Гл. 14. Совокупность тел (материального)

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Rūpakkhandhakathā ¶ [THE MATERIALITY AGGREGATE] ¶
432. Tattha yaṃ kiñci sītādīhi ruppanalakkhaṇaṃ dhammajātaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ ekato katvā rūpakkhandhoti veditabbaṃ. ¶ 34.Herein, all kinds of states whatsoever that have the characteristic of “being molested” (ruppana) by cold, etc., taken all together should be understood as the materiality (rūpa) aggregate. ¶
Tadetaṃ ruppanalakkhaṇena ekavidhampi bhūtopādāyabhedato duvidhaṃ. 1. That is of one kind with the characteristic of “being molested. ” 2. It is also of two kinds when classed as (a) primary entity (bhūta) and (b) derived [by clinging] (upādāya).
Tattha bhūtarūpaṃ catubbidhaṃ – pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātūti. 35.Herein (a) primary materiality is of four kinds as the earth element, water element, fire element, and air element.
Tāsaṃ lakkhaṇarasapaccupaṭṭhānāni catudhātuvavatthāne vuttāni. Their characteristic, function, and manifestation have been given under the definition of the four elements (XI.87, 93);
Padaṭṭhānato pana tā sabbāpi avasesadhātuttayapadaṭṭhānā. ¶ but as to the proximate cause, each has the other three as its proximate cause. ¶
Upādārūpaṃ catuvīsatividhaṃ – cakkhu, sotaṃ, ghānaṃ, jivhā, kāyo, rūpaṃ, saddo, gandho, raso, itthindriyaṃ, purisindriyaṃ, jīvitindriyaṃ, hadayavatthu, kāyaviññatti, vacīviññatti, ākāsadhātu, rūpassa lahutā, rūpassa mudutā, rūpassa kammaññatā, rūpassa upacayo, rūpassa santati, rūpassa jaratā, rūpassa aniccatā, kabaḷīkāro āhāroti. ¶ 36.(b) Derived materiality is of twenty-four kinds as eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, visible datum, sound, odour, flavour;13 femininity faculty, masculinity faculty, life faculty, heart-basis; bodily intimation, verbal intimation; space element; lightness of matter, malleability of matter, wieldiness of matter, growth of matter, continuity of matter, ageing of matter, impermanence of matter, and physical nutriment. ¶
433. Tattha rūpābhighātārahatappasādalakkhaṇaṃ daṭṭhukāmatānidānakammasamuṭṭhānabhūtappasādalakkhaṇaṃ vā cakkhu, rūpesu āviñchanarasaṃ, cakkhuviññāṇassa ādhārabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, daṭṭhukāmatānidānakammajabhūtapadaṭṭhānaṃ. ¶ 37. 1. Herein, the eye’s characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements that is ready for the impact of visible data; or its characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements originated by kamma sourcing from desire to see. 14 Its function is to pick up [an object]15 among visible data. It is manifested as the footing of eye- consciousness. Its proximate cause is primary elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to see. ¶ В них характеристикой органа зрения является чувствительность к первоэлементам, готовая к воздействию образов, или его характеристикой является чувствительность первоэлементов, произошедшая от каммы, исходящей от желания видеть. Его функцией является выхватывать объект из образов. Он проявляется как основа для зрительного сознания. Его производящей причиной являются первоэлементы, произошедшие от каммы, исходящей от желания видеть. ¶
Saddābhighātārahabhūtappasādalakkhaṇaṃ, sotukāmatānidānakammasamuṭṭhānabhūtappasādalakkhaṇaṃ vā sotaṃ, saddesu āviñchanarasaṃ, sotaviññāṇassa ādhārabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, sotukāmatānidānakammajabhūtapadaṭṭhānaṃ. ¶ 38.2. The ear’s characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements that is ready for the impact of sounds; or its characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements originated by kamma sourcing from desire to hear. Its function is to pick up [an object] among sounds. It is manifested as the footing of ear-consciousness. Its proximate cause is primary elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to hear. ¶ Характеристикой органа слуха является чувствительность к первоэлементам, готовая к воздействию звуков или его характеристикой является чувствительность первоэлементов, произошедшая от каммы, исходящей от желания слышать. Его функцией является выхватывать объект из звуков. Он проявляется как основа для слухового сознания. Его производящей причиной являются первоэлементы, произошедшие от каммы, исходящей от желания слышать. ¶
Gandhābhighātārahabhūtappasādalakkhaṇaṃ, ghāyitukāmatānidānakammasamuṭṭhānabhūtappasādalakkhaṇaṃ vā ghānaṃ, gandhesu āviñchanarasaṃ, ghānaviññāṇassa ādhārabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, ghāyitukāmatānidānakammajabhūtapadaṭṭhānaṃ. ¶ 39.3. The nose’s characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements that is ready for the impact of odours; or its characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements originated by kamma sourcing from desire to smell. Its function is to pick up [an object] among odours. It is manifested as the footing of nose-consciousness. Its proximate cause is primary elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to smell. ¶ Характеристикой органа обоняния является чувствительность к первоэлементам, готовая к воздействию запахов или его характеристикой является чувствительность первоэлементов, произошедшая от каммы, исходящей от желания испытывать запахи. Его функцией является выхватывать объект из запахов. Он проявляется как основа для обонятельного сознания. Его производящей причиной являются первоэлементы, произошедшие от каммы, исходящей от желания испытывать запахи. ¶
Rasābhighātārahabhūtappasādalakkhaṇā, sāyitukāmatānidānakammasamuṭṭhānabhūtappasādalakkhaṇā vā jivhā, rasesu āviñchanarasā, jivhāviññāṇassa ādhārabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānā, sāyitukāmatānidānakammajabhūtapadaṭṭhānā. ¶ 40.4.The tongue’s characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements that is ready for the impact of flavours; or its characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements originated by kamma sourcing from desire to taste. Its function is to pick up [an object] among flavours. It is manifested as the footing of tongue-consciousness. Its proximate cause is primary elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to taste. ¶ Характеристикой органа вкуса является чувствительность к первоэлементам, готовая к воздействию вкусов или его характеристикой является чувствительность первоэлементов, произошедшая от каммы, исходящей от желания испытывать вкусы. Его функцией является выхватывать объект из вкусов. Он проявляется как основа для вкусового сознания. Его производящей причиной являются первоэлементы, произошедшие от каммы, исходящей от желания испытывать вкусы. ¶
Phoṭṭhabbābhighātārahabhūtappasādalakkhaṇo, phusitukāmatānidānakammasamuṭṭhānabhūtappasādalakkhaṇo vā kāyo, phoṭṭhabbesu āviñchanaraso, kāyaviññāṇassa ādhārabhāvapaccupaṭṭhāno, phusitukāmatānidānakammajabhūtapadaṭṭhāno. ¶ 41.5.The body’s characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements that is ready for the impact of tangible data; or its characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements originated by kamma sourcing from desire to touch. Its function is to pick up [an object] among tangible data. It is manifested as the footing of body- consciousness. Its proximate cause is primary elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to touch. ¶ Характеристикой органа осязания является чувствительность к первоэлементам, готовая к воздействию осязаемых объектов или его характеристикой является чувствительность первоэлементов, произошедшая от каммы, исходящей от желания испытывать осязаемые объекты. Его функцией является выхватывать объект из осязаемых объектов. Он проявляется как основа для осязательного сознания. Его производящей причиной являются первоэлементы, произошедшие от каммы, исходящей от желания испытывать осязаемые объекты. ¶
434. Keci pana "tejādhikānaṃ bhūtānaṃ pasādo cakkhu, vāyupathavīāpādhikānaṃ bhūtānaṃ pasādā sotaghānajivhā, kāyo sabbesampī"ti vadanti. 42.Some,16 however, say that the eye is sensitivity of primary elements that have fire in excess, and that the ear, nose, and tongue are sensitivity of primary elements that have [respectively] air, earth, and water in excess, and that the body is that of all [four equally].
