning of this the analogy of the agent, etc., should be understood. При объяснении смысла этого следует понимать метафору с предпринимателем и т.п.
Yathā hi loke yo kassaci atthassa niyyātanatthaṃ pāṭibhogo hoti, bhaṇḍaṃ vā kiṇāti, iṇaṃ vā gaṇhāti, tassa taṃ kiriyākaraṇamattameva tadatthaniyyātanādimhi paccayo hoti, na kiriyāya vijjamānattaṃ, avijjamānattaṃ vā, na ca tadatthaniyyātanādito parampi dhārakova hoti. For just as in the world when someone becomes an agent with the aim of completing some business or other, and he buys goods, say, or obtains a loan, it is simply the fact of his performing the transaction that is the condition for completing that business, not the transaction’s actual presence or non- presence; and after the completion of the business he has no further liability. Ведь когда в мире некто становится предпринимателем с целью исполнить то или иное начинание и он покупает товары или берёт кредит, сам факт исполнения им процедуры [покупки товаров и т.п.] является условием для завершения этого начинания, а не реальное присутствие или не присутствие процедуры. И после завершения начинания у него нет больше обязанности.
Kasmā? Why not? Почему?
Niyyātanādīnaṃ katattā. Because the business has been completed. Потому что начинание закончено.
Evaṃ katattāva saṅkhārāpi attano phalassa paccayā honti, na ca yathārahaṃ phaladānato parampi phalāvahā hontīti. So it is because they have been performed that formations are conditions for their own fruit, and they do not bear fruit after they have already given fruit according to their capacity. Поэтому поскольку они были совершены, эти волевые конструкции являются условиями для собственного плода и они не приносят плод после того, как они уже принесли плод согласно их способностям.
Ettāvatā missāmissavasena dvedhāpi vattamānassa paṭisandhiviññāṇassa saṅkhārapaccayā pavatti dīpitā hoti. ¶ Up to this point the occurrence, with formations as condition, of rebirth- linking consciousness that occurs in the two ways as mixed and unmixed [with materiality] has been illustrated. ¶ К этому моменту совершение волевых конструкций, являющихся условием сознания воссоединения ума, происходящего двумя способами как смешанное и несмешанное [с материальным] было объяснено. ¶
636. Idāni sabbesveva tesu bāttiṃsavipākaviññāṇesu sammohavighātatthaṃ, ¶ 175. Now, in order to eliminate confusion about all these thirty-two kinds of resultant consciousness: ¶ Теперь, чтобы устранить путаницу обо всех этих 32 разновидностях результирующего сознания: ¶
Paṭisandhipavattīnaṃ, vasenete bhavādisu; ¶ One should of these formations see For which and how they are conditions ¶ У этих волевых конструкций следует увидеть для которых и как они являются условиями ¶
Vijānitabbā saṅkhārā, yathā yesañca paccayā. ¶ In birth and life in all the three Kinds of becoming and the rest. ¶ в рождении и жизни во всех трёх состояниях бытия и прочем. ¶
Tattha tayo bhavā, catasso yoniyo, pañca gatiyo, satta viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo, nava sattāvāsāti ete bhavādayo nāma. 176. Herein, the three kinds of becoming, the four kinds of generation, the five kinds of destiny, the seven stations of consciousness, and the nine abodes of beings are what are called “The kinds of becoming and the rest.”
