Отслеживание тела. Осознавание

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Catusampajaññapabbavaṇṇanā The Section on the Four Kinds of Clear Comprehension Раздел о четырёх видах осознавания
109. Evaṃ iriyāpathavasena kāyānupassanaṃ vibhajitvā idāni catusampajaññavasena vibhajituṃ puna caparantiādimāha. 1. Clear comprehension in going forwards and backwards After explaining body-contemplation in the form of the meditation on the four modes of deportment, the Master said, "And further," to explain body-contemplation by way of the four kinds of clear comprehension [catu sampajañña]. {19} Объяснив отслеживание тела в виде медитации на четырёх положениях тела Благословенный сказал: "Кроме того" чтобы объяснить отслеживание тела путём четырёх разновидностей осознавания. Сноска переведена и найден оригинал
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Tattha abhikkante paṭikkanteti ettha tāva abhikkantaṃ vuccati gamanaṃ. Abhikkante patikkante = "In going forwards (and) in going backwards." Here, the meaning is as follows: — Going forwards is called going. "шагая вперед и назад" смысл следующий - "шагая вперёд" называется ходьбой.
Paṭikkantaṃ nivattanaṃ. Going backwards is called turning back. "шагая назад" - так называется возвращение.
Tadubhayampi catūsu iriyāpathesu labbhati. Both these are to be found in all the four modes of deportment.{20} Оба они обнаруживаются в четырёх положениях тела.
Gamane tāva purato kāyaṃ abhiharanto abhikkamati nāma. First, in going, carrying the body to a position in front — bringing the body along — is called going forwards. При ходьбе перенос тела на место спереди называется "шаганием вперёд".
Paṭinivattento paṭikkamati nāma. Turning back — returning thence — is called turning back. Возвращение (на то место) называется возвращением.
Ṭhānepi ṭhitakova kāyaṃ purato onāmento abhikkamati nāma. And in standing, one just standing and bending the body to a position in front does what is called going forwards, В стоячем положении человек стоит и наклоняет тело в положение спереди, тем самым он делает то, что называется "шагает вперёд".
Pacchato apanāmento paṭikkamati nāma. and one bending away behind — drawing back — does what is called going backwards. Наклоняясь назад (отступая) называется шаганием назад.
Nisajjāyapi nisinnakova āsanassa purimaaṅgābhimukho saṃsaranto abhikkamati nāma. In sitting down, one sitting and moving on — creeping on, sliding on — to front portion comprising the frame and so forth of the seat, i. e. , chair, stool or similar thing, does going forwards; В сидячем положении человек сидит и двигается вперёд (ползёт вперёд, скользит вперёд) к передней части из рамы и прочих частей сидения (стула, табуретки и т.п.) - он шагает вперёд.
Pacchimaaṅgappadesaṃ pacchā saṃsaranto paṭikkamati nāma. and one moving away — sliding back — to the parts comprising the frame and so forth at the back of the chair or stool does what is called turning back. Движущийся обратно (скользя назад) к частям рамы и прочих частей сидения к задней части стула или табуретки называется шагающим назад.
Nipajjāyapi eseva nayo. In lying down too the explanation is to be done according to the method stated above. В лежачем положении объяснение такое же, как и выше.
Sampajānakārī hotīti sampajaññena sabbakiccakārī, sampajaññameva vā kārī. Sampajanakari = "Practicing clear comprehension." Doing without fail all actions with clear comprehension [sampajaññena sabba kicca kari]. Or the doing of only clear comprehension [sampajaññasseva va kari]. {21} "он осознает это": Совершая все поступки с осознанием или совершая только осознавание. Сноска переведена.
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So hi abhikkantādīsu sampajaññaṃ karoteva, na katthaci sampajaññavirahito hoti. For the yogi practices only clear comprehension and is nowhere bereft of clear comprehension, in going forwards and going backwards. Ведь практикующий практикует только осознавание и нет случаев, когда осознавание у него отсутствует в шагании вперёд и назад.
Tattha sātthakasampajaññaṃ sappāyasampajaññaṃ gocarasampajaññaṃ asammohasampajaññanti catubbidhaṃ sampajaññaṃ. There are these four kinds of comprehension: clear comprehension of purpose [satthaka sampajañña], of suitability [sappaya sampajañña], of resort [gocara sampajañña], and of non-delusion [asammoha sampajañña].{22} Существует четыре вида осознавания: осознание цели, осознание подходящего, осознание пастбища и осознание отсутствия неведения. Дальше по этой четвёрке будет идти весь анализ.
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Tattha abhikkamanacitte uppanne cittavaseneva agantvā «kiṃ nu me ettha gatena attho atthi natthī»ti atthānatthaṃ pariggaṇhitvā atthapariggahaṇaṃ sātthakasampajaññaṃ. Among these four kinds of clear comprehension, the clear comprehension of purpose is the comprehension of (a worthy) purpose after considering what is worthy and not worthy, with the thought, "Is there any use to one by this going or is there not?" One does this not having gone immediately, just by the influence of the thought, at the very moment the thought of going forwards is born. Среди этих четырёх видов осознавания, осознание цели соответствует осознанию (достойной) цели после рассмотрения что достойно, а что недостойно с мыслью: "Есть ли какая-то польза для человека от этой ходьбы или нет". Практикующий рассматривает это не начав ходить сразу как только появилась мысль, он совершает такое рассмотрение именно тогда, когда зародилась мысль пойти вперёд.
Tattha ca atthoti cetiyadassanabodhidassanasaṅghadassanatheradassanaasubhadassanādivasena dhammato vaḍḍhi. In this context, purpose is growth according to the Dhamma, by way of visiting a relic shrine, Tree of Enlightenment (Bodhi Tree), the Sangha, the elders, and a place where the dead are cast (a cemetery) for seeing the unlovely (a corpse, a skeleton and the like). В этом контексте целью является рост согласно Дхамме путём посещения мемориала, дерева Бодхи, монашеской общины, старших монахов, кладбища для наблюдения непривлекательных образов.
Cetiyaṃ vā bodhiṃ vā disvāpi hi buddhārammaṇaṃ saṅghadassanena saṅghārammaṇaṃ pītiṃ uppādetvā tadeva khayavayato sammasanto arahattaṃ pāpuṇāti. By visiting a relic shrine, a Bodhi Tree, or the Sangha, for producing spiritual interest, and by meditating on the waning of that interest one could reach arahantship; Путём посещения мемориала, дерева Бодхи или монашеской общины с целью зарождения восторга (духовного интереса?) и путём медитации на угасании восторга человек может достичь архатства.
There disvā tesaṃ ovāde patiṭṭhāya asubhaṃ disvā tattha paṭhamajjhānaṃ uppādetvā tadeva khayavayato sammasanto arahattaṃ pāpuṇāti. by visiting elders and by getting established in their instruction one could reach arahantship; and by visiting a place where the dead are cast, by seeing a corpse there and by producing the first absorption (pathamajjhana] in that unlovely object, one could reach arahantship. Путём посещения старших монахов, а также путём наблюдения непривлекательного (на кладбище) и порождения первого уровня поглощённости и медитации на его прекращении человек может достичь архатства. В переводе на англ. ошибка или у него был другой оригинал.
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Tasmā etesaṃ dassanaṃ sātthakaṃ. So the visiting of these is purposeful.{23} Поэтому посещение их является полезным.
