Гл. 17. Обусловленное возникновение - анализ понятия, краткое объяснение

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Paṭiccasamuppādakathā ¶ [SECTION A. DEFINITION OF DEPENDENT ORIGINATION] ¶
570. Idāni "khandhāyatanadhātuindriyasaccapaṭiccasamuppādādibhedā dhammā bhūmī"ti evaṃ vuttesu imissā paññāya bhūmibhūtesu dhammesu yasmā paṭiccasamuppādoceva, ādisaddena saṅgahitā paṭiccasamuppannā dhammā ca avasesā honti, tasmā tesaṃ vaṇṇanākkamo anuppatto. ¶ 1.[517] The turn has now come for the exposition of the dependent origination itself, and the dependently-originated states comprised by the word “etc.,” since these still remain out of the states called the “soil” (bhūmi), of which it was said above, “The states classed as aggregates, bases, elements, faculties, truths, and dependent origination, etc., are the ‘soil’” (XIV.32). ¶
Tattha avijjādayo tāva dhammā paṭiccasamuppādoti veditabbā. 2. Herein, firstly, it is the states beginning with ignorance that should be understood as dependent origination. Здесь факторы, начинающиеся с неведения следует понимать как обусловленное возникновение.
Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā – ¶ For this is said by the Blessed One: ¶ Ведь Благословенный сказал так: ¶
"Katamo ca, bhikkhave, paṭiccasamuppādo? “And what is the dependent origination, bhikkhus? "Что такое, монахи, обусловленное возникновение?
Avijjāpaccayā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā, saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṃ, viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṃ, nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṃ, saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso, phassapaccayā vedanā, vedanāpaccayā taṇhā, taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṃ, upādānapaccayā bhavo, bhavapaccayā jāti, jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti. With ignorance as condition there are [volitional] formations; with formations as condition, consciousness; with consciousness as condition, mentality-materiality; with mentality- materiality as condition, the sixfold base; with the sixfold base as condition, contact; with contact as condition, feeling; with feeling as condition, craving; with craving as condition, clinging; with clinging as condition, becoming; with becoming as condition, birth; with birth as condition there is ageing-and- death, and sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; Монахи, неведение обуславливает волевые конструкции, волевые конструкции обуславливают сознание, сознание обуславливает умственно-материальное, умственно-материальное обуславливает шесть сфер чувств, шесть сфер чувств обуславливают соприкосновение, соприкосновение обуславливают ощущение, ощущение обуславливает жажду, жажда обуславливает привязанность, привязанность обуславливает бывание, бывание обуславливает рождение, обусловленные рождением возникают старость, смерть, печаль, плач, [физическая] боль, умственные муки, отчаяние.
Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti. thus there is the arising of this whole mass of suffering. Таково возникновение всей этой массы страданий.
Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, paṭiccasamuppādo"ti (saṃ. ni. 2.1). ¶ This is called the dependent origination, bhikkhus” (S II 1). ¶ Это, о монахи, называется обусловленным возникновением". ¶
Jarāmaraṇādayo pana paṭiccasamuppannā dhammāti veditabbā. 3. Secondly, it is the states beginning with ageing-and-death that should be understood as dependently-originated states. Феномены, начинающиеся со старости и смерти следует понимать как обусловленно возникшие феномены.
Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā – ¶ For this is said by the Blessed One: ¶ Ведь Благословенный сказал так: ¶
"Katame ca, bhikkhave, paṭiccasamuppannā dhammā? “And what are the dependently-originated states, bhikkhus? "Монахи, что такое обусловленно возникшие феномены?
Jarāmaraṇaṃ, bhikkhave, aniccaṃ saṅkhataṃ paṭiccasamuppannaṃ khayadhammaṃ vayadhammaṃ virāgadhammaṃ nirodhadhammaṃ. Ageing-and-death is impermanent, bhikkhus, formed, dependently originated, subject to destruction, subject to fall, subject to fading away, subject to cessation.1 Старость и смерть, о монахи, изменчиво, сконструированно, обусловленно возникшее, подвержено разрушению, подвержено исчезновению, подвержено затуханию, подвержено прекращению. Комм НТ: 1. The other expressions are explained in the same way.
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Jāti, bhikkhave - pe - bhavo… upādānaṃ… taṇhā… vedanā… phasso… saḷāyatanaṃ… nāmarūpaṃ… viññāṇaṃ… saṅkhārā… avijjā, bhikkhave, aniccā saṅkhatā paṭiccasamuppannā khayadhammā vayadhammā virāgadhammā nirodhadhammā. Birth is impermanent, bhikkhus, … Becoming … Clinging … Craving … Feeling … Contact … The sixfold base … Mentality-materiality … Consciousness … Formations … Ignorance is impermanent, bhikkhus, formed, dependently originated, subject to destruction, subject to fall, subject to fading away, subject to cessation. Рождение, о монахи, ... бывание... привязанность... жажда... ощущение... соприкосновение... шесть сфер чувств... умственно-материальное... сознание... волевые конструкции... неведение изменчиво, сконструировано, обусловленно возникшее, подвержено разрушению, подвержено исчезновению, подвержено затуханию, подвержено прекращению.
Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, paṭiccasamuppannā dhammā"ti (saṃ. ni. 2.20). ¶ These are called the dependently-originated states, bhikkhus” (S II 26). ¶ Это, монахи, называется обусловленно возникшими феноменами". ¶
571. Ayaṃ panettha saṅkhepo. 4. Here is a brief explanation. Далее будет краткое объяснение.
Paṭiccasamuppādoti paccayadhammā veditabbā. The states that are conditions should be understood as the dependent origination. Факторы, являющиеся условиями, следует понимать обусловленным возникновением.
Paṭiccasamuppannā dhammāti tehi tehi paccayehi nibbattadhammā. The states generated by such and such conditions are dependently-originated states. Факторы, порождаемые теми или иными условиями являются обусловленными факторами.
Kathamidaṃ jānitabbanti ce? 5.How is that to be known? Откуда это можно узнать?
Bhagavato vacanena. By the Blessed One’s word. Из слов Благословенного.
Bhagavatā hi paṭiccasamuppādapaṭiccasamuppannadhammadesanāsutte – ¶ For it is precisely those states which are conditions, that with the synonyms beginning with “reality” have been called “dependent origination” by the Blessed One when teaching the dependent origination in the sutta on the Teaching of the Dependent Origination and Dependently-originated States thus: ¶ Ведь Благословенным при объяснении в сутте об обусловленном возникновении и обусловленно возникших феноменах [сказано]: ¶
"Katamo ca, bhikkhave, paṭiccasamuppādo? “And what is dependent origination, bhikkhus? "Монахи, что такое обусловленное возникновение?
Jātipaccayā, bhikkhave, jarāmaraṇaṃ, uppādā vā tathāgatānaṃ anuppādā vā tathāgatānaṃ ṭhitāva sā dhātu dhammaṭṭhitatā dhammaniyāmatā idappaccayatā. “With birth as condition, bhikkhus, there is ageing and death. Whether Perfect Ones arise or do not arise, there yet remains that element, relatedness of states, regularity of states, specific conditionally. Рождение, о монахи, обуславливает старость и смерть. Появляются татхагаты или не появляются татхагаты - это свойство остаётся, эта взаимосвязь факторов, эта упорядоченность факторов, обусловленность одного другим. в СН 12.49 сказано, что ученик благородных обладает знанием причинно-следственных связей между звеньями патиччасамуппады, независимо от других, что сл...
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Taṃ tathāgato abhisambujjhati abhisameti, abhisambujjhitvā abhisametvā ācikkhati deseti paññapeti paṭṭhapeti vivarati vibhajati uttānīkaroti, passathāti cāha. The Perfect One discovers it, penetrates to it. Having discovered it, penetrated to it, he announces it, teaches it, makes it known, establishes, exposes, expounds, and explains it: ‘See,’ he says, Татхагата постигает и открывает это. Постигнув и открыв, он объясняет, учит, провозглашает, устанавливает, раскрывает, анализирует и разъясняет. Он говорит "видите".
Jātipaccayā, bhikkhave, jarāmaraṇaṃ. ‘With birth as condition there is ageing and death.’ Рождение, о монахи, обуславливает старость и смерть.
Bhavapaccayā, bhikkhave, jāti - pe - avijjāpaccayā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā uppādā vā tathāgatānaṃ - pe - uttānīkaroti passathāti cāha. “With becoming as condition, bhikkhus, there is birth … With ignorance as condition, bhikkhus, there are formations. Whether Perfect Ones arise or do not arise, there yet remains that element, relatedness of states, regularity of states, specific conditionally. The Perfect One discovers it, penetrates to it. Having discovered it, penetrated to it, he announces it, teaches it, makes it known, establishes, exposes, expounds and explains it: ‘See,’ he says, Бывание, о монахи, обуславливает рождение... неведение, о монахи, обуславливает волевые конструкции. Появляются татхагаты ... и разъясняет. Он говорит "видите".
Avijjāpaccayā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā. ‘With ignorance as condition there are formations. ’ Неведение, о монахи, обуславливает волевые конструкции.
Iti kho, bhikkhave, yā tatra tathatā avitathatā anaññathatā idappaccayatā. “So, bhikkhus, that herein which is reality, not unreality, not otherness, specific conditionality: Так, о монахи, это здесь является реальностью, не что-то нереальное, не что-либо другое, обусловленность одного другим.
Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, paṭiccasamuppādo"ti (saṃ. ni. 2.20). ¶ that is called dependent origination” (S II 25f.). ¶ Это, о монахи, зовётся обусловленным возникновением. ¶
572. Evaṃ paṭiccasamuppādaṃ desentena tathatādīhi vevacanehi paccayadhammāva paṭiccasamuppādoti vuttā. Так объяснив обусловленное возникновение с помощью слов "реальность" и другими синонимами, объяснено обусловленное возникновение и обусловленно возникшие феномены. Это предложение пропущено и в издании 1991 года https://ru.scribd.com/doc/53104691/The-Path-of-Purification-Visuddhimagga-trans-N%C4%81%E1%B9%87amoli-...