Apare "tejādhikānaṃ pasādo cakkhu, vivaravāyuāpapathavādhikānaṃ sotaghānajivhākāyā"ti vadanti. Others say that the eye is sensitivity of those that have fire in excess, and that the ear, nose, tongue, and body are [sensitivity] of those that have [respectively] aperture, air, water, and earth in excess.
Te vattabbā "suttaṃ āharathā"ti. They should be asked to quote a sutta.
Addhā suttameva na dakkhissanti. They will certainly not find one.
Keci panettha "tejādīnaṃ guṇehi rūpādīhi anugayhabhāvato"ti kāraṇaṃ dassenti. 43.But some give as their reason that it is because these [several sensitivities] are [respectively] aided by visible data, etc., as qualities of fire, and so on.17
Te vattabbā "ko panevamāharūpādayo tejādīnaṃ guṇā'ti. They should be asked, “But who has said that visible data, etc., are qualities of fire and so on?
Avinibbhogavuttīsu hi bhūtesu ayaṃ imassa guṇo ayaṃ imassa guṇoti na labbhā vattu"nti. For it is not possible to say of primary elements, which remain always inseparable,18 that ‘This is a quality of this one, that is a quality of that one. ’”
Athāpi vadeyyuṃ "yathā tesu tesu sambhāresu tassa tassa bhūtassa adhikatāya pathavīādīnaṃ sandhāraṇādīni kiccāni icchatha, evaṃ tejādiadhikesu sambhāresu rūpādīnaṃ adhikabhāvadassanato icchitabbametaṃ rūpādayo tesaṃ guṇā"ti. 44. Then they may say: “Just as you assume, from excess of some primary element in such and such material things, the [respective] functions of upholding (sandhāraṇa), etc., for earth, etc., so from finding visibility, etc., [respectively] in a state of excess19 in material things that have fire in excess, one may assume that visible data, etc., are [respectively] qualities of these.”
Te vattabbā "iccheyyāma, yadi āpādhikassa āsavassa gandhato pathavīadhike kappāse gandho adhikataro siyā, tejādhikassa ca uṇhodakassa vaṇṇato sītudakassa vaṇṇo parihāyetha". They should be told: “We might assume it if there were more odour in cotton, which has earth in excess, than in fermented liquor, which has water in excess, and if the colour of cold water were weaker than the colour of hot water, which has heat in excess.
Yasmā panetaṃ ubhayampi natthi, tasmā pahāyetaṃ etesaṃ nissayabhūtānaṃ visesakappanaṃ, "yathā avisesepi ekakalāpe bhūtānaṃ rūparasādayo aññamaññaṃ visadisā honti, evaṃ cakkhupasādādayo avijjamānepi aññasmiṃ visesakāraṇe"ti gahetabbametaṃ. ¶ 45.“But since neither of these is a fact, you should therefore give up conjecturing the difference to be in the supporting primary elements. Just as the natures of visible objects, etc., are dissimilar from each other though there is no difference in the primaries that form a single group, so too are eye-sensitivity, etc., though no other cause of their difference exists. ”20 This is how it should be taken. ¶
Kiṃ pana taṃ yaṃ aññamaññassa asādhāraṇaṃ? But what is it that is not common to them all?21
Kammameva nesaṃ visesakāraṇaṃ. It is the kamma itself that is the reason for their difference.
Tasmā kammavisesato etesaṃ viseso, na bhūtavisesato. Therefore their difference is due to difference of kamma, not to difference of primary elements;
Bhūtavisese hi sati pasādova na uppajjati. for if there were difference of primary elements, sensitivity itself would not arise,
Samānānañhi pasādo, na visamānānanti porāṇā. ¶ since the Ancients have said: “Sensitivity is of those that are equal, not of those that are unequal.” ¶
435. Evaṃ kammavisesato visesavantesu ca etesu cakkhusotāni asampattavisayagāhakāni, attano nissayaṃ anallīnanissaye eva visaye viññāṇahetuttā. 46.Now, among these [sensitivities thus] possessed of difference due to differ- ence of kamma, the eye and the ear apprehend non-contiguous objective fields, since consciousness is caused even if the supporting [primaries] of the objective fields do not adhere to the [faculties’] own supporting primaries.22
Ghānajivhākāyā sampattavisayagāhakā, nissayavasena ceva, sayañca, attano nissayaṃ allīneyeva visaye viññāṇahetuttā. ¶ The nose, tongue and body apprehend contiguous objective fields, because consciousness is caused only if their objective fields’ [primaries] adhere to their own supporting [primaries], [that is to say, if the objective fields’ primaries adhere] as support [in the case of odours and flavours], and themselves [directly in the case of tangible data, which are identical with the three primaries excluding water]. ¶
436. Cakkhu cettha yadetaṃ loke nīlapakhumasamākiṇṇakaṇhasukkamaṇḍalavicittaṃ nīluppaladalasannibhaṃ cakkhūti vuccati. 47. 1. There is what is called the “eye” in the world. That looks like a blue lotus petal and is surrounded by black eyelashes and varied with dark and light circles.