Keci pana «āmisatopi vaḍḍhi atthoyeva, taṃ nissāya brahmacariyānuggahāya paṭipannattā»ti vadanti. Some [keci] however say: Increase by way of material gain, too, is (a worthy) purpose, since material gain is helpful for the holy life.{24} Однако некоторые говорят: возрастание материальных доходов также является достойной целью, поскольку материальные доходы способствуют монашеской жизни.
Tasmiṃ pana gamane sappāyāsappāyaṃ pariggaṇhitvā sappāyapariggahaṇaṃ sappāyasampajaññaṃ. Clear comprehension of suitability is the comprehension of the suitable after considering what is suitable and not. Осознавание подходящего является осознаванием подходящего после анализа что подходит, а что нет.
Seyyathidaṃ, cetiyadassanaṃ tāva sātthakaṃ. For instance, the visiting of a relic shrine could be quite (worthily) purposeful. Например, посещение монумента может быть полезным.
Sace pana cetiyassa mahāpūjāya dasadvādasayojanantare parisā sannipatanti. But when a great offering is made to a relic shrine, a multitude of people in a ten or twelve yojana area gather, Но когда монументу подносят большие дары, на расстоянии в десять или двенедцать йоджан собирается множество людей,
Attano vibhavānurūpaṃ itthiyopi purisāpi alaṅkatappaṭiyattā cittakammarūpakāni viya sañcaranti. and men and women according to their position go about adorned like painted figures. повсюду разгуливают мужчины и женщины в подобающих украшениях подобно разукрашенным фигуркам.
Tatra cassa iṭṭhe ārammaṇe lobho, aniṭṭhe paṭigho, asamapekkhane moho uppajjati, kāyasaṃsaggāpattiṃ vā āpajjati, jīvitabrahmacariyānaṃ vā antarāyo hoti, evaṃ taṃ ṭhānaṃ asappāyaṃ hoti. And if in that crowd greed could arise for the bhikkhu in an attractive object, resentment in a non-attractive one, and delusion through prejudice; if he could commit the offence of sexual intercourse; or if harm could come to the holy life of purity; then, a place like that relic shrine would not be suitable. И если в этой толпе у монаха возникнет алчность в отношении привлекательного объекта, отвращение в отношении непривлекательного, заблуждение из-за предрассудка; если он может совершить нарушение монашеских правил в части полового акта или может быть нанесён вред жизни, или может быть нанесён вред монашеской жизни, то место, подобное этому монументу, является неподходящим. Подкомментарий
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Vuttappakāraantarāyābhāve sappāyaṃ. When there could be no such harm it would be suitable.{25} Когда нет возможности нанесения подобного вреда, это место является подходящим.
Bodhidassanepi eseva nayo. По тому же принципу посещение дерева Бодхи и прочих.
Saṅghadassanampi sātthaṃ. The visiting of the Sangha is a purpose of worth. Посещение монашеской общины является полезным.
Sace pana antogāme mahāmaṇḍapaṃ kāretvā sabbarattiṃ dhammassavanaṃ kārentesu manussesu vuttappakāreneva janasannipāto ceva antarāyo ca hoti, evaṃ taṃ ṭhānaṃ asappāyaṃ. Still when there is all-night preaching in a big pandal in the inner village and there are crowds and one could possibly come to hurt and harm in the way mentioned earlier, that place of preaching is not suitable to go to. И тем не менее, когда посреди деревни возводят павильон для проведения всенощной проповеди и там начинается столпотворение, человек может подвергнуться опасностям как ранее объяснялось. В этом случае такое место не является подходящим для посещения.
Antarāyābhāve sappāyaṃ. When there is no hurt or harm possible one may go there as it would then be suitable. Когда опасностей нет, это место является подходящим.
Mahāparisaparivārānaṃ therānaṃ dassanepi eseva nayo. In visiting elders who are surrounded by a large following suitability and non-suitability should also be determined in the way stated above. В посещении старших монахов, окружённых большим количеством последователей, то, насколько подходящим является данный акт, определяется по вышеприведённой схеме.
Asubhadassanampi sātthaṃ. To visit a place where the dead are cast for beholding a corpse is fit, Посещение места для наблюдения непривлекательного (=кладбища) является подходящим.
Tadatthadīpanatthañca idaṃ vatthu : eko kira daharabhikkhu sāmaṇeraṃ gahetvā dantakaṭṭhatthāya gato. and to explain the meaning of this the following story has been told: It is said that a young bhikkhu went with a novice to get wood for tooth-cleaners. Для объяснения смысла даётся следующая история. Якобы молодой монах вместе с саманерой пошёл за древесиной для зубочисток.
Sāmaṇero maggā okkamitvā purato gacchanto asubhaṃ disvā paṭhamajjhānaṃ nibbattetvā tadeva pādakaṃ katvā saṅkhāre sammasanto tīṇi phalāni sacchikatvā uparimaggatthāya kammaṭṭhānaṃ pariggahetvā aṭṭhāsi. The novice getting out of the road proceeded in front to a place in search of wood and saw a corpse. Meditating on it he produced the first absorption, and making the factors of the absorption a basis for developing insight realized the first three fruitions of arahantship, while examining the conformations [sankhare sammasanto], and stood having laid hold of the subject of meditation for realizing the path of full arahantship. Саманера уйдя с дороги шёл спереди к месту в поисках древесины и увидел труп. Медитируя на нём он достиг первого уровня поглощённости и сделав факторы поглощённости основой практики прозрения достиг первых трёх плодов (вхождение в поток, однократное возвращение и невозвращение) в процессе исследования конструкций. Он встал на месте, удерживая объект медитации, чтобы достичь высшего пути (архатства).
Daharo taṃ apassanto «sāmaṇerā»ti pakkosi. The young bhikkhu not seeing the novice called out to him. Молодой монах не видя саманеру позвал его.
So «mayā pabbajitadivasato paṭṭhāya bhikkhunā saddhiṃ dve kathā nāma na kathitapubbā. The novice thought thus: From the day I took up the homeless life I have endeavored to let me never be called twice by a bhikkhu, Саманера подумал: "С момента ухода в бездомную жизнь я решил, что (полноправному) монаху никогда не потребуется звать меня дважды.
Aññasmimpi divase uparivisesaṃ nibbattessāmī»ti cintetvā «kiṃ, bhante»ti paṭivacanaṃ adāsi. so, I will produce the further distinction (of full arahantship) another day, and replied to the bhikkhu with the words: "What's the matter, reverend sir?" Я достигну высшего уровня в другой день." и ответил монаху словами: "Почтенный, в чём дело?".
Ehīti ca vutte ekavacaneneva āgantvā «bhante, iminā tāva maggena gantvā mayā ṭhitokāse muhuttaṃ puratthābhimukho ṭhatvā olokethā»ti āha. "Come," said the bhikkhu and the novice returned. The novice told the bhikkhu as follows: "Go first by this way: then stand facing north, at the place I stood, for a while and look." Монах сказал "подойди" и саманера вернулся. Вернувшись он сказал: "Пойди по той дороге, затем встань лицом на север в том месте, где я стоял. Постой там немного и посмотри."