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Tasmā jarāmaraṇādīnaṃ dhammānaṃ paccayalakkhaṇo paṭiccasamuppādo, dukkhānubandhanaraso, kummaggapaccupaṭṭhānoti veditabbo. ¶ Consequently, it should be understood that dependent origination has the characteristic of being the conditions for the states beginning with ageing-and- death. Its function is to continue [the process of] suffering. It is manifested as the wrong path. ¶ Следовательно, нужно понимать обусловленное возникновение как имеющее характеристику условия для феноменов, начинающихся со старости и смерти, функция его состоит продолжать процесс страдания, проявляется оно как неверный путь. ¶
So panāyaṃ tehi tehi paccayehi anūnādhikeheva tassa tassa dhammassa sambhavato tathatāti, sāmaggiṃ upagatesu paccayesu muhuttampi tato nibbattadhammānaṃ asambhavābhāvato avitathatāti, aññadhammapaccayehi aññadhammānuppattito anaññathatāti, yathāvuttānaṃ etesaṃ jarāmaraṇādīnaṃ paccayato vā paccayasamūhato vā idappaccayatāti vutto. ¶ 6. Because particular states are produced by particular conditions, neither less nor more, it is called reality (suchness). Because once the conditions have met in combination there is no non-producing, even for an instant, of the states they generate, it is called not unreality (not unsuchness). Because there is no arising of one state with another state’s conditions, it is called not otherness. Because there is a condition, or because there is a total of conditions, for these states beginning with ageing-and-death as already stated, it is called specific conditionality. ¶
573. Tatrāyaṃ vacanattho, imesaṃ paccayā idappaccayā. 7.Here is the word meaning: idappaccayā (lit. that-conditions) = imesaṃ paccayā (conditions for those);
Idappaccayā eva idappaccayatā. idappaccayā (that-conditions) = idappaccayatā (that-conditionality, conditionality for those, specific conditionality).
Idappaccayānaṃ vā samūho idappaccayatā. Or alternatively, idappaccayatā (that-conditionality) = idappaccayānaṃ samūho (the total of that- conditions, total specific conditionality).
Lakkhaṇaṃ panettha saddasatthato pariyesitabbaṃ. ¶ 8. The characteristic must be sought from grammar. ¶
574. Keci pana paṭicca sammā ca titthiyaparikappitapakatipurisādikāraṇanirapekkho uppādo paṭiccasamuppādoti evaṃ uppādamattaṃ paṭiccasamuppādoti vadanti, taṃ na yujjati. Some, in fact, [say that the expression paṭicca samuppāda (dependent origination) is characterized thus:] “having depended (paṭicca), a right (sammā) arising (uppāda), [depending on causes rightly by] disregarding such causes conjectured by sectarians as the Primordial Essence (Prakriti), World Soul (Purusa), and so on. ” So what they call dependent origination (paṭicca samuppāda) is a simple arising (uppāda) [for they equate the prefix saṃ only with sammā (rightly) and ignore saṃ (with, con-)]. That is untenable. Здесь типа начинается флейм. Разгромная статья :-D
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Kasmā? [519] Why?
Suttābhāvato, suttavirodhato, gambhīranayāsambhavato, saddabhedato ca. (1) There is no such sutta; (2) it contradicts suttas; (3) it admits of no profound treatment; and (4) it is ungrammatical.
"Uppādamattaṃ paṭiccasamuppādo"ti hi suttaṃ natthi. 9.(1) No sutta describes the dependent origination as simple arising.
Taṃ "paṭiccasamuppādo"ti ca vadantassa padesavihārasuttavirodho āpajjati. (2) Anyone who asserts that dependent origination is of that kind involves himself in conflict with the Padesavihāra Sutta.
Kathaṃ? How?
Bhagavato hi "atha kho bhagavā rattiyā paṭhamaṃ yāmaṃ paṭiccasamuppādaṃ anulomapaṭilomaṃ manasākāsī"ti (mahāva. 1) ādivacanato paṭiccasamuppādamanasikāro paṭhamābhisambuddhavihāro, padesavihāro ca tassekadesavihāro. The Newly Enlightened One’s abiding (vihāra) is the bringing of the dependent origination to mind, because, of these words of the Blessed One’s: “Then in the first watch of the night the Blessed One brought to mind the dependent origination in direct and reverse order” [as origination and cessation] (Vin I 1; Ud 2). Now, “padesavihāra” is the abiding (vihāra) in one part (desa) of that,
Yathāha "yena svāhaṃ, bhikkhave, vihārena paṭhamābhisambuddho viharāmi, tassa padesena vihāsi"nti (saṃ. ni. 5.11). according as it is said, “Bhikkhus, I abode in a part of the abiding in which I abode when I was newly enlightened” (S V 12; Paṭis I 107).
Tatra ca paccayākāradassanena vihāsi, na uppādamattadassanenāti. And there he abode in the vision of structure of conditions, not in the vision of simple arising,
Yathāha "so evaṃ pajānāmi micchādiṭṭhipaccayāpi vedayitaṃ sammādiṭṭhipaccayāpi vedayitaṃ micchāsaṅkappapaccayāpi vedayita"nti (saṃ. ni. 5.11) sabbaṃ vitthāretabbaṃ. according as it is said, “So I understood feeling with wrong view as its condition, and feeling with right view as its condition, and feeling with wrong thinking as its condition …” (S V 12), all of which should be quoted in full.
Evaṃ uppādamattaṃ "paṭiccasamuppādo"ti vadantassa padesavihārasuttavirodho āpajjati. So anyone who asserts that dependent origination is simple arising involves himself in conflict with the Padesavihāra Sutta.
Tathā kaccānasuttavirodho. ¶ 10. There is likewise contradiction of the Kaccāna Sutta. ¶
Kaccānasuttepi hi "lokasamudayaṃ kho, kaccāna, yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya passato yā loke natthitā, sā na hotī"ti (saṃ. ni. 2.15) anulomapaṭiccasamuppādo lokapaccayato "lokasamudayo"ti ucchedadiṭṭhisamugghātatthaṃ pakāsito, na uppādamattaṃ. For in the Kaccāna Sutta it is said, “When a man sees correctly with right understanding the origination of the world, Kaccāna, he does not say of the world that it is not” (S II 17). And there it is the dependent origination in forward order, not simple arising, that, as the origination of the world from its conditions, is set forth in order to eliminate the annihilation view.
Na hi uppādamattadassanena ucchedadiṭṭhiyā samugghāto hoti. For the annihilation view is not eliminated by seeing simple arising;
Paccayānuparamadassanena pana hoti. but it is eliminated by seeing the chain of conditions
Paccayānuparame phalānuparamatoti. as a chain of fruits following on a chain of conditions.
Evaṃ uppādamattaṃ "paṭiccasamuppādo"ti vadantassa kaccānasuttavirodhopi āpajjati. ¶ So anyone who asserts that the dependent origination is simple arising involves himself in contradiction of the Kaccāna Sutta. ¶
Gambhīranayāsambhavatoti vuttaṃ kho panetaṃ bhagavatā "gambhīro cāyaṃ, ānanda, paṭiccasamuppādo gambhīrāvabhāso cā"ti (dī. ni. 2.95; saṃ. ni. 2.60). 11.(3) It admits of no profound treatment: this has been said by the Blessed One, “This dependent origination is profound, Ānanda, and profound it appears” (D II 55; S II 92).
Gambhīrattañca nāma catubbidhaṃ, taṃ parato vaṇṇayissāma. And the profundity is fourfold as we shall explain below (XVII.304f.);
Taṃ uppādamatte natthi. but there is none of that in simple arising.
Catubbidhanayapaṭimaṇḍitañcetaṃ paṭiccasamuppādaṃ vaṇṇayanti, tampi nayacatukkaṃ uppādamatte natthīti gambhīranayāsambhavatopi na uppādamattaṃ paṭiccasamuppādo. ¶ And this dependent origination is explained [by the teachers] as adorned with the fourfold method (XVII.309); but there is no [need of] any such tetrad of methods in simple arising. So dependent origination is not simple arising, since that admits of no profound treatment. ¶
575. Saddabhedatoti paṭiccasaddo ca panāyaṃ samāne kattari pubbakāle payujjamāno atthasiddhikaro hoti. 12.(4) It is ungrammatical: [520] this word paṭicca (lit. “having depended”; freely “due to,” “dependent”), [being a gerund of the verb paṭi + eti, to go back to], establishes a meaning [in a formula of establishment by verb] when it is construed as past with the same subject [as that of the principal verb],
Seyyathidaṃ, "cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇa"nti (saṃ. ni. 2.43). as in the sentence “Having depended on (paṭicca = ‘due to’) the eye and visible objects, eye- consciousness arises (uppajjati)” (S II 72).
Idha pana bhāvasādhanena uppādasaddena saddhiṃ payujjamāno samānassa kattu abhāvato saddabhedaṃ gacchati, na ca kiñci atthaṃ sādhetīti saddabhedatopi na uppādamattaṃ paṭiccasamuppādoti. ¶ But if it is construed here with the word uppāda (arising), [which is a noun], in a formula of establishment by noun, there is a breach of grammar, because there is no shared subject [as there is in above-quoted sentence], and so it does not establish any meaning al all. So the dependent origination is not simple arising because that is ungrammatical. ¶
Tattha siyā – "hoti-saddena saddhiṃ yojayissāma 'paṭiccasamuppādo hotī'ti", taṃ na yuttaṃ. 13. Here it might be [argued]: “We shall add the words ‘comes to be’ (hoti) thus: ‘Having depended, arising comes to be’ (paṭicca, samuppādo hoti). ” That will not do.
Kasmā? Why not?
Yogābhāvato ceva, uppādassa ca uppādapattidosato. Because there is no instance in which it has been added, and because the fallacy of the arising of an arising follows.
"Paṭiccasamuppādaṃ vo, bhikkhave, desessāmi. For in such passages as “Paṭiccasamuppādaṃ vo bhikkhave desessāmi. (I shall teach you the dependent origination, bhikkhus.
Katamo ca, bhikkhave, paṭiccasamuppādo - pe - ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, paṭiccasamuppādo"ti (saṃ. ni. 2.1). Katamo ca bhikkhave paṭiccasamuppādo (And what is the dependent origination?) … Ayaṃ vuccati bhikkhave paṭiccasamuppādo … This is called the dependent origination, bhikkhus)” (S II 1),
Imesu hi padesu ekenapi saddhiṃ hoti-saddo yogaṃ na gacchati, na ca uppādo hoti. the words “comes to be” (hoti) are not added in any single instance. And there is no [such expression as] “arising comes to be”:
Sace bhaveyya, uppādassāpi uppādo pāpuṇeyyāti. ¶ if there were, it would be tantamount to saying that arising itself had an arising too. ¶
576. Yepi maññanti "idappaccayānaṃ bhāvo idappaccayatā, bhāvo ca nāma yo ākāro avijjādīnaṃ saṅkhārādipātubhāve hetu, so. 14. And those are wrong who imagine that specific conditionality (idappaccayatā) is the specific conditions’ [abstract] essence—what is called “abstract essence” being a [particular] mode in ignorance, etc., that acts as cause in the manifestation of formations, etc.—
Tasmiñca saṅkhāravikāre paṭiccasamuppādasaññā"ti, tesaṃ taṃ na yujjati. and that the term “dependent origination” is used for an alteration in formations when there is that [particular mode in the way of occurrence of ignorance].