Tassa sasambhāracakkhuno setamaṇḍalaparikkhittassa kaṇhamaṇḍalassa majjhe abhimukhe ṭhitānaṃ sarīrasaṇṭhānuppattipadese sattasu picupaṭalesu āsittatelaṃ picupaṭalāni viya satta akkhipaṭalānibyāpetvā dhāraṇanhāpanamaṇḍanabījanakiccāhi catūhi dhātīhi khattiyakumāro viya sandhāraṇabandhanaparipācanasamudīraṇakiccāhi catūhi dhātūhi katūpakāraṃ utucittāhārehi upatthambhiyamānaṃ āyunā anupāliyamānaṃ vaṇṇagandharasādīhi parivutaṃ pamāṇato ūkāsiramattaṃ cakkhuviññāṇādīnaṃ yathārahaṃ vatthudvārabhāvaṃ sādhayamānaṃ tiṭṭhati. The eye [sensitivity as meant] here is to be found in the place in the middle of the black circle surrounded by the white circle in that [feature of the] eye with its accessories where there appears the image of the bodies of those who stand in front of it. It pervades the eye’s seven layers like oil sprinkled on seven layers of cotton. It is assisted by the four primary elements whose [respective] functions are upholding, cohering, maturing, and moving, as a warrior prince is by four nurses whose functions are holding, bathing, dressing, and fanning. It is consolidated by temperature, consciousness, and nutriment; it is maintained by life; it is furnished with colour, odour, flavour, etc. (see Ch. XVIII, §5); it is the size of a mere louse’s head; and it duly serves both as physical basis and as door for eye-consciousness, and the rest [of the consciousness of the cognitive series].
Vuttampi cetaṃ dhammasenāpatinā – ¶ 48.And this is said by the General of the Dhamma: ¶
"Yena cakkhupasādena, rūpāni manupassati; ¶ “The sensitivity with which he sees a visible object ¶
Parittaṃ sukhumaṃ etaṃ, ūkāsirasamūpama"nti. ¶ Is small and it is subtle, too, no bigger, than a louse’s head. ”(? ) ¶
Sasambhārasotabilassa anto tanutambalomācite aṅgulivedhakasaṇṭhāne padese sotaṃ vuttappakārāhi dhātūhi katūpakāraṃ utucittāhārehi upatthambhiyamānaṃ āyunā anupāliyamānaṃ vaṇṇādīhi parivutaṃ sotaviññāṇādīnaṃ yathārahaṃ vatthudvārabhāvaṃ sādhayamānaṃ tiṭṭhati. ¶ 49.2.The ear [sensitivity] is to be found inside the [feature of the] ear-hole with its accessories in the place that is shaped like a finger-stall and surrounded by fine brown hairs. It is assisted by the elements in the way aforesaid. It is consolidated by temperature, consciousness, and nutriment; it is maintained by life; it is equipped with colour, etc.; and it duly serves both as physical basis and as door for ear-consciousness, and the rest. ¶
Sasambhāraghānabilassa anto ajapadasaṇṭhāne padese ghānaṃ yathāvuttappakārupakārupatthambhanānupālanaparivāraṃ ghānaviññāṇādīnaṃ yathārahaṃ vatthudvārabhāvaṃ sādhayamānaṃ tiṭṭhati. ¶ 50. 3. The nose [sensitivity] is to be found inside the [feature of the] nose-hole with its accessories in the place shaped like a goat’s hoof. It has assistance, consolidation and maintenance in the way aforesaid; and it duly serves both as physical basis and as door for nose-consciousness, and the rest. ¶
Sasambhārajivhāmajjhassa upari uppaladalaggasaṇṭhāne padese jivhā yathāvuttappakārupakārupatthambhanānupālanaparivārā jivhāviññāṇādīnaṃ yathārahaṃ vatthudvārabhāvaṃ sādhayamānā tiṭṭhati. ¶ 51.4. The tongue [sensitivity] is to be found in the middle of the [feature of the] tongue with its accessories in the place shaped like a lotus petal tip. It has assistance, consolidation and maintenance in the way aforesaid; and it duly serves both as physical basis and as door for tongue-consciousness, and the rest. ¶
Yāvatā pana imasmiṃ kāye upādiṇṇarūpaṃ nāma atthi. Sabbattha kāyo kappāsapaṭale sneho viya vuttappakārupakārupatthambhanānupālanaparivārova hutvā kāyaviññāṇādīnaṃ yathārahaṃ vatthudvārabhāvaṃ sādhayamāno tiṭṭhati. 52. 5. The body [sensitivity] is to be found everywhere, like a liquid that soaks a layer of cotton, in this physical body where there is matter that is clung to. 23 It has assistance, consolidation and maintenance in the way aforesaid too; and it duly serves both as physical basis and as door for body-consciousness, and the rest.
Vammikaudakākāsagāmasivathikasaṅkhātasagocaraninnā viya ca ahisusumārapakkhīkukkurasiṅgālārūpādisagocaraninnāva ete cakkhādayoti daṭṭhabbā. ¶ 53.Like snakes, crocodiles, birds, dogs, and jackals that gravitate to their own respective resorts, that is to say, termite-mounds, water, space, villages, and charnel grounds, so the eye, etc., should be regarded as gravitating to their own respective resorts, that is to say, visible data, and so on (cf. Dhs-a 314). ¶ Подобно змеям, крокодилам, птицам, собакам и шакалам, устремляющимся к своим местам обитания, а именно термитникам, водоёмам, небу, деревням и кладбищам, так и органы чувств устремляются к своим местам обитания, таким как образы и прочее. ¶
437. Tato paresu pana rūpādīsu cakkhupaṭihananalakkhaṇaṃ rūpaṃ, cakkhuviññāṇassa visayabhāvarasaṃ, tasseva gocarapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, catumahābhūtapadaṭṭhānaṃ. 54. 6. As regards visible data, etc., which come next, a visible datum has the characteristic of impinging on the eye. Its function is to be the objective field of eye-consciousness. It is manifested as the resort of that too. Its proximate cause is the four great primaries. Что касается зрительных образов и прочего, которые идут далее в порядке рассмотрения: зрительный образ обладает характеристикой воздействия на орган зрения. Его функцией является быть объектом зрительного сознания. Проявляется он также как его место обитания (пастбище). Его производящей причиной являются четыре первоэлемента. visayabhāvarasaṃ - objective field?
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Yathā cetaṃ tathā sabbānipi upādārūpāni. And all the [following] kinds of derived materiality are the same as this. Во всех последующих видах [производных материальных тел] аналогично.