So tathā katvā tena pattavisesameva pāpuṇi. The young bhikkhu followed the novice's instruction and attained just the distinction reached by the novice. Молодой монах последовал совету и достиг того же, что и саманера.
Evaṃ ekaṃ asubhaṃ dvinnaṃ janānaṃ atthāya jāyati. Thus the same corpse became profitable to two people. Так один и тот же труп принёс благо двоим.
Evaṃ sātthampi panetaṃ purisassa mātugāmāsubhaṃ asappāyaṃ. For the male the female corpse is not suitable, Для мужчины труп женщины не подходит
Mātugāmassa ca purisāsubhaṃ sabhāgameva sappāyanti evaṃ sappāyapariggahaṇaṃ sappāyasampajaññaṃ nāma. and vice versa. Only a corpse of one's own sex is suitable. Comprehension of what is suitable in this way is called the clear comprehension of suitability. и наоборот. Подходит только труп человека своего пола. Осознание подходящего по такому принципу называется осознанием подходящего.
Evaṃ pariggahitasātthasappāyassa pana aṭṭhatiṃsāya kammaṭṭhānesu attano cittarucitakammaṭṭhānasaṅkhātaṃ gocaraṃ uggahetvā bhikkhācāragocare taṃ gahetvā gamanaṃ gocarasampajaññaṃ nāma. Further, the going on the alms round of that one who has thus comprehended purpose and suitability after leaving and taking up just that resort — among the thirty-eight subjects of meditation — called the subject of meditation after his own heart is clear comprehension of resort.{26} И более того, ходьба за подаянием того, кто познал цель и что подходит, после выхода (за подаянием) и выбора именно этого пастбища - среди 38 объектов медитации - называющегося приятным сердцу объектом медитации - это осознание пастбища. Подкомментарий
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Tassāvibhāvatthaṃ idaṃ catukkaṃ veditabbaṃ. For making manifest this clear comprehension of resort the following set of four should be understood:
Idhekacco bhikkhu harati na paccāharati , ekacco na harati paccāharati , ekacco neva harati na paccāharati, ekacco harati ca paccāharati ca. Tattha yo bhikkhu divasaṃ caṅkamena nisajjāya āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi cittaṃ parisodhetvā tathā rattiyā paṭhamaṃ yāmaṃ majjhime yāme seyyaṃ kappetvā pacchimayāmepi nisajjācaṅkamehi vītināmetvā pageva cetiyaṅgaṇabodhiyaṅgaṇavattaṃ katvā bodhirukkhe udakaṃ abhisiñcitvā pānīyaṃ paribhojanīyaṃ paccupaṭṭhapetvā ācariyupajjhāyavattādīni sabbāni khandhakavattāni samādāya vattati. In the Dispensation of the Buddha a certain bhikkhu on the journey out for alms takes along with him in the mind the subject of meditation, but on the journey back from the work of alms-gathering he does not bring it along with him, having become unmindful of it. Another does not take it along with him on the outward journey, but returns from the alms-tour with the subject of meditation in his mind. Still another neither takes it along with him on the outward journey nor returns with it on the journey home. And, lastly, there is the fourth kind of bhikkhu who both takes the subject of meditation along with him on the journey out for alms and brings it back with him on the journey home. Among these four kinds, there is a certain bhikkhu who lives thus: — By day he cleanses his mind of things that becloud — the hindrances [nivarana] — through meditation on the ambulatory and in the sitting posture. By night, likewise, on the ambulatory and in the sitting posture, through meditation, in the first watch, and in the last watch, he cleanses his mind of things that becloud, after sleeping in the middle watch. Quite early in the day having done the duties connected with the terraces of the relic-shrine and the Bhodhi-tree — sweeping and so forth — he sprinkles the Bodhi-tree with water, places water for drinking and washing and attends to the Khandhaka duties beginning with the duties connected with the teacher and the preceptor.
So sarīraparikammaṃ katvā senāsanaṃ pavisitvā dve tayo pallaṅke usumaṃ gāhāpento kammaṭṭhānaṃ anuyuñjitvā bhikkhācāravelāya uṭṭhahitvā kammaṭṭhānasīseneva pattacīvaramādāya senāsanato nikkhamitvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasikarontova cetiyaṅgaṇaṃ gantvā sace buddhānussatikammaṭṭhānaṃ hoti, taṃ avissajjetvāva cetiyaṅgaṇaṃ pavisati. Thereafter, having looked to the needs of his body ... he enters his dwelling and practices the subject of meditation begun that day [tadahe mula bhutam kammatthanam], at several sittings [dve tayo pallanke usumam gahapento = during two or three sittings while the body happens to be put into a state of warming up].{27} (One sits in meditation not for a long time at a stretch. There are short intervals of relaxation through brief changes of posture when the body gets warm or uncomfortable in the cross-legged sitting pose.) When it is time to wander for alms, he having got up from the sitting meditation-pose, and takes his bowl and robe with just the thought of meditation uppermost in mind [kammatthana siseneva] leaves his dwelling, attending only to the thought of meditation [kammatthanam manasikarontova]. {28} If, when going to his alms collecting place, the bhikkhu's thought of meditation is contemplation on the Buddha's qualities [buddhanussati kammatthanam], he, on arriving at the relic-shrine, enters the shrine's precincts, without having put aside his thought of meditation on the Buddha. Подкомментарий
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Aññaṃ ce kammaṭṭhānaṃ hoti, sopānapādamūle ṭhatvā hatthena gahitabhaṇḍaṃ viya taṃ ṭhapetvā buddhārammaṇaṃ pītiṃ gahetvā cetiyaṅgaṇaṃ āruyha mahantaṃ cetiyaṃ ce, tikkhattuṃ padakkhiṇaṃ katvā catūsu ṭhānesu vanditabbaṃ. But should his thought of meditation be something other than the Buddha-subject, he having stood at the foot of the stairway leading to the shrine-terrace, put by his thought of meditation as if it were goods hand-carried, and acquired the joy begotten of the Buddha-subject of meditation, goes up the stairway. If the relic-shrine is a big one, it should be worshipped at four places, when the bhikkhu has gone round it three times to the right.
Khuddakaṃ cetiyaṃ ce, tatheva padakkhiṇaṃ katvā aṭṭhasu ṭhānesu vanditabbaṃ. If it is a small shrine, it should be worshipped by the meditator in eight places when he has gone round it three times to the right just as in the case of the big shrine.
Cetiyaṃ vanditvā bodhiyaṅgaṇaṃ pattenāpi buddhassa bhagavato sammukhā viya nipaccakāraṃ dassetvā bodhi vanditabbo. By a bhikkhu who, having worshipped a relic-shrine, has reached a Bodhi-tree shrine even the Bodhi-tree should be worshipped. And he should worship the Bodhi-tree showing meek demeanour as though he were in the very presence of the Buddha, the Bhagava.
So evaṃ cetiyañca bodhiñca vanditvā paṭisāmitaṭṭhānaṃ gantvā paṭisāmitabhaṇḍakaṃ hatthena gaṇhanto viya nikkhittakammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvā gāmasamīpe kammaṭṭhānasīseneva cīvaraṃ pārupitvā gāmaṃ piṇḍāya pavisati. In this way, that monk, having worshipped relic-shrine and Boddhi-tree shrine, goes to the place where he had put by his first subject of meditation, namely, to the bottom of the stairway. There, having taken up the subject of meditation he had put by earlier, and robed himself (with the upper robe and the shoulder cloak held together and worn as one, that is, with the upper robe falling within the shoulder-cloak at all edges), near the village with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind, he enters the village for alms.