Kasmā? Why are they wrong?
Avijjādīnaṃ hetuvacanato. Because it is ignorance, etc., themselves that are called causes.
Bhagavatā hi "tasmātiha, ānanda, eseva hetu, etaṃ nidānaṃ, esa samudayo, esa paccayo jarāmaraṇassa yadidaṃ jāti - pe - saṅkhārānaṃ, yadidaṃ avijjā"ti (dī. ni. 2.98 ādayo) evaṃ avijjādayova hetūti vuttā, na tesaṃ vikāro. For in the following passage it is ignorance, etc., themselves, not their alteration, that are called the causes [of these states]: “Therefore, Ānanda, just this is the cause, this is the source, this is the origin, this is the condition, for ageing-and-death, that is to say, birth … for formations, that is to say, (ignorance)” (D II 57–63—the last clause is not in the Dīgha text).
Tasmā "paṭiccasamuppādoti paccayadhammā veditabbā"ti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, taṃ sammā vuttanti veditabbaṃ. ¶ Therefore it is the actual states themselves as conditions that should be understood as “dependent origination. ” So what was said above (§4) can be understood as rightly said. ¶
577. Yā panettha "paṭiccasamuppādo"ti imāya byañjanacchāyāya uppādoyevāyaṃ vuttoti saññā uppajjati, sā imassa padassa evamatthaṃ gahetvā vūpasametabbā. 15. If any notion arises in the guise of a literal interpretation of the term “dependent origination” (paṭicca-samuppāda) to the effect that it is only arising that is stated, it should be got rid of by apprehending the meaning of this expression in the following way.
Bhagavatā hi, ¶ For: In double form this term relates to a totality of state Produced from a conditionality; Hence the conditions for that sum Through metaphor’s device have come To bear their fruits’ name figuratively In the Blessed One’s exposition. ¶
Dvedhā tato pavatte, dhammasamūhe yato idaṃ vacanaṃ; ¶
Tappaccayo tatoyaṃ, phalopacārena iti vutto. ¶
Yo hi ayaṃ paccayatāya pavatto dhammasamūho, tattha paṭiccasamuppādoti idaṃ vacanaṃ dvidhā icchanti. 16. This term “dependent origination,” when applied to the total of states produced from the [total] conditionality, must be taken in two ways.
So hi yasmā patīyamāno hitāya sukhāya ca saṃvattati, tasmā paccetumarahanti naṃ paṇḍitāti paṭicco. For that [total] ought to be arrived at (paṭicco—adj.),2 since when it is arrived at (paṭiyamāno), it leads to [supramundane] welfare and bliss and so the wise [regard] it as worthy to be arrived at (paccetuṃ); Комм. НТ: 2. Paṭicco as a declinable adjective is not in PED. The word paṭicca (due to, depending on) and the word paccaya (condition) are both ...
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Uppajjamāno ca saha sammā ca uppajjati, na ekekato, nāpi ahetutoti samuppādo. and then, when it arises (uppajjamāno), it does so “together with” (saha) and “rightly” (sammā), not singly or causelessly, thus it is a co-arising (samuppādo).
Evaṃ paṭicco ca so samuppādo cāti paṭiccasamuppādo. Consequently: it is to be arrived at (paṭicco) and it is a co-arising (samuppādo), thus it is dependent origination (paṭicca-samuppāda).
Apica saha uppajjatīti samuppādo, paccayasāmaggiṃ pana paṭicca apaccakkhāyāti evampi paṭiccasamuppādo. Again: it arises as a togetherness (saha), thus it is a co- arising (samuppāda); but it does so having depended (paṭicca—ger.) in combination with conditions, not regardless of them. Consequently: it, having depended (paṭicca), is a co-arising (samuppāda), thus in this way also it is dependent origination (paṭicca-samuppāda).
Tassa cāyaṃ hetusamūho paccayoti tappaccayattā ayampi, yathā loke semhassa paccayo guḷo semho guḷoti vuccati, yathā ca sāsane sukhappaccayo buddhānaṃ uppādo "sukho buddhānaṃ uppādo"ti vuccati, tathā paṭiccasamuppādo icceva phalavohārena vuttoti veditabbo. ¶ And the total of causes is a condition for that [total of states produced from the conditionality], so, because it is a condition for that, this [total of causes] is called, “dependent origination,” using for it the term ordinarily used for its fruit just as in the world molasses, which is a condition for phlegm, is spoken of thus, “Molasses is phlegm,” or just as in the Dispensation the arising of Buddhas, which is a condition for bliss, is spoken of thus, “The arising of Buddhas is bliss” (Dhp 194). ¶
578. Atha vā, ¶ 17. Or alternatively: ¶
Paṭimukhamitoti vutto, hetusamūho ayaṃ paṭiccoti; ¶ The sum of causes too they call “Facing its counterpart,” so all Is in that sense “dependent,” as they tell; This sum of causes too, as stated, ¶
Sahite uppādeti ca, iti vutto so samuppādo. ¶ Gives fruits that rise associated, So “co-arising” it is called as well. ¶
Yo hi esa saṅkhārādīnaṃ pātubhāvāya avijjādiekekahetusīsena niddiṭṭho hetusamūho, so sādhāraṇaphalanipphādakaṭṭhena avekallaṭṭhena ca sāmaggiaṅgānaṃ aññamaññena paṭimukhaṃ ito gatoti katvā paṭiccoti vuccati. 18.This total of causes—indicated severally under the heading of each cause, beginning with ignorance—for the manifestation of formations, etc., is called “dependent” (paṭicco—adj.), taking it as “facing, gone to, its counterpart” (paṭimukham ito) owing to the mutual interdependence of the factors in the combination, in the sense both that they produce common fruit and that none can be dispensed with.
Svāyaṃ sahiteyeva aññamaññaṃ avinibbhogavuttidhamme uppādetīti samuppādotipi vutto. And it is called a “co-arising” (samuppādo) since it causes the states that occur in unresolved mutual interdependence to arise associatedly.
Evampi paṭicco ca so samuppādo cāti paṭiccasamuppādo. ¶ Consequently: it is dependent (paṭicco) and a co-arising (samuppādo), thus in this way also it is dependent origination (paṭicca-samuppāda). ¶
579. Aparo nayo – ¶ 19. Another method: ¶
Paccayatā aññoññaṃ, paṭicca yasmā samaṃ saha ca dhamme; ¶ This total conditionally, acting interdependently, Arouses states together equally; ¶
Ayamuppādeti tatopi, evamidha bhāsitā muninā. ¶ So this too is a reason here wherefore the Greatest Sage, the Seer, Gave to this term its form thus succinctly. ¶
Avijjādisīsena niddiṭṭhapaccayesu hi ye paccayā yaṃ saṅkhārādikaṃ dhammaṃ uppādenti, na te aññamaññaṃ apaṭicca aññamaññavekalle sati uppādetuṃ samatthāti. 20.Among the conditions described under the headings of ignorance, etc., the respective conditions that make the [conditionally-arisen] states beginning with formations arise are incapable of making them arise when not mutually dependent and when deficient.
Tasmā paṭicca samaṃ saha ca na ekekadesaṃ, nāpi pubbāparabhāvena ayaṃ paccayatā dhamme uppādetīti atthānusāravohārakusalena muninā evamidha bhāsitā, paṭiccasamuppādotveva bhāsitāti attho. ¶ Therefore this conditionality by depending (paṭicca—ger.) makes states arise (uppādeti) equally and together (samaṃ saha ca), not piecemeal and successively—so it has been termed here thus by the Sage who is skilled in phraseology that conforms to its meaning: it has been accurately termed “dependent origination” (paṭicca samuppāda), is the meaning. ¶
580. Evaṃ bhāsamānena ca, ¶ 21.And while so termed: ¶
Purimena sassatādīna, mabhāvo pacchimena ca padena; ¶ The first component will deny the false view of eternity And so on, and the second will prevent ¶ Первое слово ["обусловленное"] отрицает убеждение в существовании вечного и подобные, а второе ["возникновение"] - предотвращает ¶
Ucchedādivighāto, dvayena paridīpito ñāyo. ¶ The nihilistic type of view and others like it, while the two Together show the true way that is meant. ¶ убеждение в полном уничтожении и подобные. Эта пара показывает истинный путь. ¶
Purimenāti paccayasāmaggiparidīpakena paṭiccapadena pavattidhammānaṃ paccayasāmaggiyaṃ āyattavuttittā sassatāhetuvisamahetuvasavattivādappabhedānaṃ sassatādīnaṃ abhāvo paridīpito hoti? The first: the word “dependent” (paṭicca) indicates the combination of the conditions, [522] since states in the process of occurring exist in dependence on the combining of their conditions; and it shows that they are not eternal, etc., thus denying the various doctrines of eternalism, no-cause, fictitious-cause, and power-wielder. 3 Первое: слово "обусловленное" указывает на сочетание условий, поскольку факторы в процессе появления существуют в зависимости от сочетания их условий. И это показывает, что они не вечные и т.п., тем самым отрицая различные учения о вечном, отсутствии причины, выдуманной причины и [персонифицированного] властителя. 3.
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Kiṃ hi sassatānaṃ, ahetuādivasena vā pavattānaṃ paccayasāmaggiyāti? What purpose indeed would the combining of conditions serve, if things were eternal, or if they occurred without cause, and so on? Какую функцию исполняло бы сочетание условий, если бы явления были бы вечными или они происходили без причины и т.п.?
Pacchimena ca padenāti dhammānaṃ uppādaparidīpakena samuppādapadena paccayasāmaggiyaṃ dhammānaṃ uppattito vihatā ucchedanatthikaakiriyavādāti ucchedādivighāto paridīpito hoti. 23.The second: the word “origination” (samuppāda) indicates the arising of the states, since these occur when their conditions combine, and it shows how to prevent annihilationism, etc., thus preventing the various doctrines of annihilation [of a soul], nihilism, [“there is no use in giving,” etc.,] and moral-inefficacy-of- action, [“there is no other world,” etc.]; Второе [слово]: слово "возникновение" указывает на возникновение факторов, поскольку они возникают при сочетании их условий и это показывает как предотвратить убеждение в полном уничтожении и т.п., тем самым предотвращая теории о полном уничтожении [личности], нигилизма ["ничего не даётся, не жертвуется..."], и отсутствия последствий у поступков ["нет плодов дурных и добрых дел"].