Yattha pana viseso atthi, tattha vakkhāma. Where there is a difference we shall mention it. Мы укажем отличия, там где они есть.
Tayidaṃ nīlaṃ pītakantiādivasena anekavidhaṃ. ¶ This [visible datum] is of various kinds as “blue, yellow” (Dhs §617) and so on. ¶ Эти образы (тела) бывают различных видов - синие, жёлтые и т.п. ¶
Sotapaṭihananalakkhaṇo saddo, sotaviññāṇassa visayabhāvaraso, tasseva gocarapaccupaṭṭhāno. 55. 7. Sound has the characteristic of impinging on the ear. Its function is to be the object of ear-consciousness. It is manifested as the resort of that too. Звук обладает характеристикой воздействия на орган слуха. Его функций является быть объектом слухового сознания. Проявляется он также как его место обитания.
Bherisaddo mudiṅgasaddotiādinā nayena anekavidho. ¶ It is of various kinds as “drum sound, tabour sound” (Dhs §621) and so on. ¶ Он бывает различных видов, таких как звук барабана и прочих. ¶
Ghānapaṭihananalakkhaṇo gandho, ghānaviññāṇassa visayabhāvaraso, tasseva gocarapaccupaṭṭhāno. 56. 8. Odour has the characteristic of impinging on the nose. Its function is to be the object of nose-consciousness. It is manifested as the resort of that too. Запах обладает характеристикой воздействия на орган обоняния. Его функцией является быть объектом обонятельного сознания. Проявляется он также как его место обитания.
Mūlagandho sāragandhotiādinā nayena anekavidho. ¶ It is of various kinds as “root odour, heartwood odour” (Dhs §625) and so on. ¶ Он бывает различных видов, таких как запах корней, запах сердцевины и т.п. ¶
Jivhāpaṭihananalakkhaṇo raso, jivhāviññāṇassa visayabhāvaraso, tasseva gocarapaccupaṭṭhāno. 57. 9. Flavour has the characteristic of impinging on the tongue. Its function is to be the object of tongue-consciousness. It is manifested as the resort of that too. Вкус обладает характеристикой воздействия на орган вкуса. Его функцией является быть объектом вкусового сознания. Проявляется он также как его место обитания.
Mūlaraso khandharasotiādinā nayena anekavidho. ¶ It is of various kinds as “root flavour, trunk flavour” (Dhs §629) and so on. ¶ Он бывает различных видов, таких как "вкус корня, вкус стебля" и т.п. ¶
438. Itthibhāvalakkhaṇaṃ itthindriyaṃ, itthīti pakāsanarasaṃ, itthiliṅganimittakuttākappānaṃ kāraṇabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. 58.10. The femininity faculty has the female sex as its characteristic. Its function is to show that “this is a female. ” It is manifested as the reason for the mark, sign, work, and ways of the female (cf. Dhs §633).
Purisabhāvalakkhaṇaṃ purisindriyaṃ, purisoti pakāsanarasaṃ, purisaliṅganimittakuttākappānaṃ kāraṇabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. 11. The masculinity faculty has the male sex as its characteristic. Its function is to show that “this is a male. ” It is manifested as the reason for the mark, sign, work, and ways of the male (cf. Dhs §634).
Tadubhayampi kāyappasādo viya sakalasarīraṃ byāpakameva, na ca kāyapasādena ṭhitokāse ṭhitanti vā aṭṭhitokāse ṭhitanti vāti vattabbataṃ āpajjati, rūparasādayo viya aññamaññaṃ saṅkaro natthi. ¶ Both these last are coextensive with the whole body, as body-sensitivity is. But it does not follow that they have to be called either “located in the space where body-sensitivity is located” or “located in the space where that is not located. ” Like the natures of visible data, etc., these are not confoundable one with the other. 24 ¶
439. Sahajarūpānupālanalakkhaṇaṃ jīvitindriyaṃ, tesaṃ pavattanarasaṃ, tesaññeva ṭhapanapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, yāpayitabbabhūtapadaṭṭhānaṃ. 59.12. The life faculty has the characteristic of maintaining conascent kinds of matter. Its function is to make them occur. It is manifested in the establishing of their presence. Its proximate cause is primary elements that are to be sustained.
Santepi ca anupālanalakkhaṇādimhi vidhāne atthikkhaṇeyeva taṃ sahajarūpāni anupāleti udakaṃ viya uppalādīni. And although it has the capacity consisting in the characteristic of maintaining, etc., yet it only maintains conascent kinds of matter at the moment of presence, as water does lotuses and so on.
Yathāsakaṃ paccayuppannepi ca dhamme pāleti dhāti viya kumāraṃ. Though states (dhamma) arise due to their own conditions, it maintains them, as a wet-nurse does a prince.
Sayaṃ pavattitadhammasambandheneva ca pavattati niyāmako viya. And it occurs itself only through its connection with the states that occur, like a pilot;
Na bhaṅgato uddhaṃ pavattati, attano ca pavattayitabbānañca abhāvā. it does not cause occurrence after dissolution, because of its own absence and that of what has to be made to occur.
Na bhaṅgakkhaṇe ṭhapeti, sayaṃ bhijjamānattā. It does not prolong presence at the moment of dissolution because it is itself dissolving,
Khīyamāno viya vaṭṭisneho dīpasikhaṃ. like the flame of a lamp when the wick and the oil are getting used up.
Na ca anupālanapavattanaṭṭhapanānubhāvavirahitaṃ, yathāvuttakkhaṇe tassa tassa sādhanatoti daṭṭhabbaṃ. ¶ But it must not be regarded as destitute of power to maintain, make occur, and make present, because it does accomplish each of these functions at the moment stated (cf. Dhs §635). 25 ¶
440. Manodhātumanoviññāṇadhātūnaṃ nissayalakkhaṇaṃ hadayavatthu, tāsaññeva dhātūnaṃ ādhāraṇarasaṃ, ubbahanapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. 60.13. The heart-basis has the characteristic of being the (material) support for the mind-element and for the mind-consciousness-element. Its function is to observe them. It is manifested as the carrying of them.