Atha naṃ manussā disvā «ayyo no āgato»ti paccuggantvā pattaṃ gahetvā āsanasālāyaṃ vā gehe vā nisīdāpetvā yāguṃ datvā yāva bhattaṃ na niṭṭhāti, tāva pāde dhovitvā telena makkhetvā purato nisīditvā pañhaṃ vā pucchanti, dhammaṃ vā sotukāmā honti. There, people, after seeing the bhikkhu, say: "Our venerable one has come," and having gone forward to meet the bhikkhu, taken his bowl, conducted him to the sitting-hall (hall where meals are served to the bhikkhus in a village) or to a house and made him take a seat, offer gruel to him. Thereafter, they wash and anoint his feet, and till rice is ready sit in front of him and ask him questions or become desirous of listening to a talk on the Dhamma from him.
Sacepi na kathāpenti, janasaṅgahatthaṃ dhammakathā nāma kātabbāyevāti aṭṭhakathācariyā vadanti. Even if the people do not ask him to speak to them on the Dhamma, the commentators say that a talk on the Dhamma should be given to the people in order to help them. The bhikkhus should expound the Dhamma{29}
Dhammakathā hi kammaṭṭhānavinimuttā nāma natthi . There is no Dhamma-talk separate from the thought of meditation.{30}
Tasmā kammaṭṭhānasīseneva dhammaṃ kathetvā kammaṭṭhānasīseneva āhāraṃ paribhuñjitvā anumodanaṃ katvā nivattiyamānehipi manussehi anugatova gāmato nikkhamitvā tattheva nivattetvā maggaṃ paṭipajjati. Therefore, after expounding the Dhamma even with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind, after partaking of the food, with just the thought of meditation uppermost in mind he leaves the village followed by the people who in spite of his requesting them to stop accompanying him. There, after turning back those who followed him, he takes the road to his dwelling-place.{31}
Atha naṃ puretaraṃ nikkhamitvā bahigāme katabhattakiccā sāmaṇeradaharabhikkhū disvā paccuggantvā pattacīvaramassa gaṇhanti. Then, novices and young bhikkhus who had taken their meal outside the village, having left the village earlier than this bhikkhu see this bhikkhu coming. And they, after going forward to meet him, take his bowl and robe.
Porāṇā bhikkhū kira «na amhākaṃ upajjhāyo ācariyo»ti mukhaṃ ulloketvā vattaṃ karonti. It is said that bhikkhus of old did this duty without looking at the face of the returning bhikkhu and thinking: (this is) our preceptor (or) our teacher.
Sampattaparicchedeneva karonti. In ancient times, they did this duty according to the arriving-limit (the arriving division, section, or company).{32} Подкомментарий
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Te taṃ pucchanti «bhante, ete manussā tumhākaṃ kiṃ honti mātupakkhato sambandhā pitipakkhato»ti. Those novices and young bhikkhus question the elder thus: "Reverend Sir, who are these people to you? Are they relatives on the maternal side? Are they relatives on the paternal side?"
Kiṃ disvā pucchathāti. — "Having seen what, do you query?"
Tumhesu etesaṃ pemaṃ bahumānanti. — "Their affection and respect for you."
Āvuso, yaṃ mātāpitūhipi dukkaraṃ, taṃ ete amhākaṃ karonti, pattacīvarampi no etesaṃ santakameva, etesaṃ ānubhāvena neva bhaye bhayaṃ, na chātake chātakaṃ jānāma, edisā nāma amhākaṃ upakārino natthīti tesaṃ guṇe kathento gacchati, ayaṃ vuccati harati na paccāharatīti. — "Friends, what even parents find it hard to do these people do for us. Our very robes and bowls are just due to them. Owing to these people we know no fear on occasions of fear and know no lack of food on occasions of famine. There are no people so helpful to us as these folk." Speaking well of these people, thus, he goes. This bhikkhu is spoken of as a person who carries forth (takes along with him) the subject of meditation when he leaves his dwelling but does not return with the thought of meditation.
Yassa pana pageva vuttappakāraṃ vattapaṭipattiṃ karontassa kammajatejo pajjalati, anupādinnakaṃ muñcitvā upādinnakaṃ gaṇhāti, sarīrato sedā muccanti, kammaṭṭhānavīthiṃ nārohati, so pageva pattacīvaramādāya vegasāva cetiyaṃ vanditvā gorūpānaṃ nikkhamanavelāyameva gāmaṃ yāgubhikkhāya pavisitvā yāguṃ labhitvā āsanasālaṃ gantvā pivati. If to a bhikkhu who performs the duties detailed above, betimes, (there arises an intense feeling of discomfort owing to hunger) if his kamma-produced caloricity becomes very strong (pajjalati, lit, flames up and lays hold of the derived, assimilated material of the body owing to the absence of undigested food in the stomach, if sweat exudes from his body and if he is unable to concentrate on his subject of meditation, he takes his bowl and the robe quite early in the morning, worships the relic shrine speedily, and enters the village to get gruel just when the village herds go out of their pens for pasturing. After he gets the gruel he goes to sitting-hall and drinks it.
Athassa dvattikkhattuṃ ajjhoharaṇamatteneva kammajatejo upādinnakaṃ muñcitvā anupādinnakaṃ gaṇhāti. Then, with the swallowing of just two or three mouthfuls, the kamma-produced caloricity letting go the material of the body — i.e., the inner lining of the stomach [udara patalam] lays hold of the property of the food taken in.
Ghaṭasatena nhāto viya tejodhātupariḷāhanibbāpanaṃ patvā kammaṭṭhānasīsena yāguṃ paribhuñjitvā pattañca mukhañca dhovitvā antarābhatte kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasikatvā avasesaṭṭhāne piṇḍāya caritvā kammaṭṭhānasīsena āhāraṃ paribhuñjitvā tato paṭṭhāya poṅkhānupoṅkhaṃ upaṭṭhahamānaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ gahetvāva āgacchati, ayaṃ vuccati na harati paccāharatīti. And that bhikkhu, having got to the assuagement of the distress of the caloric process like a man bathed with a hundred pots of cool water, having partaken of the (rest of the) gruel with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind, washed bowl and mouth, attended to the subject of meditation till the later forenoon meal, wandered for alms in the remaining places — in the places where he got no gruel and so where he could still go for alms — and taken the meal with just the thought of meditation uppermost in mind, returns, having taken up just that subject of meditation which is thence forward present in his mind. This person is called the one who does not carry forth but returns with the thought of meditation.{33}
Edisā ca bhikkhū yāguṃ pivitvā vipassanaṃ ārabhitvā buddhasāsane arahattaṃ pattā nāma gaṇanapathaṃ vītivattā, sīhaḷadīpeyeva tesu tesu gāmesu āsanasālāyaṃ na taṃ āsanaṃ atthi, yattha yāguṃ pivitvā arahattappattabhikkhū natthīti. And bhikkhus, like this one, who, after drinking gruel and exerting themselves in the development of insight, reached the state of arahantship in the Buddha's Dispensation are past all numbering (so many have they been). In the Island of the Lion Race, alone [sihala dipe yeva], there is not a seat of sitting-hall in the various villages which is not a place where a bhikkhu, having sat and drunk gruel, attained arahantship (tesu tesu gamesu asanasalaya na tam asanam atthi yattha yagum pivitva arahattam patta bhikkhu natthi].{34}
Yo pana pamādavihārī hoti nikkhittadhuro, sabbavattāni bhinditvā pañcavidhacetokhilavinibandhacitto viharanto «kammaṭṭhānaṃ nāma atthī»tipi saññaṃ akatvā gāmaṃ piṇḍāya pavisitvā ananulomikena gihisaṃsaggena saṃsaṭṭho caritvā ca bhuñjitvā ca tuccho nikkhamati, ayaṃ vuccati neva harati na paccāharatīti. But a bhikkhu who is a loose liver [pamada vihari, lit. liver in negligence, carelessness or indolence], who is a slacker [nikkhitta dhuro, lit. One who has thrown away the yoke — or the burden of right exertion — and so is an irresponsible person], having broken all observances [sabba vattani bhinditva] whilst living spiritually frozen through the fivefold bondage of mind [pañca vidha ceto vinibandha baddha citto viharanto], having entered the village for alms without having even shown a sign of the fact that there is a thing called a subject of meditation (of contemplation), and having walked about and eaten his meal in unbefitting company, comes out of the village an empty fellow. This bhikkhu is called a person who neither carries forth nor returns with the thought of meditation.