Purimapurimapaccayavasena hi punappunaṃ uppajjamānesu dhammesu kuto ucchedo, natthikākiriyavādā cāti. for when states [are seen to] arise again and again, each conditioned by its predecessor, how can the doctrines of annihilationism, nihilism, and moral-inefficacy-of-action be maintained? Ведь когда заметно возникновение факторов снова и снова, каждый из которых обусловлен своим предшественников, можно ли придерживаться теорий о полном уничтожении, нигилизме и отсутствия последствий у поступков?
Dvayenāti sakalena paṭiccasamuppādavacanena tassā tassā paccayasāmaggiyā santatiṃ avicchinditvā tesaṃ tesaṃ dhammānaṃ sambhavato majjhimā paṭipadā, "so karoti so paṭisaṃvedeti, añño karoti añño paṭisaṃvedetī"ti vādappahānaṃ, janapadaniruttiyā anabhiniveso, samaññāya anatidhāvananti ayaṃ ñāyo paridīpito hotīti ayaṃ tāva paṭiccasamuppādoti vacanamattassa attho. ¶ 24.The two together: since any given states are produced without interrupting the [cause-fruit] continuity of any given combination of conditions, the whole expression “dependent origination” (paṭicca-samuppāda) represents the middle way, which rejects the doctrines, “He who acts is he who reaps” and “One acts while another reaps” (S II 20), and which is the proper way described thus, “Not insisting on local language and not overriding normal usage” (M III 234). 4 ¶ Комм. НТ: The explanation differs somewhat from MN 139.
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581. Yā panāyaṃ bhagavatā paṭiccasamuppādaṃ desentena "avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā"tiādinā nayena nikkhittā tanti, tassā atthasaṃvaṇṇanaṃ karontena vibhajjavādimaṇḍalaṃ otaritvā ācariye anabbhācikkhantena sakasamayaṃ avokkamantena parasamayaṃ anāyūhantena suttaṃ appaṭibāhantena vinayaṃ anulomentena mahāpadese olokentena dhammaṃ dīpentena atthaṃ saṅgāhentena tamevatthaṃ punarāvattetvā aparehipi pariyāyantarehi niddisantena ca yasmā atthasaṃvaṇṇanā kātabbā hoti, pakatiyāpi ca dukkarāva paṭiccasamuppādassa atthasaṃvaṇṇanā. 25.Now, in teaching this dependent origination the Blessed One has set forth the text in the way beginning, “With ignorance as condition there are formations” (S II 20). Its meaning should be commented on by one who keeps within the circle of the Vibhajjavādins,5 who does not misrepresent the teachers, who does not advertise his own standpoint, who does not quarrel with the standpoint of others, who does not distort suttas, who is in agreement with the Vinaya, who looks to the principal authorities (mahāpadesa—D II 123ff.), who illustrates the law (dhamma), who takes up the meaning (attha), repeatedly reverting to that same meaning, describing it in various different ways. 6 And it is inherently difficult to comment on the dependent origination, Комм. НТ: 5. The term “analyzer” (vibhajjavādin) appears at A V 190, and at M II 197, in this sense, used to describe the Buddha and his followers, wh...
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Yathāhu porāṇā – ¶ as the Ancients said: ¶
"Saccaṃ satto paṭisandhi, paccayākārameva ca; ¶ The truth, a being, rebirth-linking, And the structure of conditions, ¶
Duddasā caturo dhammā, desetuṃ ca sudukkarā"ti. ¶ Are four things very hard to see And likewise difficult to teach. ¶
Tasmā aññatra āgamādhigamappattehi na sukarā paṭiccasamuppādassatthavaṇṇanāti paritulayitvā, ¶ Therefore, considering that to comment on the dependent origination is impossible except for those who are expert in the texts: ¶
Vattukāmo ahaṃ ajja, paccayākāravaṇṇanaṃ; ¶ Whilst I would now begin the comment On the structure of conditions ¶
Patiṭṭhaṃ nādhigacchāmi, ajjhogāḷhova sāgaraṃ. ¶ I find no footing for support And seem to founder in a sea. ¶
Sāsanaṃ panidaṃ nānā, desanānayamaṇḍitaṃ; ¶ However, many modes of teaching Grace the Dispensation here, ¶
Pubbācariyamaggo ca, abbocchinno pavattati. ¶ And still the former teachers’ way Is handed down unbrokenly. ¶
Yasmā tasmā tadubhayaṃ, sannissāyatthavaṇṇanaṃ; ¶ Therefore on both of these relying For my support, I now begin ¶
Ārabhissāmi etassa, taṃ suṇātha samāhitā. ¶ Its meaning to elucidate: Listen therefore attentively. ¶
Vuttañhetaṃ pubbācariyehi – ¶ 26.For this has been said by the former teachers: ¶
"Yo koci maṃ aṭṭhikatvā suṇeyya, ¶ Whoever learns alertly this [discourse] ¶
Labhetha pubbāpariyaṃ visesaṃ; ¶ Will go from excellence to excellence, ¶
Laddhāna pubbāpariyaṃ visesaṃ, ¶ And when perfected, he will then escape ¶
Adassanaṃ maccurājassa gacche"ti. ¶ Beyond the vision of the King of Death. ¶
582. Iti avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārātiādīsu hi āditoyeva tāva, ¶ 27.So as regards the passages that begin: “With ignorance as condition there are formations” (S II 20), to start with: ¶
Desanābhedato attha, lakkhaṇekavidhādito. (1) As different ways of teaching, (2) meaning, (3) Character, (4) singlefold and so on,
Aṅgānañca vavatthānā, viññātabbo vinicchayo. ¶ (5) As to defining of the factors, The exposition should be known. ¶
Tattha desanābhedatoti bhagavato hi vallihārakānaṃ catunnaṃ purisānaṃ valligahaṇaṃ viya ādito vā majjhato vā paṭṭhāya yāva pariyosānaṃ, tathā pariyosānato vā majjhato vā paṭṭhāya yāva ādīti catubbidhā paṭiccasamuppādadesanā. ¶ 28. 1. Herein, as different ways of teaching: the Blessed One’s teaching of the dependent origination is fourfold, namely, (i) from the beginning; or (ii) from the middle up to the end; and (iii) from the end; or (iv) from the middle down to the beginning. It is like four creeper-gatherers’ ways of seizing a creeper. ¶ Здесь в части различных способов преподавания. Благословенный преподаёт обусловленное возникновение четырьмя способами: 1) с начала, 2) с середины к концу, 3) с конца, 4) с середины к началу. Это подобно четырём способом, которыми собиратели хватают ползучие растения. ¶
Yathā hi vallihārakesu catūsu purisesu eko valliyā mūlameva paṭhamaṃ passati, so taṃ mūle chetvā sabbaṃ ākaḍḍhitvā ādāya kamme upaneti, evaṃ bhagavā "iti kho, bhikkhave, avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā - pe - jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇa"nti (ma. ni. 1.402; saṃ. ni. 2.2) ādito paṭṭhāya yāva pariyosānāpi paṭiccasamuppādaṃ deseti. ¶ 29.(i) For just as one of four men gathering creepers sees only the root of the creeper first, and after cutting it at the root, he pulls it all out and takes it away and uses it, so the Blessed One teaches the dependent origination from the beginning up to the end thus: “So, bhikkhus, with ignorance as condition there are formations; … with birth as condition ageing-and-death” (M I 261). ¶ Ведь как один из четырёх человек, собирающих ползучие растения, сначала видит только корень и, срезав его у корня, вытягивает всё растение, забирает его с собой и использует, так и Благословенный преподаёт обусловленное возникновение с начала и до конца: "Так, монахи, неведение обуславливает волевые конструкции... рождение обуславливает старость и смерть". ¶
Yathā pana tesu purisesu eko valliyā majjhaṃ paṭhamaṃ passati, so majjhe chinditvā uparibhāgaññeva ākaḍḍhitvā ādāya kamme upaneti, evaṃ bhagavā "tassa taṃ vedanaṃ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato uppajjati nandī. 30.(ii) Just as another of the four men sees the middle of the creeper first, and after cutting it in the middle, he pulls out only the upper part and takes it away and uses it. “When he is delighted with, welcomes, remains committed to that feeling, then delight arises in him. Подобно тому, как другой из четырёх человек сначала видит середину ползучего растения и разрезав его посередине вытаскивает только верхнюю часть, забирает его с собой и использует. "Когда он восхищается, приветствует, привержен этому ощущению, в нём возникает наслаждение.
Yā vedanāsu nandī, tadupādānaṃ. Delight in feelings is clinging. Наслаждение ощущением является привязанностью (схватыванием). Это ещё одно объяснение upādāna!
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Tassupādānapaccayā bhavo, bhavapaccayā jātī"ti (ma. ni. 1.409; saṃ. ni. 3.5) majjhato paṭṭhāya yāva pariyosānāpi deseti. ¶ With his clinging as condition there is becoming; with becoming as condition, birth” (M I 266). - so the Blessed One teaches it from the middle up to the end thus. ¶ Его привязанность обуславливает бывание, бывание обуславливает рождение" - так Благословенный преподаёт его с середины к концу. ¶
Yathā ca tesu purisesu eko valliyā aggaṃ paṭhamaṃ passati, so agge gahetvā aggānusārena yāva mūlā sabbaṃ ādāya kamme upaneti, evaṃ bhagavā "jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇanti iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ, jātipaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, jarāmaraṇaṃ no vā kathaṃ vo ettha hotīti? 31. (iii) Just as another of the four men sees the tip of the creeper first, and seizing the tip, he follows it down to the root and takes all of it away and uses it. “‘With birth as condition, ageing-and-death,’ so it was said. But is there ageing-and- death with birth as condition, or not, or how is it here? Подобно тому, как ещё один сначала видит конец ползучего растения и схватив за конец прослеживает его до корня и, забрав всё растение использует его. ""Рождение обуславливает старость и смерть" - так было сказано. Но есть ли старость и смерть с рождением в качестве условия или нет, или как оно здесь?
Jātipaccayā, bhante, jarāmaraṇaṃ. —There is ageing-and- death with birth as condition, - Почтенный, рождение обуславливает старость и смерть.
Evaṃ no ettha hoti jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇanti. so we think, venerable sir. Так мы думаем, рождение обуславливает старость и смерть.