Etesu bhavādīsu paṭisandhiyaṃ pavatte ca ete yesaṃ vipākaviññāṇānaṃ paccayā, yathā ca paccayā honti, tathā vijānitabbāti attho. ¶ The meaning is that it should be recognized for what kinds of resultant consciousness these [formations] are conditions in rebirth-linking and in the course of an individual existence, and in what way they are conditions in the various kinds of becoming and so on. ¶ Смысл в том, что нужно понять, для каких видов результирующего сознания эти волевые конструкции являются условиями в воссоединении ума и в процессе индивидуального существования, а также каким образом они являются условиями в различных состояниях бытия и т.д. ¶
Tattha puññābhisaṅkhāre tāva kāmāvacaraaṭṭhacetanābhedo puññābhisaṅkhāro avisesena kāmabhave sugatiyaṃ navannaṃ vipākaviññāṇānaṃ paṭisandhiyaṃ nānakkhaṇikakammapaccayena ceva upanissayapaccayena cāti dvedhā paccayo. 177. Herein, firstly as regard the formation of merit: the formation of merit comprising the eight volitions of the sense sphere ((1)–(8)) is a condition in two ways, as kamma condition acting from a different time and as decisive-support condition, equally for all the nine kinds of resultant consciousness ((41)–(49)) in rebirth-linking in a happy destiny in the sense-sphere becoming.
Rūpāvacarapañcakusalacetanābhedo puññābhisaṅkhāro rūpabhave paṭisandhiyaṃ eva pañcannaṃ. ¶ That formation comprising the five profitable volitions of the fine-material sphere ((9)–(13)) [is a condition] in like manner for the five kinds of rebirth-linking in the fine-material becoming ((57)–(61)). ¶
Vuttappabhedakāmāvacaro pana kāmabhave sugatiyaṃ upekkhāsahagatāhetumanoviññāṇadhātuvajjānaṃ sattannaṃ parittavipākaviññāṇānaṃ vuttanayeneva dvedhā paccayo pavatte, no paṭisandhiyaṃ. 178. That of the sense sphere divided up as aforesaid is a condition in two ways, as aforesaid, for seven kinds of limited [-sphere] resultant consciousness ((34)–(40))—excluding the root-causeless mind-consciousness element accompanied by equanimity (41)—in the course of an existence, but not in rebirth- linking, in the happy destinies in the sense-sphere becoming.
Sveva rūpabhave pañcannaṃ vipākaviññāṇānaṃ tatheva paccayo pavatte, no paṭisandhiyaṃ. And that same formation is a condition likewise for five kinds of resultant consciousness ((34), (35), (39)–(41)) in the course of an existence, not in rebirth-linking, in the fine- material becoming.
Kāmabhave pana duggatiyaṃ aṭṭhannampi parittavipākaviññāṇānaṃ tatheva paccayo pavatte, no paṭisandhiyaṃ. It is a condition likewise for eight kinds of limited [-sphere] resultant consciousness ((34)–(41)) in the course of existence, not in rebirth- linking, in the unhappy destinies in the sense-sphere becoming.
Tattha niraye mahāmoggallānattherassa narakacārikādīsu iṭṭhārammaṇasamāyoge so paccayo hoti, tiracchānesu pana petamahiddhikesu ca iṭṭhārammaṇaṃ labbhatiyeva. ¶ For then it is a condition [for such profitable-resultant consciousness occurring] in hell encountering a desirable object [on such occasions] as the Elder Mahā Moggallāna’s visits to hell, and so on. But among animals and powerful ghosts too a desirable object is obtained [through the same condition]. ¶
Sveva kāmabhave sugatiyaṃ soḷasannampi kusalavipākaviññāṇānaṃ tatheva paccayo pavatte ca paṭisandhiyañca. 179. This eightfold formation of merit is also a condition likewise for sixteen kinds of profitable-resultant consciousness in the course of an existence ((34)– (41)) and in rebirth-linking ((42)–(49)) in the happy destinies in the sense- sphere becoming.