Yo panāyaṃ harati ca paccāharati cāti vutto, so gatapaccāgatikavattavasena veditabbo. Who is spoken of with the words "This one carries forth and carries back" must be known just through the means of the observance of carrying forth and carrying back (the subject of meditation from the beginning to the end of the journey to and from the village).{35} Подкомментарий
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Attakāmā hi kulaputtā sāsane pabbajitvā dasapi vīsampi tiṃsampi cattālīsampi paññāsampi satampi ekato vasantā katikavattaṃ katvā viharanti, āvuso, tumhe na iṇaṭṭhā na bhayaṭṭā na jīvikāpakatā pabbajitā, dukkhā muccitukāmā panettha pabbajitā, tasmā gamane uppannakilesaṃ gamaneyeva niggaṇhatha, ṭhāne, nisajjāyaṃ, sayane uppannakilesaṃ sayaneyeva niggaṇhathāti. Men of good family, desirous of self-improvement, having become homeless ones in the Dispensation of the Buddha, when living in a group of ten, twenty, fifty or a hundred make a covenant of observance, with these words: "Friends, you renounced not because you were troubled by creditors, not because of fear of punishment from the king, and not because of difficulties of subsistence produced by famine and the like, but because you were desirous of release here. Therefore, you should restrain the defilement that is born when going (forwards or backwards) just in the process of going; you should restrain the defilement that is born when standing just in the process of standing; you should restrain the defilement that is born when sitting just in the process of sitting; and you should restrain the defilement that is born when lying down just in the process of lying down.
Te evaṃ katikavattaṃ katvā bhikkhācāraṃ gacchantā aḍḍhausabhausabhaaḍḍhagāvutagāvutantaresu pāsāṇā honti. When after the making of such a covenant of observance they go on to a village for alms, if there are stones, by the road, at distances of half-an-usabha, one usabha and one gavuta,
Tāya saññāya kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasikarontāva gacchanti. these bhikkhus proceed attending to the subject of meditation with awareness of those stones.
Sace kassaci gamane kileso uppajjati, tattheva naṃ niggaṇhāti. If in the course of going (for alms) a defilement of the mind arises in one, just in the course of going one restrains or suppresses it.
Tathā asakkonto tiṭṭhati. If one fails to do so one stops.
Athassa pacchato āgacchantopi tiṭṭhati. Then he who comes behind one stops too.
So «ayaṃ bhikkhu tuyhaṃ uppannavitakkaṃ jānāti, ananucchavikaṃ te eta»nti attānaṃ paṭicodetvā vipassanaṃ vaḍḍhetvā tattheva ariyabhūmiṃ okkamati. And one thinks: "This bhikkhu here knows the unclean thought that has arisen in you; unbecoming is that to you." Thus having reproved oneself and developed penetrative insight, one steps into the Plane of the Noble Ones (i.e., arahantship; so ayam bhikkhu tuyham uppanna vitakkam janati ananucchavikam te etanti paticcodetva vipas sanam vaddhetva tattheva ariyabhumim okkamati).
Tathā asakkonto nisīdati. If one is not able to do that, one sits down
Athassa pacchato āgacchantopi nisīdatīti soyeva nayo. and he who comes behind sits down too, it is said: that just is the method.
Ariyabhūmiṃ okkamituṃ asakkontopi taṃ kilesaṃ vikkhambhetvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasikarontova gacchati. Should one be not able to enter into the Plane of the Noble Ones, then, one having stopped the defilement, goes, attending to only the subject of meditation.
Na kammaṭṭhānavippayuttena cittena pādaṃ uddharati. One does not raise the foot with mind bereft of the subject of meditation
Uddharati ce, paṭinivattetvā purimapadesaṃ yeva eti āḷindakavāsī mahāphussadevatthero viya. but should one do so, one, having turned, gets back again even to the earlier step.{36} Like the elder Maha Phussa, the verandah-dweller.
So kira ekūnavīsativassāni gatapaccāgatikavattaṃ pūrento eva vihāsi. It is said that this elder dwelt for nineteen years fulfilling the observance of "carrying forth and carrying back."
Manussāpi sudaṃ antarāmagge kasantā ca vapantā ca maddantā ca kammāni ca karontā theraṃ tathāgacchantaṃ disvā «ayaṃ thero punappunaṃ nivattitvā gacchati. Plowmen, sowers, threshers of grain and other people having seen the elder go in this manner, said: "This elder goes having halted again and again.
Kiṃ nu kho maggamūḷho udāhu kiñci pamuṭṭho»ti samullapanti. Why does he do so? Has he got confused about the way or has he forgotten something?"
So taṃ anādiyitvā kammaṭṭhānayuttacitteneva samaṇadhammaṃ karonto vīsativassabbhantare arahattaṃ pāpuṇi. The elder by just doing the recluse's duty, with mind yoked to the thought of meditation, without giving heed to the talk of the people, attained arahantship within twenty years.
Arahattappattadivaseyevassa caṅkamanakoṭiyaṃ adhivatthā devatā aṅgulīhi dīpaṃ ujjāletvā aṭṭhāsi. On the very day be became an arahant, a deva who was living at the end of the elder's walking path, stood emitting a radiance that came from the fingers of the deva.
Cattāropi mahārājāno sakko ca devānamindo brahmā ca sahampati upaṭṭhānaṃ agamaṃsu. The Four Regents of the Earth, Sakka the deva-king and Brahma Sahampati came to serve the elder.
Tañca obhāsaṃ disvā vanavāsīmahātissatthero taṃ dutiyadivase pucchi «rattibhāge āyasmato santike obhāso ahosi, kiṃ so obhāso»ti . Maha Tissa the forest-dweller, also an elder, saw that radiance and inquired of the arahant the next day: "Last night, there was a radiance about your reverence; what was that? "
Thero vikkhepaṃ karonto «obhāso nāma dīpobhāsopi hoti maṇiobhāsopī»ti evamādimāha. Diverting the talk, the arahant said: "Radiance is that of light, of gem and the like."