Bhavapaccayā jāti - pe - avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārāti iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ, avijjāpaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā no vā kathaṃ vo ettha hotī"ti (ma. ni. 1.403) pariyosānato paṭṭhāya yāva āditopi paṭiccasamuppādaṃ deseti. ¶ ‘With becoming as condition, birth,’ so it was said … ‘With ignorance as condition there are formations,’ so it was said. But are there formations with ignorance as condition, or not, or how is it here? —There are formations with ignorance as condition, so we think, venerable sir” (M I 261). - so the Blessed One teaches it from the end down to the beginning thus. ¶ "Бывание обуславливает рождение" - так было сказано.... "Неведение обуславливает волевые конструкции" - так было сказано. Но есть ли волевые конструкции с неведением в качестве условия или нет, или как оно здесь?" - так Благословенный преподаёт с конца до начала. ¶
Yathā panetesu purisesu eko valliyā majjhameva paṭhamaṃ passati, so majjhe chinditvā heṭṭhā otaranto yāva mūlā ādāya kamme upaneti, evaṃ bhagavā "ime ca, bhikkhave, cattāro āhārā kinnidānā, kiṃsamudayā, kiṃjātikā, kiṃpabhavā? 32.(iv) Just as one of the four men sees only the middle of the creeper first, and after cutting it in the middle and tracing it down as far as the root, he takes it away and uses it. “And these four nutriments, bhikkhus: what is their source? What is their origin? From what are they born? By what are they produced? Подобно тому, как ещё один сначала видит только середину ползучего растения и разрезав его посередине и проследив до корня забирает и использует его. "И эти четыре вида питания, о монахи, каков их источник? Каково их происхождение? Откуда они рождаются? Чем они порождаются?
Ime cattāro āhārā taṇhānidānā, taṇhāsamudayā, taṇhājātikā, taṇhāpabhavā. These four nutriments have craving as their source, craving as their origin, they are born from craving, produced by craving. Эти четыре вида питания имеют жажду в качестве источника, жажду в качестве происхождения, рождаются из жажды, порождаются жаждой.
Taṇhā kinnidānā… vedanā… phasso… saḷāyatanaṃ… nāmarūpaṃ… viññāṇaṃ… saṅkhārā kinnidānā - pe - saṅkhārā avijjānidānā - pe - avijjāpabhavā"ti (saṃ. ni. 2.11) majjhato paṭṭhāya yāva ādito deseti. ¶ Craving: what is its source? … Feeling: … Contact: … The sixfold base: … Mentality-materiality: … Consciousness: … Formations: what is their source? … By what are they produced? Formations have ignorance as their source … they are … produced by ignorance” (S II 11f.). so the Blessed One teaches it from the middle down to the beginning thus. ¶ Каков источник жажды?.... ощущения... соприкосновения... шести сфер чувств... умственно-материального... сознания... Каков источник волевых конструкций? Волевые конструкции имеют неведение в качестве источника... они порождаются неведением" - так Благословенный преподаёт с середины до начала. ¶
583. Kasmā panevaṃ desetīti? 33. Why does he teach it thus?
Paṭiccasamuppādassa samantabhaddakattā sayañca desanāvilāsappattattā. Because the dependent origination is wholly beneficial and because he has himself acquired elegance in instructing.
Samantabhaddako hi paṭiccasamuppādo, tato tato ñāyapaṭivedhāya saṃvattatiyeva. For the dependent origination is entirely beneficial: starting from any one of the four starting points, it leads only to the penetration of the proper way.
Desanāvilāsappatto ca bhagavā catuvesārajjapaṭisambhidāyogena catubbidhagambhīrabhāvappattiyā ca. And the Blessed One has acquired elegance in instructing: it is because he has done so through possession of the four kinds of perfect confidence and the four discriminations and by achieving the fourfold profundity (§304)
So desanāvilāsappattattā nānānayeheva dhammaṃ deseti. ¶ that he teaches the Dhamma by various methods. ¶
Visesato panassa yā ādito paṭṭhāya anulomadesanā, sā pavattikāraṇavibhāgasaṃmūḷhaṃ veneyyajanaṃ samanupassato yathāsakehi kāraṇehi pavattisandassanatthaṃ uppattikkamasandassanatthañca pavattāti viññātabbā. 34.But it should be recognized, in particular, that (i) when he sees that people susceptible of teaching are confused about the analysis of the causes of the process [of becoming], he employs his teaching of it forwards starting from the beginning in order to show that the process carries on according to its own peculiar laws and for the purpose of showing the order of arising. Особенно следует знать, что когда он видит, что способные обучаться люди находятся в замешательстве на предмет анализа причин процесса [бывания] он применяет преподавание с начала до конца, чтобы показать как процесс идёт согласно его собственным законам и чтобы показать порядок возникновения.
Yā pariyosānato paṭṭhāya paṭilomadesanā, sā "kicchaṃ vatāyaṃ loko āpanno jāyati ca jīyati ca mīyati ca cavati ca upapajjati cā"tiādinā (dī. ni. 2.57; saṃ. ni. 2.4) nayena kicchāpannaṃ lokaṃ anuvilokayato pubbabhāgapaṭivedhānusārena tassa tassa jarāmaraṇādikassa dukkhassa attanā adhigatakāraṇasandassanatthaṃ. (iii) And it should be recognized that when he surveys the world as fallen upon trouble in the way stated thus, “This world has fallen upon trouble; it is born, ages, dies, passes away, and reappears” (S II 10), he employs his teaching of it backwards starting from the end in order to show the [laws governing the] various kinds of suffering beginning with ageing and death, which he discovered himself in the early stage of his penetration. Когда он осматривает мир как попавший в беду согласно формуле "мир попал в беду, он рождается, стареет, умирает, уходит и возрождается", Благословенный использует преподавание с конца в обратном порядке, чтобы показать [законы, управляющие] различными видами страдания, начиная со старости и смерти, которые он открыл сам на ранних стадиях своего постижения.
Yā majjhato paṭṭhāya yāva ādi pavattā, sā āhāranidānavavatthāpanānusārena yāva atītaṃ addhānaṃ atiharitvā puna atītaddhato pabhuti hetuphalapaṭipāṭisandassanatthaṃ. And (iv) it should be recognized that he employs his teaching of it backwards from the middle down to the beginning in order to show how the succession of cause and fruit extends back into the past [existence], and again forwards from the past, in accordance with his definition of nutriment as the source [of ignorance] (see M I 47f.). Он использует преподавание в обратной последовательности с середины к началу, чтобы показать как последовательность причин и следствий простирается назад в прошлую жизнь и снова вперёд из прошлого, согласно его определению питания как источника неведения. [of ignorance] - очевидно дополнение переводчика, о питании неведения, среди прочего, речь идёт в AН 10.62
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Yā pana majjhato paṭṭhāya yāva pariyosānaṃ pavattā, sā paccuppanne addhāne anāgataddhahetusamuṭṭhānato pabhuti anāgataddhasandassanatthaṃ. And (ii) it should be recognized that he employs his teaching of it forwards from the middle up to the end in order to show how the future [existence] follows on [through rebirth] from arousing in the present causes for [rebirth] in the future. Он использует преподавание с середины к концу, чтобы показать как будущая жизнь следует [через перерождение] от возникновения в настоящем причин [перерождения] в будущем.
Tāsu yā pavattikāraṇasammūḷhassa veneyyajanassa yathāsakehi kāraṇehi pavattisandassanatthaṃ uppattikkamasandassanatthañca ādito paṭṭhāya anulomadesanā vuttā, sā idha nikkhittāti veditabbā. ¶ 35.Of these methods of presentation, that cited here should be understood to be that stated in forward order starting from the beginning in order to show to people susceptible of teaching who are confused about the laws of the process [of becoming] that the process carries on according to its own peculiar laws, [525] and for the purpose of showing the order of arising. ¶
584. Kasmā panettha avijjā ādito vuttā, kiṃ pakativādīnaṃ pakati viya avijjāpi akāraṇaṃ mūlakāraṇaṃ lokassāti? 36.But why is ignorance stated as the beginning here? How then, is ignorance the causeless root-cause of the world like the Primordial Essence of those who assert the existence of a Primordial Essence? Но почему здесь неведение указывается в начале? Разве неведение является беспричинной первопричиной мира как первичная сущность тех, кто утверждает о существовании первичной сущности?
Na akāraṇaṃ. It is not causeless. Оно не является беспричинной.
"Āsavasamudayā avijjāsamudayo"ti (ma. ni. 1.103) hi avijjāya kāraṇaṃ vuttaṃ. For a cause of ignorance is stated thus, “With the arising of cankers there is the arising of ignorance” (M I 54). Ведь причина неведения объяснена так: "С возникновением влечений возникает неведение".
Atthi pana pariyāyo yena mūlakāraṇaṃ siyā, ko pana soti? But there is a figurative way in which it can be treated as the root cause. What way is that? Но есть условный способ, которым её можно считать первопричиной. Что это за способ?
Vaṭṭakathāya sīsabhāvo. ¶ When it is made to serve as a starting point in an exposition of the round [of becoming]. ¶ Когда его ставят в начале объяснения круга бытия. ¶
Bhagavā hi vaṭṭakathaṃ kathento dve dhamme sīsaṃ katvā katheti, avijjaṃ vā. 37. For the Blessed One gives the exposition of the round with one of two things as the starting point: either ignorance, Ведь Благословенный даёт объяснение круга бытия с одним из двух факторов в качестве начального: неведение -
Yathāha – "purimā, bhikkhave, koṭi na paññāyati avijjāya 'ito pubbe avijjā nāhosi, atha pacchā samabhavī'ti, evañcetaṃ, bhikkhave, vuccati, atha ca pana paññāyati idappaccayā avijjā"ti (a. ni. 10.61). according as it is said, “No first beginning of ignorance is made known, bhikkhus, before which there was no ignorance, and after which there came to be ignorance. And while it is said thus, bhikkhus, nevertheless it is made known that ignorance has its specific condition” (A V 113); согласно сказанному: "Монахи, не постижима начальная точка неведения, до которой не было неведения и после которой появилось неведение. И хотя так сказано, о монахи, тем не менее, постижимо, что у неведения есть условие".