Hadayassa anto kāyagatāsatikathāyaṃ vuttappakāraṃ lohitaṃ nissāya sandhāraṇādikiccehi bhūtehi katūpakāraṃ utucittāhārehi upatthambhiyamānaṃ āyunā anupāliyamānaṃ manodhātumanoviññāṇadhātūnañceva taṃsampayuttadhammānañca vatthubhāvaṃ sādhayamānaṃ tiṭṭhati. ¶ It is to be found in dependence on the blood, of the kind described in the treatise on mindfulness of the body (VIII.111), inside the heart. It is assisted by the primaries with their functions of upholding, etc.; it is consolidated by temperature, consciousness, and nutriment; it is maintained by life; and it serves as physical basis for the mind-element and mind-consciousness- element, and for the states associated with them. 26 ¶
441. Abhikkamādipavattakacittasamuṭṭhānavāyodhātuyā sahajarūpakāyathambhanasandhāraṇacalanassa paccayo ākāravikāro kāyaviññatti, adhippāyapakāsanarasā, kāyavipphandanahetubhāvapaccupaṭṭhānā, cittasamuṭṭhānavāyodhātupadaṭṭhānā. 61.14. Bodily intimation is the mode (conformation) and the alteration (deformation) in the consciousness-originated air element that causes the occurrence of moving forward, etc., which mode and alteration are a condition for the stiffening, upholding, and moving of the conascent material body. [448] Its function is to display intention. It is manifested as the cause of bodily excitement. Its proximate cause is the consciousness-originated air element.
Sā panesā kāyavipphandanena adhippāyaviññāpanahetuttā, sayañca tena kāyavipphandanasaṅkhātena kāyena viññeyyattā "kāyaviññattī"ti vuccati. But it is called “bodily intimation” (kāya- viññatti) because it is the cause of the intimating (viññāpana) of intention by means of bodily excitement, and because it is itself intimatable through the body, in other words, through that bodily excitement.
Tāya ca pana calitehi cittajarūpehi abhisambandhānaṃ utujādīnampi calanato abhikkamādayo pavattantīti veditabbā. ¶ Moving forward, etc., should be understood to occur owing to the movement of the [kinds of matter] that are temperature-born, etc., which are interlocked with the consciousness-born kinds moved by that [intimation]27 (See Dhs §636). ¶
Vacībhedapavattakacittasamuṭṭhānapathavīdhātuyā upādiṇṇaghaṭṭanassa paccayo ākāravikāro vacīviññatti, adhippāyappakāsanarasā, vacīghosahetubhāvapaccupaṭṭhānā, cittasamuṭṭhānapathavīdhātupadaṭṭhānā. 62. 15. Verbal intimation is the mode (conformation) and the alteration (deformation) in the consciousness-originated earth element that causes that occurrence of speech utterance which mode and alteration are a condition for the knocking together of clung-to matter. 28 Its function is to display intention. It is manifested as the cause of the voice in speech. Its proximate cause is the consciousness-originated earth element.
Sā panesā vacīghosena adhippāyaviññāpanahetuttā, sayañca tāya vacīghosasaṅkhātāya vācāya viññeyyattā "vacīviññattī"ti vuccati. But it is called “verbal intimation” because it is the cause of the intimating of intention by means of the voice in speech, and because it is itself intimatable through speech, in other words, through that voice in speech.
Yathā hi araññe ussāpetvā bandhagosīsādiudakanimittaṃ disvā udakamettha atthīti viññāyati, evaṃ kāyavipphandanañceva vacīghosañca gahetvā kāyavacīviññattiyopi viññāyanti. ¶ For, just as, on seeing a sign for water consisting of an ox skull, etc., hung up in the forest, it is intimated that “there is water here,” so too, on noticing either the bodily shaking or the voice in speech thus, they intimate. 29 (See Dhs §637.) ¶
442. Rūpaparicchedalakkhaṇā ākāsadhātu, rūpapariyantappakāsanarasā, rūpamariyādāpaccupaṭṭhānā, asamphuṭṭhabhāvacchiddavivarabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānā vā, paricchinnarūpapadaṭṭhānā. 63.16. The space element has the characteristic of delimiting matter. Its function is to display the boundaries of matter. It is manifested as the confines of matter; or it is manifested as untouchedness, as the state of gaps and apertures (cf. Dhs §638). Its proximate cause is the matter delimited.
Yāya paricchinnesu rūpesu idamito uddhamadho tiriyanti ca hoti. ¶ And it is on account of it that one can say of material things delimited that “this is above, below, around, that. ” ¶
443. Adandhatālakkhaṇā rūpassa lahutā, rūpānaṃ garubhāvavinodanarasā, lahuparivattitāpaccupaṭṭhānā, lahurūpapadaṭṭhānā. 64.17. Lightness of matter has the characteristic of non-slowness. Its function is to dispel heaviness of matter. It is manifested as light transformability. Its proximate cause is light matter (cf. Dhs §639).
Athaddhatālakkhaṇā rūpassa mudutā, rūpānaṃ thaddhabhāvavinodanarasā, sabbakiriyāsu avirodhitāpaccupaṭṭhānā, mudurūpapadaṭṭhānā. 18. Malleability of matter has the characteristic of non-stiffenedness. Its function is to dispel stiffness of matter. It is manifested as non-opposition to any kind of action. Its proximate cause is malleable matter (cf. Dhs §640).
Sarīrakiriyānukūlakammaññabhāvalakkhaṇā rūpassakammaññatā, akammaññatāvinodanarasā, adubbalabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānā, kammaññarūpapadaṭṭhānā. ¶ 19. Wieldiness of matter has the characteristic of wieldiness that is favourable to bodily action. Its function is to dispel unwieldiness. It is manifested as non- weakness. Its proximate cause is wieldy matter (cf. Dhs §641). ¶
Etā pana tisso na aññamaññaṃ vijahanti, evaṃ santepi yo arogino viya rūpānaṃ lahubhāvo adandhatā lahuparivattippakāro rūpadandhattakaradhātukkhobhapaṭipakkhapaccayasamuṭṭhāno, so rūpavikāro rūpassa lahutā. 65. These three, however, are not found apart from each other. Still their difference may be understood as follows. Lightness of matter is alteration of matter such as any light (agile) state in material instances, as in one who is healthy, any non-slowness, any manner of light transformability in them, which is originated by conditions that prevent any disturbance of elements capable of creating sluggishness of matter.
Yo pana suparimadditacammasseva rūpānaṃ mudubhāvo sabbakiriyāvisesesu vasavattanabhāvamaddavappakāro rūpatthaddhattakaradhātukkhobhapaṭipakkhapaccayasamuṭṭhāno, so rūpavikāro rūpassa mudutā. Malleability of matter is alteration of matter such as any malleable state in material instances, as in a well-pounded hide, any pliable manner consisting in amenableness to exercise of power over them in all kinds of work without distinction, which [449] is originated by conditions that prevent any disturbance of elements capable of creating stiffness of matter.