Tato paṭicchādetha tumheti nibaddho āmāti paṭijānitvā ārocesi kālavallimaṇḍapavāsī mahānāgatthero viya ca. But on being pressed repeatedly with the words: "You are concealing," he acknowledged, saying, "Yes" and informed Tissa of his attainment. Like the elder Maha Naga of the Black Creeper Pavilion.
Sopi kira gatapaccāgatikavattaṃ pūrento paṭhamaṃ tāva bhagavato mahāpadhānaṃ pūjessāmīti satta vassāni ṭhānacaṅkamanameva adhiṭṭhāsi. He, it is said, when fulfilling the observance of carrying forth and back the subject of meditation, resolved upon keeping to only the postures of standing and of walking for seven years, with the thought: "I will honor the Blessed One's great struggle."
Puna soḷasa vassāni gatapaccāgatikavattaṃ pūretvā arahattaṃ pāpuṇi. And after fulfilling for sixteen years again the observance of carrying forth and carrying back the subject of meditation, he attained arahantship.
So kammaṭṭhānayutteneva cittena pādaṃ uddharanto viyuttena uddhate paṭinivattanto gāmassa samīpaṃ gantvā «gāvī nu pabbajito nū»ti āsaṅkanīyapadese ṭhatvā cīvaraṃ pārupitvā kacchakantarato udakena pattaṃ dhovitvā udakagaṇḍūsaṃ karoti. This is said of him: He (when going out for alms to the village) raises his foot only with mind yoked to the subject of meditation. If he raises with mind not yoked thus, he turns back again. After standing at such a distance from the village as would raise (in the mind of one looking from the village) the doubt: "Is it indeed a cow or a recluse? " and robing himself, he fills his mouth with a draught of water from the water-carrier slung over the shoulder and hanging under the armpit, having washed the bowl with water from the same source.
Kiṃ kāraṇā? For what reason does he fill his mouth so?
Mā me bhikkhaṃ dātuṃ vandituṃ vā āgate manusse dīghāyukā hothāti vacanamattenāpi kammaṭṭhānavikkhepo ahosīti. He does it thinking: "Let there be no distraction of the mind even by the uttering of the words: 'May you live long!' to people coming to worship me or give me alms."
Ajja, bhante, katimīti divasaṃ vā bhikkhugaṇanaṃ vā pañhe vā pucchito pana udakaṃ gilitvā ārocesi. But when he is asked the question, "Reverend Sir, which stage of the half-month is today?" concerning the date, or when he is questioned about the number of monks, he answers, after swallowing the water.
Sace divasādipucchakā na honti, nikkhamanavelāya gāmadvāre niṭṭhubhitvāva yāti kalambatitthavihāre vassūpagatapaññāsabhikkhū viya. If there is no questioning about the day and so forth, he having spat out the water, at the village gate, at the time of leaving, goes. Like the fifty bhikkhus who entered upon the rainy season residence, at the Monastery of the Galamba Landing Place.
Te kira āsāḷhīpuṇṇamāyaṃ katikavattaṃ akaṃsu «arahattaṃ appatvā aññamaññaṃ na ālapissāmā»ti. On the full-moon day of July (asalha), they made this covenant of observance: — "Without attaining arahantship we shall not converse with one another."
Gāmañca piṇḍāya pavisantā udakagaṇḍūsaṃ katvā pavisiṃsu. These bhikkhus used to enter the village for alms filling the mouth with a draught of water,
Divasādīsu pucchitesu vuttanayeneva paṭipajjiṃsu. and when questioned about the date and so forth they acted just according to the method mentioned above.
Tattha manussā niṭṭhubhanaṃ disvā jāniṃsu, «ajjeko āgato, ajja dve»ti. In that village people, having seen the spots on which mouthfuls of water had been spurted forth by the returning bhikkhus, said: "Today one came; today, two,"
Evañca cintesuṃ «kiṃ nu kho ete amhehiyeva saddhiṃ na sallapanti, udāhu aññamaññampi, yadi aññamaññaṃ na sallapanti, addhā vivādajātā bhavissanti, etha ne aññamaññaṃ khamāpessāmā»ti sabbe vihāraṃ gantvā paññāsāya bhikkhusu dvepi bhikkhū ekokāse nāddasaṃsu. And those people thought: "What indeed is the reason that these bhikkhus neither talk with us nor with each other? If they do not speak with each other, surely, they are persons who have had a dispute amongst themselves," and saying: "Come, we must make them forgive one another," went — in a body — to the monastery. There, they saw that no two bhikkhus were in the same place.
Tato yo tesu cakkhumā puriso, so āha «na bho kalahakārakānaṃ okāso īdiso hoti, susammaṭṭhaṃ cetiyaṅgaṇaṃ bodhiyaṅgaṇaṃ, sunikkhittā sammajjaniyo, sūpaṭṭhapitaṃ pānīyaṃ paribhojanīya»nti. Then a wise man in that crowd said: "Good people, a place which quarrelsome folk occupy is not like this. The relic-shrine and the Bodhi-shrine terraces are well swept. The brooms are well arranged. And water for drinking and water for washing are well set."
Te tatova nivattā, tepi bhikkhū antotemāseyeva arahattaṃ patvā mahāpavāraṇāya visuddhipavāraṇaṃ pavāresuṃ. Then those people just turned back. And the bhikkhu of that monastery attained arahantship within three months and performed a Pure Pavarana ceremony.{37} Подкомментарий
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Evaṃ kālavallimaṇḍapavāsī mahānāgatthero viya kalambatitthavihāre vassūpagatabhikkhū viya ca kammaṭṭhānayutteneva cittena pādaṃ uddharanto gāmasamīpaṃ patvā udakagaṇḍūsaṃ katvā vīthiyo sallakkhetvā yattha surāsoṇḍadhuttādayo kalahakārakā caṇḍahatthiassādayo vā natthi, taṃ vīthiṃ paṭipajjati. Thus like the elder Maha Naga dweller in the Black Creeper Pavilion and like the bhikkhus who went into rainy season at the Galamba Ford Monastery, the bhikkhu (who does the observance of carrying forth and carrying back the subject of meditation) raises his foot only with mind yoked to the thought of meditation. Having reached the neighbourhood of the village, filled the mouth with a draught of water, and looked at the streets, he enters the street where there are no quarrelsome drunkards, gamesters and such folk or where there are no restive elephants, horses and the like.
Tattha ca piṇḍāya caramāno na turitaturito viya javena gacchati. There, wandering for alms, he does not go speedily like one in a great hurry
Na hi javena piṇḍapātiyadhutaṅgaṃ nāma kiñci atthi. since there is no ascetic practice of begging food, speedily.
Visamabhūmibhāgappattaṃ pana udakasakaṭaṃ viya niccalo hutvā gacchati. He goes, rather, having become motionless, like a water cart on uneven ground.