Bhavataṇhaṃ vā. or craving for becoming, или это может быть жажда чтобы что-то было -
Yathāha – "purimā, bhikkhave, koṭi na paññāyati bhavataṇhāya 'ito pubbe bhavataṇhā nāhosi, atha pacchā samabhavī'ti, evañcetaṃ, bhikkhave, vuccati, atha ca pana paññāyati idappaccayā bhavataṇhā"ti (a. ni. 10.62). ¶ according as it is said, “No first beginning of craving for becoming is made known, bhikkhus, before which there was no craving for becoming, and after which there came to be craving for becoming. And while it is said thus, bhikkhus, nevertheless it is made known that craving for becoming has its specific condition” (A V 116). ¶ согласно сказанному: "Монахи, не постижима начальная точка жажды, чтобы что-то было, до которой не было этой жажды и после которой она появилась. И хотя так сказано, о монахи, тем не менее постижимо, что у жажды, чтобы что-то было, есть условие". ¶
585. Kasmā pana bhagavā vaṭṭakathaṃ kathento ime dve dhamme sīsaṃ katvā kathetīti? 38.But why does the Blessed One give the exposition of the round with those two things as starting points? Но почему Благословенный даёт объяснение круга бытия с этими двумя факторами в качестве начальной точки?
Sugatiduggatigāmino kammassa visesahetubhūtattā. Because they are the outstanding causes of kamma that leads to happy and unhappy destinies. Потому что они являются особыми причинами поступков (камма), ведущих к дурным и благим уделам.
Duggatigāmino hi kammassa visesahetu avijjā. 39. Ignorance is an outstanding cause of kamma that leads to unhappy destinies. Неведение является особой причиной поступков, ведущих к дурным уделам.
Kasmā? Why? Почему?
Yasmā avijjābhibhūto puthujjano aggisantāpalaguḷābhighātaparissamābhibhūtā vajjhagāvī tāya parissamāturatāya nirassādampi attano anatthāvahampi ca uṇhodakapānaṃ viya kilesasantāpato nirassādampi duggatinipātanato ca attano anatthāvahampi pāṇātipātādiṃ anekappakāraṃ duggatigāmikammaṃ ārabhati. Because, just as when a cow to be slaughtered is in the grip of the torment of burning with fire and belabouring with cudgels, and being crazed with torment, she drinks the hot water although it gives no satisfaction and does her harm, so the ordinary man who is in the grip of ignorance performs kamma of the various kinds beginning with killing living things that leads to unhappy destinies, although it gives no satisfaction because of the burning of defilements and does him harm because it casts him into an unhappy destiny. Потому что, подобно корове в процессе забоя, охваченной муками из-за жжения огнём и побивания дубинами, сведённой с ума мучениями и пьющей горячую воду, которая не утоляет её жажду и наносит вред, так и обычный человек под властью неведения совершает разнообразные поступки, начиная с убийства живых существ, ведущих к дурным уделам, хотя они и не утоляют его жажду из-за жжения умственных загрязнений и наносят ему вред, отправляя в дурные уделы.
Sugatigāmino pana kammassa visesahetu bhavataṇhā. 40.But craving for becoming is an outstanding cause of kamma that leads to happy destinies. Но жажда чтобы что-то было является особой причиной поступков, ведущих к благим уделам.
Kasmā? Why? Почему?
Yasmā bhavataṇhābhibhūto puthujjano sā vuttappakārā gāvī sītūdakataṇhāya saassādaṃ attano parissamavinodanañca sītūdakapānaṃ viya kilesasantāpavirahato saassādaṃ sugatisampāpanena attano duggatidukkhaparissamavinodanañca pāṇātipātā veramaṇiādiṃ anekappakāraṃ sugatigāmikammaṃ ārabhati. ¶ Because, just as that same cow, through her craving for cold water, starts drinking cold water, which gives satisfaction and allays her torment, so the ordinary man in the grip of craving for becoming performs kamma of the various kinds beginning with abstention from killing living things that leads to happy destinies and gives satisfaction because it is free from the burning of defilements and, by bringing him to a happy destiny, allays the torment of suffering [experienced] in the unhappy destinies. ¶ Потому что, подобно той же корове, которая благодаря жажде холодной воды начинает пить холодную воду, утоляющую её потребность и облегчающую муки, так и обычный человек, охваченный жаждой, чтобы что-то всегда было, совершает поступки различных видов, начиная с отказа от убийства живых существ, что ведут к благим уделам, и это даёт удовлетворение поскольку оно лишено жжения умственных загрязнений и благодаря отправлению его в благие уделы утоляет муки страдания, испытываемые в дурных уделах. ¶ Т.е. эта жажда вечной жизни в благих уделах.
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586. Etesu pana vaṭṭakathāya sīsabhūtesu dhammesu katthaci bhagavā ekadhammamūlikaṃ desanaṃ deseti. 41.Now, as regards these two states that are starting points in expositions of the process [of becoming], in some instances the Blessed One teaches the Dhamma based on a single one of these states, Что касается этих двух факторов, являющихся начальной точкой в объяснении процесса [бытия], в некоторых случаях Благословенный преподаёт на основе одного из этих факторов.
Seyyathidaṃ, "iti kho, bhikkhave, avijjūpanisā saṅkhārā, saṅkhārūpanisaṃ viññāṇa"ntiādi (saṃ. ni. 2.23). for instance, [526] “Accordingly, bhikkhus, formations have ignorance as their cause, consciousness has formations as its cause” (S II 31), etc.; А именно: "Так, монахи, неведение является причиной волевых конструкций, волевые конструкции являются причиной сознания" и т.д.
Tathā "upādāniyesu, bhikkhave, dhammesu assādānupassino viharato taṇhā pavaḍḍhati, taṇhāpaccayā upādāna"ntiādi (saṃ. ni. 2.52). likewise, “Bhikkhus, craving increases in one who dwells seeing enjoyment in things productive of clinging; with craving as condition there is clinging” (S II 84), and so on. И также: "Монахи, жажда растёт у того, кто пребывает в отслеживании услады в явлениях, порождающих привязанность. Жажда обуславливает привязанность" и т.д..
Katthaci ubhayamūlikampi. In some instances he does so based on both, В некоторых случаях он объясняет на основе обоих факторов.
Seyyathidaṃ, "avijjānīvaraṇassa, bhikkhave, bālassa taṇhāya sampayuttassa evamayaṃ kāyo samudāgato. for instance: “So, bhikkhus, for the fool who is hindered by ignorance and tethered by craving there arises this body. А именно: "Для глупца, сдерживаемого неведением и скованного жаждой, возникает это тело.
Iti ayañceva kāyo bahiddhā ca nāmarūpaṃ itthetaṃ dvayaṃ. Now, this body [with its six internal bases] and externally [the six bases due to] mentality-materiality make a duality. Так это тело [с его внутренними сферами восприятия] и внешнее [шесть (внешних?) сфер благодаря] умственно-материальному образуют пару.
Dvayaṃ paṭicca phasso saḷevāyatanāni, yehi phuṭṭho bālo sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedetī"tiādi (saṃ. ni. 2.19). Due to this duality there is contact, as well as the six [pairs of] bases, touched through which the fool feels pleasure and pain” (S II 23f.), and so on. Благодаря этой паре существует соприкосновение, а также шесть [пар] сфер чувств, при соприкосновении через которые глупец ощущает удовольствие и страдание" и т.д.
Tāsu desanāsu "avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā"ti ayamidha avijjāvasena ekadhammamūlikā desanāti veditabbā. 42.Of these ways of presentation, that cited here in the form “With ignorance as condition there are formations” should be understood as one based on a single state.
Evaṃ tāvettha desanābhedato viññātabbo vinicchayo. ¶ This, firstly, is how the exposition should be known “as to different ways of teaching. ” ¶
587. Atthatoti avijjādīnaṃ padānaṃ atthato. 43.2.As to meaning: as to the meaning of the words “ignorance” and so on.
Seyyathidaṃ, pūretuṃ ayuttaṭṭhena kāyaduccaritādi avindiyaṃ nāma, aladdhabbanti attho. Bodily misconduct, etc., for example, “ought not to be found” (avindiya), in the sense of being unfit to be carried out; the meaning is that it should not be permitted.
Taṃ avindiyaṃ vindatīti avijjā. It finds (vindati) what ought not to be found (avindiya), thus it is ignorance (avijjā).
Tabbiparītato kāyasucaritādi vindiyaṃ nāma, taṃ vindiyaṃ na vindatīti avijjā. Conversely, good bodily conduct, etc. “ought to be found” (vindiya).
Khandhānaṃ rāsaṭṭhaṃ, āyatanānaṃ āyatanaṭṭhaṃ, dhātūnaṃ suññaṭṭhaṃ, indriyānaṃ adhipatiyaṭṭhaṃ, saccānaṃ tathaṭṭhaṃ aviditaṃ karotītipi avijjā. It does not find (na vindati) what ought to be found (vindiya), thus it is ignorance (avijjā). Also it prevents knowing (avidita) the meaning of collection in the aggregates, the meaning of actuating in the bases, the meaning of voidness in the elements, the meaning of predominance in the faculties, the meaning of reality in the truths, thus it is ignorance (avijjā).
Dukkhādīnaṃ pīḷanādivasena vuttaṃ catubbidhaṃ atthaṃ aviditaṃ karotītipi avijjā. Also it prevents knowing the meaning of suffering, etc., described in four ways as “oppression,” etc. (XVI.15), thus it is ignorance.
Antavirahite saṃsāre sabbayonigatibhavaviññāṇaṭṭhitisattāvāsesu satte javāpetīti avijjā. Through all the kinds of generations, destinies, becoming, stations of consciousness, and abodes of beings in the endless round of rebirths it drives beings on (AntaVIrahite saṃsāre … satte JAvāpeti), thus it is ignorance (avijjā).
Paramatthato avijjamānesu itthipurisādīsu javati, vijjamānesupi khandhādīsu na javatīti avijjā. Amongst women, men, etc., which are in the ultimate sense non-existent, it hurries on (paramatthato AVIJjamānesu itthi-purisādisu JAvati), and amongst the aggregates, etc., which are existent, it does not hurry on (vijjamānesu pi khandhādisu na javati), thus it is ignorance (avijjā).
Apica cakkhuviññāṇādīnaṃ vatthārammaṇānaṃ paṭiccasamuppādapaṭiccasamuppannānañca dhammānaṃ chādanatopi avijjā. ¶ Furthermore, it is ignorance because it conceals the physical bases and objects of eye-consciousness, etc., and the dependent origination and dependently-originated states. ¶
Yaṃ paṭicca phalameti, so paccayo. 44.That due to (paṭicca) which fruit comes (eti) is a condition (paccaya).
Paṭiccāti na vinā apaccakkhatvāti attho. “Due to” (paṭicca) = “not without that”; the meaning is, not dispensing with it.
Etīti uppajjati ceva pavattati cāti attho. “Comes” (eti) means both “arises” and “occurs.”
Apica upakārakaṭṭho paccayaṭṭho. Furthermore, the meaning of “condition” is the meaning of “help."