Avisesena pana puññābhisaṅkhāro rūpabhave dasannaṃ vipākaviññāṇānaṃ tatheva paccayo pavatte ca paṭisandhiyañca. ¶ It is also a condition equally for all ten kinds of resultant consciousness in the course of an existence ((34), (35), (39)–(41)) and in rebirth- linking ((57)–(61)) in the fine-material becoming. ¶
Dvādasākusalacetanābhedo apuññābhisaṅkhāro kāmabhave duggatiyaṃ ekassa viññāṇassa tatheva paccayo paṭisandhiyaṃ, no pavatte. 180. The formation of demerit, comprising the twelve unprofitable volitions ((22)–(33)), is a condition likewise in the unhappy destinies in the sense-sphere becoming for one kind of consciousness in rebirth-linking (56), not in the course of an existence;
Channaṃ pavatte, no paṭisandhiyaṃ. also for six kinds in the course of an existence ((50)–(55)), not in rebirth-linking;
Sattannampi akusalavipākaviññāṇānaṃ pavatte ca paṭisandhiyañca. ¶ and for all the seven kinds partly in the course of an existence and partly in rebirth-linking. ¶
Kāmabhave pana sugatiyaṃ tesaṃyeva sattannaṃ tatheva paccayo pavatte, no paṭisandhiyaṃ. And in the happy destinies in the sense-sphere becoming it is a condition likewise for those same seven kinds in the course of an existence, not in rebirth-linking.
Rūpabhave catunnaṃ vipākaviññāṇānaṃ tatheva paccayo pavatte, no paṭisandhiyaṃ. In the fine-material becoming it is a condition likewise for four kinds of resultant consciousness ((50)–(51), (55), (56)) in the course of an existence, not in rebirth-linking.
So ca kho kāmāvacare aniṭṭharūpadassanasaddasavanavasena, brahmaloke pana aniṭṭharūpādayo nāma natthi. Then it is a condition for [Brahmās’] seeing undesirable visible data and hearing undesirable sounds that are in the sense sphere: there are no undesirable visible data, etc., in the Brahmā-world itself;
Tathā kāmāvacaradevalokepi. ¶ and likewise in the divine world of the sense sphere.33 ¶ 33. Vism-mhṭ points out that this is generally but not always so, since deities see such portents of their death as the fading of their flowers, etc.,...
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Āneñjābhisaṅkhāro arūpabhave catunnaṃ vipākaviññāṇānaṃ tatheva paccayo pavatte ca paṭisandhiyañca. ¶ 181.The formation of the imperturbable is a condition likewise for four kinds of resultant consciousness ((62)–(65)) in the course of an existence and in rebirth- linking in the immaterial becoming. ¶
Evaṃ tāva bhavesu paṭisandhipavattīnaṃ vasena ete saṅkhārā yesaṃ paccayā, yathā ca paccayā honti, tathā vijānitabbā. This, firstly, is how it should be understood what kinds of resultant consciousness these formations are conditions for in rebirth-linking and in the [three] kinds of becoming, and in what way they are conditions.
Eteneva nayena yoniādīsupi veditabbā. ¶ And it should also be understood in the same way of the kinds of generation and so on. ¶
637. Tatridaṃ ādito paṭṭhāya mukhamattapakāsanaṃ – imesu hi saṅkhāresu yasmā puññābhisaṅkhāro tāva dvīsu bhavesu paṭisandhiṃ datvā sabbamattano vipākaṃ janeti. 182. Here is a statement of the bare headings starting from the beginning. Of these [three kinds of] formations, firstly the formation of merit, when giving rebirth-linking, produces the whole of its result in two of the kinds of becoming;
Tathā aṇḍajādīsu catūsu yonīsu, devamanussasaṅkhātāsu dvīsu gatīsu, nānattakāyanānattasaññīnānattakāyaekattasaññī-ekattakāyanānattasaññī-ekattakāyaekattasaññīsaṅkhātāsu catūsu viññāṇaṭṭhitīsu. likewise in the four kinds of generation beginning with the egg-born, in two of the kinds of destiny, in other words, the divine and the human; in four of the stations of consciousness, [the human, and the planes of the first, second and third jhānas,] described thus, “Different in body and different in perception … different in body and same in perception … same in body and different in perception … same in body and same in perception …;” (D III 253)
Asaññasattāvāse panesa rūpamattamevābhisaṅkharotīti catūsuyeva sattāvāsesu ca paṭisandhiṃ datvā sabbamattano vipākaṃ janeti. and in only four of the abodes of beings, because in the abode of non-percipient beings it only forms materiality.