Anugharaṃ paviṭṭho ca taṃ dātukāmaṃ vā adātukāmaṃ vā sallakkhetuṃ tadanurūpaṃ kālaṃ āgamento bhikkhaṃ gahetvā antogāme vā bahigāme vā vihārameva vā āgantvā yathāphāsuke patirūpe okāse nisīditvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasikaronto āhāre paṭikūlasaññaṃ upaṭṭhāpetvā akkhabbhañjanavaṇalepanaputtamaṃsūpamāvasena naṃ paccavekkhanto aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ āhāraṃ āhāreti, neva davāya na madāya na maṇḍanāya na vibhūsanāya. Entering into each house in order, spending such time as is suitable for concluding whether there is or not the tendency to offer alms (on the part of the occupants of each house), he receives alms, and comes to the inner village, outer village or even to the monastery. There he seats himself in a place pleasant and good (proper), attends to the thought of meditation with the setting up of the perception of loathsomeness in food, and reflects by way of the similes of axle-greasing, applying ointment to ulcer and feeding on own child's flesh, and eats the food fully followed with awareness of the eight attributes, (and) not for sport, intoxication, adornment or the filling up of those places of his body that have a deficiency of flesh.
Bhuttāvī ca udakakiccaṃ katvā muhuttaṃ bhattakilamathaṃ paṭippassambhetvā yathā purebhattaṃ, evaṃ pacchābhattaṃ. Yathā purimayāmaṃ, evaṃ pacchimayāmañca kammaṭṭhānameva manasi karoti, ayaṃ vuccati harati ca paccāharati cāti. And he, having eaten, washes. Then he rests for a while the body that is tired with the business of eating. He attends to just the thought of meditation, in the time after eating as in the time before eating, and in the last watch of the night as in the first watch. This person is called one who carries forth and carries back the subject of meditation.
Idaṃ pana haraṇapaccāharaṇasaṅkhātaṃ gatapaccāgatikavattaṃ pūrento yadi upanissayasampanno hoti. Paṭhamavaye eva arahattaṃ pāpuṇāti. The person who fulfills this observance of one who carries forth and carries back, called the carrying forth (of the thought of meditation) when going out for alms and the bringing back (of the thought of meditation) when returning from the alms-round, reaches arahantship even in the period of youth (i.e., early age or the first stage of life), if he is possessed of the sufficing condition, the wherewithal to accomplish the destruction of ignorance and its defilements.
No ce paṭhamavaye pāpuṇāti, atha majjhimavaye. If he fails to reach arahantship, in early age, then he reaches it in middle age;
No ce majjhimavaye pāpuṇāti, atha pacchimavaye.
No ce pacchimavaye pāpuṇāti, atha maraṇasamaye. if he fails in middle age, then at the time of death; Ошибка, здесь "если не в почтенном возрасте, то в момент смерти"
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No ce maraṇasamaye pāpuṇāti, atha devaputto hutvā. if he fails at the time of death, then, after becoming a deva;
No ce devaputto hutvā pāpuṇāti, anuppanne buddhe nibbatto paccekabodhiṃ sacchikaroti. if he fails as a deva, then, at a time when no Buddha has appeared on earth, he is born as a man and realizes the truth as a Buddha who is not able to communicate the truth to others;
No ce paccekabodhiṃ sacchikaroti, atha buddhānaṃ sammukhībhāve khippābhiñño vā hoti seyyathāpi thero bāhiyo dārucīriyo, mahāpañño vā seyyathāpi thero sāriputto, mahiddhiko vā seyyathāpi thero mahāmoggallāno, dhutaṅgadharo vā seyyathāpi thero mahākassapo, dibbacakkhuko vā seyyathāpi thero anuruddho, vinayadharo vā seyyathāpi thero upāli, dhammakathiko vā seyyathāpi thero puṇṇo mantāṇiputto, āraññiko vā seyyathāpi thero revato, bahussuto vā seyyathāpi thero ānando, sikkhākāmo vā seyyathāpi thero rāhulo buddhaputtoti. and if he fails to realize the truth in that way, then, immediately on meeting a Fully Enlightened Buddha he becomes a person who intuits quickly like the elder Bahiya Daruciriya, or a greatly wise one like the elder Sariputta, or one of great psychic power like the elder Mogallana the Great, or an exponent of ascetic practice like the elder Kassapa the Great, or one endowed with clairvoyant power like the elder Anuruddha, or an expert in discipline like the elder Upali or an expounder of the Dhamma like the elder Punna Mantaniputta, or a forest dweller like the elder Revata, or one of great learning like the elder Ananda, or one desirous of training like the elder Rahula, the Buddha's son.
Iti imasmiṃ catukke yvāyaṃ harati ca paccāharati ca, tassa gocarasampajaññaṃ sikhāpattaṃ hoti. Amongst these four that form the set, he who carries forth and carries back the subject of meditation reaches the crest of the clear comprehension of resort. Среди тех, кто образует эту четвёрку, тот, кто уносит и приносит с собой объект медитации, достигает вершины осознавания пастбища. Четвёрка: тот, кто берёт с собой на сбор подаяния мысль о медитации, и не возвращается с ней; кто не берёт, но возвращается ; кто не берёт с собой и н...
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Abhikkamādīsu pana asammuyhanaṃ asammohasampajaññaṃ. Further, non-confusion in going forwards and so forth is the clear comprehension of non-delusion. И также отсутствие неведения в шагании вперёд и т.д. является осознанием отсутствия неведения.
Taṃ evaṃ veditabbaṃ : idha bhikkhu abhikkamanto vā paṭikkamanto vā yathā andhaputhujjanā abhikkamādīsu «attā abhikkamati, attanā abhikkamo nibbattito»ti vā «ahaṃ abhikkamāmi, mayā abhikkamo nibbattito»ti vā sammuyhanti. That should be understood in the following way: — In this Dispensation, a monk, without confusing himself, like a blinded worldling who, while going forwards or backwards, becomes muddle-headed, and believes thus: "The soul (or self) goes forward" or "The act of going forwards is produced by the soul," or "I go forwards" or "The act of going forwards is produced by me," and the like, Это следует понимать так: Здесь монах шагая вперёд или назад подобно слепому обывателю впадает в следующее заблуждение: "Моя личность шагает вперёд" или "Акт шагания вперёд порождается моей личностью" или "Я шагаю вперёд" или "Этот акт шагания вперёд порождается моим Я" и т.п.
Tathā asammuyhanto «abhikkamāmī»ti citte uppajjamāne teneva cittena saddhiṃ cittasamuṭṭhānā vāyodhātu viññattiṃ janayamānā uppajjati, iti cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāravasena ayaṃ kāyasammato aṭṭhisaṅghāto abhikkamati, tassevaṃ abhikkamato ekekapāduddharaṇe pathavīdhātu āpodhātūti dve dhātuyo omattā honti mandā, itarā dve adhimattā honti balavatiyo, tathā atiharaṇavītiharaṇesu. thinks: "When there is the arising in one of the thought 'I am going forwards,' just with that thought, appears the process of oscillation originating from mind which brings to birth bodily expression (or intimation). Thus by the way of the diffusion of the process of oscillation due to mental activity, this skeleton called the body goes forward." In raising up the foot A [paduddharane] two processes [dhatuyo]: extension [pathavi] and cohesion [apo], are low, weak [omatta honti dubbala], and the other two processes: caloricity [tejo] and oscillation [vayo] are high, powerful [adhimatta honti balavatiyo]; so, too, in stretching out the foot B [atiharane] and in shifting away the foot C [vitiharane]. Отсутствие неведения в этом вопросе состоит в следующем: Когда у человека возникает мысль "я иду вперёд" вместе с этой мыслью из ума исходит элемент вибрации, порождающий телесное выражение. Так путём распространения элемента вибрации благодаря умственной деятельности этот скелет, называемый телом, шагает вперёд. В поднятии ноги 1 два первичных элемента (твёрдость и жидкость) являются слабыми, а два других (тепло и вибрация) являются сильными. Аналогично в распрямлении ноги 2 и в перемещении ноги 3.