Avijjā ca sā paccayo cāti avijjāpaccayo. It is ignorance and that is a condition, thus it is “ignorance as condition,”
Tasmā avijjāpaccayā. ¶ whence the phrase “with ignorance as condition.” ¶
Saṅkhatamabhisaṅkharontīti saṅkhārā. “They form the formed” (S III 87), thus they are formations.
Apica avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā, saṅkhārasaddena āgatasaṅkhārāti duvidhā saṅkhārā. Furthermore, formations are twofold, namely, (a) formations with ignorance as condition, and (b) formations given in the texts with the word “formations” (saṅkhāra).
Tattha puññāpuññāneñjābhisaṅkhārā tayo, kāyavacīcittasaṅkhārā tayoti ime cha avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā. Herein, (a) the three, namely, formations of merit, of demerit, and of the imperturbable, and the three, namely, the bodily, the verbal, and the mental formations, which make six, are “formations with ignorance as condition."
Te sabbepi lokiyakusalākusalacetanāmattameva honti. ¶ And all these are simply mundane profitable and unprofitable volition. ¶
Saṅkhatasaṅkhāro, abhisaṅkhatasaṅkhāro, abhisaṅkharaṇakasaṅkhāro, payogābhisaṅkhāroti ime pana cattāro saṅkhāra-saddena āgatasaṅkhārā. 45. But (b) these four, namely, (i) the formation consisting of the formed (saṅkhata-saṅkhāra), [527] (ii) the formation consisting of the kamma-formed (abhisaṅkhata-saṅkhāra), (iii) the formation consisting in the act of kamma-forming (forming by kamma—abhisaṅkharaṇa-saṅkhāra), and (iv) the formation consisting in momentum (payogābhisaṅkhāra), are the kinds of formations that have come in the texts with the word “formations. ”
Tattha "aniccā vata saṅkhārā"tiādīsu (dī. ni. 2.221, 272; saṃ. ni. 1.186) vuttā sabbepi sappaccayā dhammā saṅkhatasaṅkhārā nāma. 46.Herein, (i) all states with conditions, given in such passages as “Formations are impermanent” (S I 158; D II 157), are formations consisting of the formed.
Kammanibbattā tebhūmakā rūpārūpadhammā abhisaṅkhatasaṅkhārāti aṭṭhakathāsu vuttā, tepi "aniccā vata saṅkhārā"ti (dī. ni. 2.221; 272; saṃ. ni. 1.186) ettheva saṅgahaṃ gacchanti. (ii) In the Commentaries material and immaterial states of the three planes generated by kamma are called formations consisting of the kamma-formed. These are also included in the passage, “Formations are impermanent.”
Visuṃ pana nesaṃ āgataṭṭhānaṃ na paññāyati. But there is no instance in the texts where they are found separately.
Tebhūmikakusalākusalacetanā pana abhisaṅkharaṇakasaṅkhāroti vuccati, tassa "avijjāgatoyaṃ, bhikkhave, purisapuggalo puññañceva saṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharotī"tiādīsu (saṃ. ni. 2.51) āgataṭṭhānaṃ paññāyati. (iii) Profitable and unprofitable volition of the three planes is called the formation consisting in the act of kamma-forming. It is found in the texts in such passages as “Bhikkhus, this man in his ignorance forms the formation of merit” (S II 82).
Kāyikacetasikaṃ pana vīriyaṃ payogābhisaṅkhāroti vuccati, so "yāvatikā abhisaṅkhārassa gati, tāvatikā gantvā akkhāhataṃ maññe aṭṭhāsī"tiādīsu (a. ni. 3.15) āgato. ¶ (iv) But it is bodily and mental energy that is called the formation consisting in momentum. This is given in the texts in such passages as “The wheel, having gone as far as the impetus (abhisaṅkhāra) carried it, stood as though it were fixed” (A I 112). ¶
Na kevalañca eteyeva, aññepi "saññāvedayitanirodhaṃ samāpajjantassa kho, āvuso visākha, bhikkhuno paṭhamaṃ nirujjhati vacīsaṅkhāro, tato kāyasaṅkhāro, tato cittasaṅkhāro"tiādinā (ma. ni. 1.464) nayena saṅkhāra-saddena āgatā aneke saṅkhārā. 47. And not only these, but many other kinds of formations are given in the texts with the word “formation” (saṅkhāra), in the way beginning, “When a bhikkhu is attaining the cessation of perception and feeling, friend Visākha, first his verbal formation ceases, then his bodily formation, then his mental formation” (M I 302).
Tesu natthi so saṅkhāro, yo saṅkhatasaṅkhārehi saṅgahaṃ na gaccheyya, ito paraṃ saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇantiādīsu vuttaṃ vuttanayeneva veditabbaṃ. ¶ But there is no formation among them not included by (i) “formations consisting of the formed.” 48.What is said next after this in the [rest of the exposition] beginning, “With formations as condition, consciousness” should be understood in the way already stated. ¶
Avutte pana vijānātīti viññāṇaṃ. But as to those words not yet dealt with: It cognizes (vijānāti), thus it is consciousness (viññāṇa—see M I 292).
Namatīti nāmaṃ. It bends [towards an object] (namati), thus it is mentality (nāma).
Ruppatīti rūpaṃ. It is molested (ruppati), thus it is materiality (rūpa—see S III 87).
Āye tanoti āyatañca nayatīti āyatanaṃ. It provides a range for the origins (āye tanoti) and it leads on what is actuated (āyatañ ca nayati), thus it is a base (āyatana—see XV.4).
Phusatīti phasso. It touches (phusati), thus it is contact (phassa).
Vedayatīti vedanā. It is felt (vedayati), thus it is feeling (vedanā— see M I 293).
Paritassatīti taṇhā. It frets (or it thirsts—paritassati), thus it is craving (taṇhā).
Upādiyatīti upādānaṃ. It clings (upādiyati), thus it is clinging (upādāna).
Bhavati bhāvayati cāti bhavo. It becomes (bhavati) and it makes become (bhāvayati), thus it is becoming (bhava).
Jananaṃ jāti. The act of being born is birth.
Jiraṇaṃ jarā. The act of growing old is ageing.
Maranti etenāti maraṇaṃ. By means of it they die, thus it is death.
Socanaṃ soko. The act of sorrowing is sorrow.
Paridevanaṃ paridevo. The act of lamenting is lamentation.
Dukkhayatīti dukkhaṃ. It makes [beings] suffer (dukkhayati), thus it is pain (dukkha);
Uppādaṭṭhitivasena vā dvidhā khaṇatītipi dukkhaṃ. or it consumes in two ways (DVedhā KHAṇati—see IV.100) by means of [the two moments (khaṇa)] arising and presence, thus it is pain (dukkha).
Dummanabhāvo domanassaṃ. The state of a sad mind (dummana-bhāva) is grief (domanassa).
Bhuso āyāso upāyāso. ¶ Great misery (bhuso āyāso) is despair (upāyāsa). ¶
Sambhavantīti abhinibbattanti. There is means “is generated. ”
Na kevalañca sokādīheva, atha kho sabbapadehi sambhavanti-saddassa yojanā kātabbā. 49.And the words “There is” should be construed with all the terms, not only with those beginning with sorrow;
Itarathā hi "avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā"ti vutte kiṃ karontīti na paññāyeyya, sambhavantīti pana yojanāya sati avijjā ca sā paccayo cāti avijjāpaccayo. for otherwise, when “With ignorance as condition, formations” was said, it would not be evident what they did, but by construing it with the words “There is” (or “there are”), since “ignorance as condition” stands for “it is ignorance and that is a condition,”
Tasmā avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā sambhavantīti paccayapaccayuppannavavatthānaṃ kataṃ hoti. consequently [528] the defining of the condition and the conditionally-arisen state is effected by the words “with ignorance as condition there are formations.”
Esa nayo sabbattha. ¶ And so in each instance. ¶
Evanti niddiṭṭhanayanidassanaṃ. 50. Thus signifies the process described.
Tena avijjādīheva kāraṇehi, na issaranimmānādīhīti dasseti. By that he shows that it is with ignorance, etc., as the causes and not with creation by an Overlord, and so on.
Etassāti yathāvuttassa. Of that: of that aforesaid.
Kevalassāti asammissassa, sakalassa vā. Whole: unmixed, entire.
Dukkhakkhandhassāti dukkhasamūhassa, na sattassa, na sukhasubhādīnaṃ. Mass of suffering: totality of suffering; not a living being, not pleasure, beauty, and so on.
Samudayoti nibbatti. Arising: generating.
Hotīti sambhavati. There is: is brought about.
Evamettha atthato viññātabbo vinicchayo. ¶ This is how the exposition should be known here “as to meaning. ” ¶
588. Lakkhaṇāditoti avijjādīnaṃ lakkhaṇādito. 51. 3. As to character, etc.: as to the characteristics of ignorance, etc.,
Seyyathidaṃ – aññāṇalakkhaṇā avijjā, sammohanarasā, chādanapaccupaṭṭhānā, āsavapadaṭṭhānā. that is to say, ignorance has the characteristic of unknowing. Its function is to confuse. It is manifested as concealing. Its proximate cause is cankers. А именно: неведение имеет характеристику незнания. Её функцией является путать. Она проявляется как сокрытие. Её производящей причиной являются влечения.
Abhisaṅkharaṇalakkhaṇā saṅkhārā, āyūhanarasā, cetanāpaccupaṭṭhānā, avijjāpadaṭṭhānā. Formations have the characteristic of forming. Their function is to accumulate. 7 They are manifested as volition. Their proximate cause is ignorance. Волевые конструкции имеют характеристику конструирования. Их функция состоит в накоплении. Они проявляются как воления. Их производящей причиной является неведение. 7.
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Vijānanalakkhaṇaṃ viññāṇaṃ, pubbaṅgamarasaṃ, paṭisandhipaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, saṅkhārapadaṭṭhānaṃ, vatthārammaṇapadaṭṭhānaṃ vā. Consciousness has the characteristic of cognizing. Its function is to go before (see Dhp 1). It manifests itself as rebirth-linking. Its proximate cause is formations; or its proximate cause is the physical-basis-cum-object. Сознание имеет характеристику сознавания. Его функцией является предшествование. Оно проявляется как воссоединение ума. Его производящей причиной являются волевые конструкции или его производящей причиной является пара "орган чувств - воспринимаемый объект".
Namanalakkhaṇaṃ nāmaṃ, sampayogarasaṃ, avinibbhogapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, viññāṇapadaṭṭhānaṃ. Mentality (nāma) has the characteristic of bending (namana). Its function is to associate. It is manifested as inseparability of its components, [that is, the three aggregates]. Its proximate cause is consciousness. Умственное имеет характеристику наклонения. Его функцией является связывание. Оно проявляется как неразделимость своих составных частей [т.е. трёх совокупностей]. Его производящей причиной является сознание.