Tasmā esa etesu dvīsu bhavesu, catūsu yonīsu, dvīsu gatīsu, catūsu viññāṇaṭṭhitīsu, catūsu sattāvāsesu ca ekavīsatiyā vipākaviññāṇānaṃ vuttanayeneva paccayo hoti yathāsambhavaṃ paṭisandhiyaṃ pavatte ca. ¶ Therefore it is a condition in the way already stated for twenty-one kinds of resultant consciousness in these two kinds of becoming, four kinds of generation, two kinds of destiny, four stations of consciousness, and four abodes of beings according as they are produced in rebirth-linking ((41)–(49), (57)–(61)) [558] and the course of an existence ((34)–(41)), as appropriate. ¶
Apuññābhisaṅkhāro pana yasmā ekasmiṃyeva kāmabhave catūsu yonīsu, avasesāsu tīsu gatīsu, nānattakāyaekattasaññīsaṅkhātāya ekissā viññāṇaṭṭhitiyā, tādiseyeva ca ekasmiṃ sattāvāse paṭisandhivasena vipaccati, tasmā esa ekasmiṃ bhave, catūsu yonīsu, tīsu gatīsu, ekissā viññāṇaṭṭhitiyā, ekamhi ca sattāvāse sattannaṃ vipākaviññāṇānaṃ vuttanayeneva paccayo paṭisandhiyaṃ pavatte ca. ¶ 183. The formation of demerit as rebirth-linking ripens in the sense- sphere becoming only, in the four kinds of generation, in the remaining three destinies, in the one station of consciousness described thus “different in body and same in perception” (D III 253), and in the one corresponding abode of beings. Therefore it is a condition in the way already stated for seven kinds of resultant consciousness in one kind of becoming, in four kinds of generation, in three kinds of destiny, in one station of consciousness, and in one abode of beings, both in rebirth-linking (56) and in the course of an existence ((50)–(56)). ¶
Āneñjābhisaṅkhāro pana yasmā ekasmiṃyeva arūpabhave, ekissā opapātikayoniyā, ekissā devagatiyā, ākāsānañcāyatanādikāsu tīsu viññāṇaṭṭhitīsu, ākāsānañcāyatanādikesu ca catūsu sattāvāsesu paṭisandhivasena vipaccati, tasmā esa ekasmiṃ bhave, ekissā yoniyā, ekissā gatiyā, tīsu viññāṇaṭṭhitīsu, catūsu sattāvāsesu catunnaṃ viññāṇānaṃ vuttanayeneva paccayo hoti paṭisandhiyaṃ pavatte cāti. 184.The formation of the imperturbable as rebirth-linking ripens in the immaterial becoming, in the apparitional kind of generation only, in the divine destiny only, in the three stations of consciousness beginning with the base consisting of boundless space, and in the four abodes of beings beginning with the base consisting of boundless space ((62)– (65)). Therefore it is a condition in the way already stated for the four kinds of consciousness in one kind of becoming, in one kind of generation, in one kind of destiny, in three stations of consciousness, and in four abodes of beings, both in rebirth-linking and in the course of becoming. 34 Комм. НТ: 34. A Sinhalese text adds the following paragraph: “Also the bodily formation, when giving rebirth-linking, gives the whole of its results i...
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Evaṃ, ¶ 185. This is how: ¶
Paṭisandhipavattīnaṃ, vasenete bhavādisu; ¶ One should of these formations see For which and how they are conditions ¶
Vijānitabbā saṅkhārā, yathā yesañca paccayāti. ¶ In birth and life and the three Kinds of becoming and the rest. ¶
Ayaṃ "saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇa"nti padasmiṃ vitthārakathā. This is the detailed explanation of the clause, “With formations as condition, consciousness. ”
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