Yo pana sudantasuvaṇṇasseva rūpānaṃ kammaññabhāvo sarīrakiriyānukūlabhāvappakāro sarīrakiriyānaṃ ananukūlakaradhātukkhobhapaṭipakkhapaccayasamuṭṭhāno, so rūpavikāro rūpassa kammaññatāti evametāsaṃ viseso veditabbo. ¶ Wieldiness of matter is alteration of matter such as any wieldy state in material instances, as in well-refined gold, any manner in them consisting in favourableness to the work of the body, which is originated by conditions that prevent any disturbance of elements capable of creating unfavourableness to the work of the body. ¶
444. Ācayalakkhaṇo rūpassa upacayo, pubbantato rūpānaṃ ummujjāpanaraso, niyyātanapaccupaṭṭhāno, paripuṇṇabhāvapaccupaṭṭhāno vā, upacitarūpapadaṭṭhāno. 66.20. Growth of matter has the characteristic of setting up. Its function is to make material instances emerge in the first instance. It is manifested as launching; or it is manifested as the completed state. Its proximate cause is grown matter.
Pavattilakkhaṇā rūpassa santati, anuppabandhanarasā, anupacchedapaccupaṭṭhānā, anuppabandhakarūpapadaṭṭhānā. 21. Continuity of matter has the characteristic of occurrence. Its function is to anchor. It is manifested as non-interruption. Its proximate cause is matter that is to be anchored.
Ubhayampetaṃ jātirūpassevādhivacanaṃ, ākāranānattato pana veneyyavasena ca "upacayo santatī"ti uddesadesanā katā. Both of these are terms for matter at its birth; but owing to difference of mode, and according to [different persons’] susceptibility to instruction, the teaching in the summary (uddesa) in the Dhammasaṅgaṇī is given as “growth and continuity” (cf. Dhs §596);
Yasmā panettha atthato nānattaṃ natthi, tasmā imesaṃ padānaṃ niddese "yo āyatanānaṃ ācayo, so rūpassa upacayo. but since there is here no difference in meaning, consequently in the description (niddesa) of these words, “the setting up of the sense-bases is the growth of matter” and
Yo rūpassa upacayo, sā rūpassa santatī"ti (dha. sa. 641-642) vuttaṃ. “the growth of matter is the continuity of matter” is said (Dhs §642, 732, 865).
Aṭṭhakathāyampi "ācayo nāma nibbatti, upacayo nāma vaḍḍhi, santati nāma pavattī"ti (dha. sa. aṭṭha. 641) vatvā "nadītīre khatakūpakamhi udakuggamanakālo viya ācayo nibbatti, paripuṇṇakālo viya upacayo vaḍḍhi, ajjhottharitvā gamanakālo viya santati pavattī"ti (dha. sa. aṭṭha. 641) upamā katā. ¶ 67.And in the Commentary, after saying, “It is genesis that is called ‘setting up,’ increase that is called ‘growth,’ occurrence that is called ‘continuity,’” this simile is given: “Genesis as setting up is like the time when water comes up in a hole dug in a river bank; increase as growth is like the time when it fills [the hole]; occurrence as continuity is like the time when it overflows.” ¶
Upamāvasāne ca "evaṃ kiṃ kathitaṃ hoti? And at the end of the simile it is said: “So what is stated?
Āyatanena ācayo kathito, ācayena āyatanaṃ kathita"nti vuttaṃ. Setting up is stated by sense-base; sense-base is stated by setting up.”
Tasmā yā rūpānaṃ paṭhamābhinibbatti, sā ācayo. Consequently, it is the first genesis of material instances that is their setting up;
Yā tesaṃ upari aññesampi nibbattamānānaṃ nibbatti, sā vaḍḍhiākārena upaṭṭhānato upacayo. the genesis also of others that are generated in addition to those is growth since it appears in the aspect of increase;
Yā tesampi upari punappunaṃ aññesaṃ nibbattamānānaṃ nibbatti, sā anupabandhākārena upaṭṭhānato santatīti ca pavuccatīti veditabbā. ¶ the repeated genesis also of others that are generated in addition to those is continuity since it appears in the aspect of anchoring. This is how it should be understood to have been declared thus. ¶
Rūpaparipākalakkhaṇā jaratā, upanayanarasā, sabhāvānapagamepi navabhāvāpagamapaccupaṭṭhānā vīhipurāṇabhāvo viya, paripaccamānarūpapadaṭṭhānā. 68.22. Ageing has the characteristic of maturing (ripening) material instances. Its function is to lead on towards [their termination]. It is manifested as the loss of newness without the loss of individual essence, like oldness in paddy. Its proximate cause is matter that is maturing (ripening).
Khaṇḍiccādibhāvena dantādīsu vikāradassanato idaṃ pākaṭajaraṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ. This is said with reference to the kind of ageing that is evident through seeing alteration in teeth, etc., as their brokenness, and so on (cf. Dhs §644).
Arūpadhammānaṃ pana paṭicchannajarā nāma hoti, tassā esa vikāro natthi, yā ca pathavī udakapabbatacandimasūriyādīsu avīcijarā nāma. ¶ But that of immaterial states, which has no such [visible] alteration, is called hidden ageing. And that in earth, water, rocks, the moon, the sun, etc., is called incessant ageing. [450] ¶
Paribhedalakkhaṇā rūpassa aniccatā, saṃsīdanarasā, khayavayapaccupaṭṭhānā, paribhijjamānarūpapadaṭṭhānā. ¶ 69.23. Impermanence of matter has the characteristic of complete breaking up. Its function is to make material instances subside. It is manifested as destruction and fall (cf. Dhs §645). Its proximate cause is matter that is completely breaking up. ¶
445. Ojālakkhaṇo kabaḷīkāro āhāro, rūpāharaṇaraso, upatthambhanapaccupaṭṭhāno, kabaḷaṃ katvā āharitabbavatthupadaṭṭhāno. 70.24. Physical nutriment has the characteristic of nutritive essence. Its function is to feed kinds of matter. It is manifested as consolidating. Its proximate cause is a physical basis that must be fed with physical food.
Yāya ojāya sattā yāpenti, tassā etaṃ adhivacanaṃ. ¶ It is a term for the nutritive essence by means of which living beings sustain themselves (cf. Dhs §646). ¶
446. Imāni tāva pāḷiyaṃ āgatarūpāneva. 71.These, firstly, are the material instances that have been handed down in the texts.30
Aṭṭhakathāyaṃ pana balarūpaṃ sambhavarūpaṃ jātirūpaṃ rogarūpaṃ ekaccānaṃ matena middharūpanti evaṃ aññānipi rūpāni āharitvā "addhā munīsi sambuddho, natthi nīvaraṇā tavā"tiādīni (su. ni. 546) vatvā middharūpaṃ tāva natthiyevāti paṭikkhittaṃ. But in the Commentary, others have been added as follows: matter as power, matter as procreation, matter as birth, matter as sickness; and, in the opinion of some, matter as torpor. 31 In the first place, matter as torpor is rejected as non-existent by the words: Surely thou art a sage enlightened, There are no hindrances in thee (Sn 541).