Ruppanalakkhaṇaṃ rūpaṃ, vikiraṇarasaṃ, abyākatapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, viññāṇapadaṭṭhānaṃ. Materiality (rūpa) has the characteristic of being molested (ruppana). Its function is to be dispersed. It is manifested as [morally] indeterminate. Its proximate cause is consciousness. Материальное (тело) имеет характеристику подверженности нападению. Его функцией является подвергаться рассеиванию. Оно проявляется как [морально] неопределённое. Его производящей причиной является сознание.
Āyatanalakkhaṇaṃ saḷāyatanaṃ, dassanādirasaṃ, vatthudvārabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, nāmarūpapadaṭṭhānaṃ. The sixfold base (saḷāyatana) has the characteristic of actuating (āyatana). Its function is to see, and so on. It is manifested as the state of physical basis and door. Its proximate cause is mentality-materiality. Шесть сфер чувств обладают характеристикой срабатывания. Их функцией является видеть и т.д. Они проявляются как орган чувств и врата. Их производящей причиной является умственно-материальное.
Phusanalakkhaṇo phasso, saṅghaṭṭanaraso, saṅgatipaccupaṭṭhāno, saḷāyatanapadaṭṭhāno. Contact has the characteristic of touching. Its function is impingement. It manifests itself as coincidence [of internal and external base and consciousness]. Its proximate cause is the sixfold base. Соприкосновение обладает характеристикой касания. Его функцией является воздействие. Оно проявляется как встреча [внутренней и внешней сферы, а также сознания]. Его производящей причиной является шесть сфер чувств.
Anubhavanalakkhaṇā vedanā, visayarasasambhogarasā, sukhadukkhapaccupaṭṭhānā, phassapadaṭṭhānā. Feeling has the characteristic of experiencing. Its function is to exploit the stimulus of the objective field. It is manifested as pleasure and pain. Its proximate cause is contact. Ощущение обладает характеристикой испытывания. Его функцией является использовать стимул сферы чувственного восприятия. Оно проявляется как удовольствие и страдание. Его производящей причиной является соприкосновение.
Hetulakkhaṇā taṇhā, abhinandanarasā, atittabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānā, vedanāpadaṭṭhānā. Craving has the characteristic of being a cause [that is, of suffering]. Its function is to delight. It is manifested as insatiability. Its proximate cause is feeling. Жажда обладает характеристикой быть причиной [страдания]. Его функцией является наслаждение. Она проявляется как невозможность насытиться. Его производящей причиной является ощущение.
Gahaṇalakkhaṇaṃ upādānaṃ, amuñcanarasaṃ, taṇhādaḷhattadiṭṭhipaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, taṇhāpadaṭṭhānaṃ. Clinging has the characteristic of seizing. Its function is not to release. It is manifested as a strong form of craving and as [false] view. Its proximate cause is craving. Привязанность обладает характеристикой схватывания. Его функцией является не отпускать. Она проявляется как сильная форма жажды и [ложный] взгляд. Его производящей причиной является жажда.
Kammakammaphalalakkhaṇo bhavo, bhāvanabhavanaraso, kusalākusalābyākatapaccupaṭṭhāno, upādānapadaṭṭhāno. Becoming has the characteristic of being kamma and kamma-result. Its function is to make become and to become. It is manifested as profitable, unprofitable, and indeterminate. Its proximate cause is clinging. Бывание обладает характеристикой быть поступком и результатом поступка. Его функцией является заставлять бывать и [непосредственно] бывать. Оно проявляется как благотворное, неблаготворное и неопределённое. Его производящей причиной является привязанность.
Jātiādīnaṃ lakkhaṇādīni saccaniddese vuttanayeneva veditabbāni. The characteristic of birth, etc., should be understood as stated in the Description of the Truths (XVI.32f.). Характеристики рождения и прочего следует понимать как объяснено в рассмотрении реальностей для благородных. тут https://www.theravada.su/node/1343
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Evamettha lakkhaṇāditopi viññātabbo vinicchayo. ¶ This is how the exposition should be known here “as to character, etc.” ¶
589. Ekavidhāditoti ettha avijjā aññāṇādassanamohādibhāvato ekavidhā. 52. 4. As to singlefold, and so on: here ignorance is singlefold as unknowing, unseeing, delusion, and so on.
Appaṭipattimicchāpaṭipattito duvidhā. It is twofold as “no theory” and “wrong theory” (cf. §303);8 Комм. НТ: 8. This use of the word paṭipatti as “theory,” rare in Pali but found in Sanskrit, is not in PED. An alternative rendering for these ...
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Tathā sasaṅkhārāsaṅkhārato. likewise as prompted and unprompted.
Vedanattayasampayogato tividhā. It is threefold as associated with the three kinds of feeling.
Catusaccapaṭivedhato catubbidhā. It is fourfold as non-penetration of the four truths.
Gatipañcakādīnavacchādanato pañcavidhā. It is fivefold as concealing the danger in the five kinds of destinies.
Dvārārammaṇato pana sabbesupi arūpadhammesu chabbidhatā veditabbā. ¶ It should, however, be understood that all the immaterial factors [of the dependent origination] have a sixfold nature with respect to the [six] doors and objects. ¶
Saṅkhārā sāsavavipākadhammadhammādibhāvato ekavidhā. 53.Formations are singlefold as states subject to cankers (Dhs 3), states with the nature of result (Dhs 1), and so on (cf. Vibh 62).9 9:
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Kusalākusalato duvidhā. They are twofold as profitable and unprofitable;
Tathā parittamahaggatahīnamajjhimamicchattaniyatāniyatato. likewise as limited and exalted, inferior and medium, with certainty of wrongness and without certainty.
Tividhā puññābhisaṅkhārādibhāvato. They are threefold as the formation of merit and the rest.
Catubbidhā catuyonisaṃvattanato. They are fourfold as leading to the four kinds of generation.
Pañcavidhā pañcagatigāmito. ¶ They are fivefold as leading to the five kinds of destiny. ¶
Viññāṇaṃ lokiyavipākādibhāvato ekavidhaṃ. 54. Consciousness is singlefold as mundane (Dhs 3), resultant (Dhs 1), and so on.
Sahetukāhetukādito duvidhaṃ. It is twofold as with root-cause and without root-cause and so on.
Bhavattayapariyāpannato, vedanattayasampayogato, ahetukadvihetukatihetukato ca tividhaṃ. It is threefold as included in the three kinds of becoming; as associated with the three kinds of feeling; and as having no root-cause, having two root-causes, and having three root-causes.
Yonigativasena catubbidhaṃ, pañcavidhañca. ¶ It is fourfold and fivefold [respectively] according to generation and destiny. ¶
Nāmarūpaṃ viññāṇasannissayato kammapaccayato ca ekavidhaṃ. 55. Mentality-materiality is singlefold as dependent on consciousness, and as having kamma as its condition.
Sārammaṇanārammaṇato duvidhaṃ. It is twofold as having an object [in the case of mentality], and having no object [in the case of materiality].
Atītādito tividhaṃ. It is threefold as past, and so on.
Yonigativasena catubbidhaṃ, pañcavidhañca. ¶ It is fourfold and fivefold respectively according to generation and destiny. ¶
Saḷāyatanaṃ sañjātisamosaraṇaṭṭhānato ekavidhaṃ. 56.The sixfold base is singlefold as the place of origin and meeting.
Bhūtappasādaviññāṇādito duvidhaṃ. It is twofold as sensitivity of primary elements and as consciousness [of the sixth base], and so on.
Sampattāsampattanobhayagocarato tividhaṃ. It is threefold as having for its domain [objective fields that are] contiguous, non-contiguous, and neither (see XIV.46).
Yonigatipariyāpannato catubbidhaṃ pañcavidhañcāti iminā nayena phassādīnampi ekavidhādibhāvo veditabboti evamettha ekavidhāditopi viññātabbo vinicchayo. ¶ It is fourfold and fivefold respectively as included in the kinds of generation and destiny. The singlefoldness, etc., of contact, etc., should be understood in this way too. This is how the exposition should be known here “as to singlefold and so on. ” ¶
590. Aṅgānañca vavatthānāti sokādayo cettha bhavacakkassa avicchedadassanatthaṃ vuttā. 57. 5. As to defining of the factors: sorrow, etc., are stated here for the purpose of showing that the Wheel of Becoming never halts; Определение факторов: печаль и прочее приведены здесь, чтобы показать непрекращающееся вращение колеса бытия.
Jarāmaraṇabbhāhatassa hi bālassa te sambhavanti. for they are produced in the fool who is afflicted by ageing and death, Ведь они возникают у глупца под действием старости и смерти.
Yathāha – "assutavā, bhikkhave, puthujjano sārīrikāya dukkhāya vedanāya phuṭṭho samāno socati kilamati paridevati urattāḷiṃ kandati sammohamāpajjatī"ti (saṃ. ni. 4.252). according as it is said: “The untaught ordinary man, bhikkhus, on being touched by painful bodily feeling, sorrows, grieves and laments, beating his breast, he weeps and becomes distraught” (M III 285; S IV 206). Согласно сказанному: "Монахи, необразованный простолюдин, кого коснулось мучительное телесное ощущение, печалится, грустит и плачет, бьёт себя по груди, стенает и впадает в безумие".
Yāva ca tesaṃ pavatti, tāva avijjāyāti punapi avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārāti sambandhameva hoti bhavacakkaṃ. And as long as these go on occurring so long does ignorance, and so the Wheel of Becoming renews [its revolution]: “With ignorance as condition there are formations” and so on. И пока эти вещи продолжают происходить, столько же существует неведение, и так колесо бытия продолжает [своё вращение]: "Неведение обуславливает волевые конструкции" и т.д.
Tasmā tesaṃ jarāmaraṇeneva ekasaṅkhepaṃ katvā dvādaseva paṭiccasamuppādaṅgānīti veditabbāni. That is why the factors of the dependent origination should be understood as twelve by taking those [that is, sorrow, etc.,] along with ageing-and-death as one summarization. Вот почему факторы обусловленного возникновения следует понимать как 12 путём охвата их [печали и прочего] вместе со старостью и смертью как единого целого.
Evamettha aṅgānaṃ vavatthānatopi viññātabbo vinicchayo. ¶ This is how the exposition should be known here “as to defining of the factors.” ¶
Ayaṃ tāvettha saṅkhepakathā. 58. This, firstly, is the brief treatment. Таково краткое объяснение.
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