Itaresu rogarūpaṃ jaratāaniccatāggahaṇena gahitameva, jātirūpaṃ upacayasantatiggahaṇena, sambhavarūpaṃ āpodhātuggahaṇena, balarūpaṃ vāyodhātuggahaṇena gahitameva. As to the rest, matter as sickness is included by ageing and by impermanence; matter as birth by growth and continuity; matter as procreation, by the water element; and matter as power by the air element.
Tasmā tesu ekampi visuṃ natthīti sanniṭṭhānaṃ kataṃ. ¶ So taken separately not even one of these exists: this was the agreement reached. ¶
Iti idaṃ catuvīsatividhaṃ upādārūpaṃ pubbe vuttaṃ catubbidhaṃ bhūtarūpañcāti aṭṭhavīsatividhaṃ rūpaṃ hoti anūnamanadhikaṃ. ¶ So this derived matter of twenty-four sorts and the aforesaid matter of the primary elements, which is of four sorts, together amount to twenty-eight sorts, neither more nor less. ¶
447. Taṃ sabbampi na hetu ahetukaṃ hetuvippayuttaṃ sappaccayaṃ lokiyaṃ sāsavamevātiādinā nayena ekavidhaṃ. ¶ 72.And all that [matter of twenty-eight sorts] is of one kind as “not-root-cause, root-causeless, dissociated from root-cause, with conditions, mundane, subject to cankers” (Dhs §584), and so on. ¶
Ajjhattikaṃ bāhiraṃ, oḷārikaṃ sukhumaṃ, dūre santike, nipphannaṃ anipphannaṃ, pasādarūpaṃ napasādarūpaṃ, indriyaṃ anindriyaṃ, upādiṇṇaṃ anupādiṇṇantiādivasena duvidhaṃ. ¶ It is of two kinds as internal and external, gross and subtle, far and near, produced (nipphanna) and unproduced, sensitive matter and insensitive matter, faculty and non-faculty, clung to and not-clung to, and so on. ¶
Tattha cakkhādipañcavidhaṃ attabhāvaṃ adhikicca pavattattā ajjhattikaṃ, sesaṃ tato bāhirattā bāhiraṃ. 73. Herein, the five kinds beginning with the eye are internal because they occur as an integral part of the selfhood (in oneself); the rest are external because they are external to that selfhood (personality).
Cakkhādīni nava āpodhātuvajjitā tisso dhātuyo cāti dvādasavidhaṃ ghaṭṭanavasena gahetabbato oḷārikaṃ, sesaṃ tato viparītattā sukhumaṃ. The nine beginning with the eye and the three elements excepting the water element, making twelve kinds in all, are to be taken as gross because of impinging; the rest are subtle because they are the opposite of that.
Yaṃ sukhumaṃ tadeva duppaṭivijjhasabhāvattā dūre, itaraṃ suppaṭivijjhasabhāvattā santike. What is subtle is far because it is difficult to penetrate, the other is near because it is easy to penetrate.
Catasso dhātuyo, cakkhādīni terasa, kabaḷīkārāhāro cāti aṭṭhārasavidhaṃ rūpaṃ paricchedavikāralakkhaṇabhāvaṃ atikkamitvā sabhāveneva pariggahetabbato nipphannaṃ, sesaṃ tabbiparītatāya anipphannaṃ. The eighteen kinds of matter, that is to say, the four elements, the thirteen beginning with the eye, and physical nutriment, are produced because they can be discerned through their own individual essences, having exceeded the [purely conceptual] states of [matter as] delimitation, [matter as] alteration, and [matter as] characteristic (see §77); the rest, being the opposite, are unproduced.
Cakkhādipañcavidhaṃ rūpādīnaṃ gahaṇapaccayabhāvena ādāsatalaṃ viya vippasannattā pasādarūpaṃ, itaraṃ tato viparītattā napasādarūpaṃ. The five kinds beginning with the eye are sensitive matter through their being conditions for the apprehension of visible data, etc., because they are, as it were, bright like the surface of a looking glass; the rest are insensitive matter because they are the opposite of that.
Pasādarūpameva itthindriyādittayena saddhiṃ adhipatiyaṭṭhena indriyaṃ, sesaṃ tato viparītattā anindriyaṃ. Sensitive matter itself, together with the three beginning with the femininity faculty, is faculty in the sense of predominance; the rest are not-faculty because they are the opposite of that.
Yaṃ kammajanti parato vakkhāma, taṃ kammena upādiṇṇattā upādiṇṇaṃ, sesaṃ tato viparītattā anupādiṇṇaṃ. ¶ What we shall later describe as “kamma-born” (§75 and XX.27) is clung to because that is “clung to,” [that is, acquired] by kamma. The rest are not-clung to because they are the opposite of that. ¶
448. Puna sabbameva rūpaṃ sanidassanakammajādīnaṃ tikānaṃ vasena tividhaṃ hoti. 74. Again, all matter is of three kinds according to the visible (sanidassana) triad, the kamma-born triad, etc. (see Dhs 2).
Tattha oḷārike rūpaṃ sanidassanasappaṭighaṃ, sesaṃ anidassanasappaṭighaṃ. Herein, as regards the gross, a visible datum is visible with impact; the rest are invisible with impact;
Sabbampi sukhumaṃ anidassanaappaṭighaṃ. all the subtle kinds are invisible without impact.
Evaṃ tāva sanidassanattikavasena tividhaṃ. So firstly it is of three kinds according to the visible triad.
Kammajādittikavasena pana kammato jātaṃ kammajaṃ, tadaññapaccayajātaṃ akammajaṃ, nakutocijātaṃ neva kammajaṃ nākammajaṃ. 75.According to the kamma-born triad, etc., however, that born from kamma is kamma-born; that born from a condition other than that is not-kamma-born; that not born from anything is neither-kamma-born-nor-not-kamma-born.
Cittato jātaṃ cittajaṃ, tadaññapaccayajātaṃ acittajaṃ, nakutocijātaṃ neva cittajaṃ nācittajaṃ, āhārato jātaṃ āhārajaṃ, tadaññapaccayajātaṃ anāhārajaṃ, nakutocijātaṃ neva āhārajaṃ naanāhārajaṃ. That born from consciousness is consciousness-born; that born from a condition other than consciousness is not-consciousness-born; that not born from anything is neither-consciousness-born-nor-not-consciousness-born. That born from nutriment is nutriment-born; that born from a condition other than that is not-nutriment-born; that not born from anything is neither-nutriment- born-nor-not-nutriment-born.
Ututo jātaṃ utujaṃ, tadaññapaccayajātaṃ anutujaṃ, nakutocijātaṃ neva utujaṃ naanutujanti evaṃ kammajādittikavasena tividhaṃ. ¶ That born from temperature is temperature-born; that born from a condition other than that is not-temperature-born; that not born from anything is neither- temperature-born-nor-not-temperature-born. So it is of three kinds according to the kamma-born triad, and so on. ¶
449. Puna diṭṭhādirūparūpādivatthādicatukkavasena catubbidhaṃ. 76.Again, it is of four kinds as seen, etc., as concrete matter, etc., and as the physical basis tetrads, and so on.
Tattha rūpāyatanaṃ diṭṭhaṃ nāma dassanavisayattā, saddāyatanaṃ sutaṃ nāma savanavisayattā, gandharasaphoṭṭhabbattayaṃ mutaṃ nāma sampattagāhakaindriyavisayattā, sesaṃ viññātaṃ nāma viññāṇasseva visayattāti evaṃ tāva diṭṭhādicatukkavasena catubbidhaṃ. ¶ Herein, the visible-data base is seen because it is the objective field of seeing. The sound base is heard because it is the objective field of hearing. The three, that is to say, odours, flavours, and tangible data, are sensed (lit. contacted) because they are the objective fields of faculties that take contiguous [objective fields]. The rest are cognized because they are the objective field of consciousness (cognition) only. So firstly it is of four kinds according to the seen, etc., tetrad. 32 ¶
Nipphannarūpaṃ panettha rūparūpaṃ nāma, ākāsadhātu paricchedarūpaṃ nāma, kāyaviññattiādi kammaññatāpariyantaṃ vikārarūpaṃ nāma, jātijarābhaṅgaṃ lakkhaṇarūpaṃ nāmāti evaṃ rūparūpādicatukkavasena catubbidhaṃ. ¶ 77. Here, however, “produced matter” is concrete matter; the space-element is delimiting matter; those from “bodily intimation” up to “wieldiness” are matter as alteration; birth, ageing and dissolution are matter as characteristic. So it is of four kinds as concrete matter and so on. ¶
Yaṃ panettha hadayarūpaṃ nāma, taṃ vatthu na dvāraṃ. 78.Here, however, what is called the materiality of the heart is physical basis, not door (see Dhs-a 82f.);
Viññattidvayaṃ dvāraṃ na vatthu. the two intimations are door, not physical basis;
Pasādarūpaṃ vatthu ceva dvārañca. sensitive matter is both physical basis and door;
Sesaṃ neva vatthu na dvāranti evaṃ vatthādicatukkavasena catubbidhaṃ. ¶ the rest are neither physical basis nor door. So it is four kinds according to the physical basis tetrad. ¶
450. Puna ekajaṃ, dvijaṃ, tijaṃ, catujaṃ, nakutocijātanti imesaṃ vasena pañcavidhaṃ. 79.Again, it is of five kinds as born of one, born of two, born of three, born of four, and not born of anything.
Tattha kammajameva cittajameva ca ekajaṃ nāma. Herein, what is kamma-born only or consciousness-born only is called born of one.
Tesu saddhiṃ hadayavatthunā indriyarūpaṃ kammajameva. Of these, materiality of the faculties, together with the heart-basis, is kamma- born only;
Viññattidvayaṃ cittajameva. the two intimations are consciousness-born only.
Yaṃ pana cittato ca ututo ca jātaṃ, taṃ dvijaṃ nāma, taṃ saddāyatanameva. But what is born [now] of consciousness and [now] of temperature is called born of two. That is the sound base only.33
Yaṃ utucittāhārehi jātaṃ, taṃ tijaṃ nāma, taṃ pana lahutādittayameva. What is born of temperature, consciousness, and nutriment is called born of three. But that is the three beginning with “lightness” only.
Yaṃ catūhipi kammādīhi jātaṃ, taṃ catujaṃ nāma, taṃ lakkhaṇarūpavajjaṃ avasesaṃ hoti. What is born from the four beginning with kamma is called born of four. That is all the rest except “matter as characteristic. ”
Lakkhaṇarūpaṃ pana nakutocijātaṃ. 80.But “matter as characteristic” is called not born of anything.
Kasmā? Why?
Na hi uppādassa uppādo atthi, uppannassa ca paripākabhedamattaṃ itaradvayaṃ. Because there is no arising of arising, and the other two are the mere maturing and breakup of what has arisen.
Yampi "rūpāyatanaṃ saddāyatanaṃ gandhāyatanaṃ rasāyatanaṃ phoṭṭhabbāyatanaṃ ākāsadhātu āpodhātu rūpassa lahutā, rūpassa mudutā, rūpassa kammaññatā, rūpassa upacayo, rūpassa santati, kabaḷīkāro āhāro, ime dhammā cittasamuṭṭhānā"tiādīsu (dha. sa. 1201) jātiyā kutocijātattaṃ anuññātaṃ, taṃ pana rūpajanakapaccayānaṃ kiccānubhāvakkhaṇe diṭṭhattāti veditabbaṃ. ¶ Though in the passage, “The visible-data base, the sound base, the odour base, the flavour base, the tangible-data base, the space element, the water element, lightness of matter, malleability of matter, wieldiness of matter, growth of matter, continuity of matter, and physical food—these states are consciousness-originated” (cf. Dhs §667) and so on, a state of birth [that is, growth] being born from somewhere can be understood as allowable since the point of view here is the moment when the conditions that are giving birth to the kinds of materiality are exercising their function. ¶
Idaṃ tāva rūpakkhandhe vitthārakathāmukhaṃ. This, firstly, is the section of the detailed explanation dealing with the materiality aggregate.
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в 15 главе Висуддхимагги написано
Munātīti mano. Attano lakkhaṇaṃ dhārentīti dhammā.

It measures (munāti), thus it is a mind (mano).
They cause their own characteristic to be borne (dhārayanti), thus they are mental data (dhammā).1

Таким образом слово mano (рассудок) выводится от слова "измеряет". Слово "абстрактные понятия" выводится от слова "они приводят к запоминанию своих характеристик".