Vossajjane tejovāyodhātuyo omattā honti mandā, itarā dve adhimattā honti balavatiyo. Tathā sannikkhepanasannirumbhanesu. But in dropping down the raised foot D [vossajjane], and likewise in keeping the foot on the ground E [sannikkhepane] and in pressing the foot against the ground F [sannirumbhane] the first two processes are high and powerful and the second, low and weak. Но в опускании поднятой ноги 4 и также удерживании на поверхности ноги 5 и также в нажатии ноги на поверхность 6 первые два элемента сильны, а две последних - слабы.
Tattha uddharaṇe pavattā rūpārūpadhammā atiharaṇaṃ na pāpuṇanti. Tathā atiharaṇe pavattā vītiharaṇaṃ, vītiharaṇe pavattā vossajjanaṃ, vossajjane pavattā sannikkhepanaṃ, sannikkhepane pavattā sannirumbhanaṃ na pāpuṇanti. There, the material and mental phenomena in A do not occur in B; those in B do not occur in C; those in C do not occur in D; those in D do not occur in E; those in E do not occur in F. Умственные и материальные феномены в 1 не происходят в 2, те, что в 2 не происходят в 3, те, что в 3, не происходят в 4, те, что в 4 не происходят 5, те, что в 5, не происходят в 6.
Tattha tattheva pabbaṃ pabbaṃ sandhi sandhi odhi odhi hutvā tattakapāle pakkhittatilāni viya paṭapaṭāyantā bhijjanti. These phenomena after coming into existence in the form of several sections, links, and parts, break quickly just in those places, crackling like sesamum seeds thrown into a heated pan. Эти феномены проявившись в виде нескольких элементов, звеньев и цепей, быстро разрушаются тех местах, трескаясь как горчичные зёрна на разогретой сковороде.
Tattha ko eko abhikkamati? In this matter, who is the one that goes forward, При всём при этом кто же шагает вперёд?
Kassa vā ekassa abhikkamanaṃ? or whose going forward is there? Или чьё шагание вперёд имеет место.
Paramatthato hi dhātūnaṃyeva gamanaṃ, dhātūnaṃ ṭhānaṃ, dhātūnaṃ nisajjanaṃ, dhātūnaṃ sayanaṃ, tasmiṃ tasmiñhi koṭṭhāse saddhiṃ rūpena : In the highest sense (paramatthato) what takes place is the going, the standing, the sitting down and the lying down of the processes. With material form in the several divisions (groups or parts), В высшем смысле имеет место шагание, стояние, сидение и лежание первоэлементов. С телом из нескольких частей:
Aññaṃ uppajjate cittaṃ, aññaṃ cittaṃ nirujjhati. One conscious state arises And quite another ceases, Один момент ума возникает, другой момент ума исчезает
Avīcimanusambandho, nadīsotova vattatīti. In sequence, like a river's flow, These states (of mind and matter) go. {38} Эти умственно-материальные состояния составляют последовательность как течение реки. Подкомментарий
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Evaṃ abhikkamādīsu asammuyhanaṃ asammohasampajaññaṃ nāmāti.
Niṭṭhito abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hotīti padassa attho.
Ālokite vilokiteti ettha pana ālokitaṃ nāma purato pekkhanaṃ. 2. Clear comprehension in looking straight on and in looking away from the front Here, looking straight on [alokitam] = seeing in the direction in front of oneself [purato pekkhanam].{39} "Смотрит прямо и в сторону" - смотрит прямо: смотрит по направлению перед собой.
Vilokitaṃ nāma anudisāpekkhanaṃ. Looking away from the front [vilokitam] = Looking out in all other directions [anudisa pekkhanam]. "Смотрит в сторону" - смотрит во все остальные направления.
Aññānipi heṭṭhā upari pacchato pekkhanavasena olokitaullokitāpalokitāni nāma honti, tāni idha na gahitāni. And other kinds of seeing, by way of turning the eye in the direction above, in the direction beneath and in the direction behind are called looking upwards, looking downwards and looking backwards. Here those are not taken. Другие виды смотрения путём направления глаз вверх, вниз и назад называются смотрением вверх, вниз и назад. Здесь они не охвачены.
Sāruppavasena pana imāneva dve gahitāni, iminā vā mukhena sabbānipi tāni gahitānevāti. But just these two — looking straight on and looking away from the front — are taken, by way of what is befitting. Or, by this method, it is said, all those are also taken. {40} Но здесь охвачена только эта пара - смотрение вперёд и в сторону путём того, что подходит. Или же все они также охвачены.
Tattha «ālokessāmī»ti citte uppanne cittavaseneva anoloketvā atthapariggahaṇaṃ sātthakasampajaññaṃ. Here, the comprehending of purpose (in looking straight on), without having just looked by the force of the thought, when the thought "I shall look straight on" arises, is clear comprehension of purpose. Здесь осознание цели (смотрения вперёд) не посмотрев просто когда возникла мысль "Я посмотрю вперёд", является осознаванием цели.
Taṃ āyasmantaṃ nandaṃ kāyasakkhiṃ katvā veditabbaṃ. That should be understood by making the venerable elder Nanda the example of a person who perceives through experience by the body [kaya sakkhi].[23] Это следует понимать, приняв почтенного Нанду в качестве примера человека, постигающего путём телесного опыта.
Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā : «sace, bhikkhave, nandassa puratthimā disā āloketabbā hoti, sabbaṃ cetasā samannāharitvā nando puratthimaṃ disaṃ āloketi, evaṃ me puratthimaṃ disaṃ ālokayato na abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyunti iti so tattha sampajāno hoti, sace, bhikkhave, nandassa pacchimā disā, uttarā disā, dakkhiṇā disā, uddhaṃ, adho, anudisā āloketabbā hoti, sabbaṃ cetaso samannāharitvā nando anudisaṃ āloketi. The following is stated in this connection: "Should looking straight on in the eastern direction become a thing that must be done, by Nanda, he looks straight on in the eastern direction, having reflected with all his mind thus: 'May no covetous, grief-producing, mean, unskillful mental phenomena flow upon (overcome) me while I am looking in the eastern direction.' В этой связи сказано следующее: "Если смотрение вперёд в восточном направлении станет делом, которое нужно сделать Нанде, он смотрит прямо в восточном направлении, всем разумом обдумав следующее: "Пусть пока я смотрю в восточном направлении меня не одолевают неблаготворные виды поведения, основанные на алчности и огорчении".
Evaṃ me anudisaṃ ālokayato - pe - sampajāno hotī»ti (a. ni. 8.9). There, he becomes mindful, thus." Так он смотрит, будучи осознающим."
Apica idhāpi pubbe vuttacetiyadassanādivaseneva sātthakatā ca sappāyatā ca veditabbā. Kammaṭṭhānassa pana avijahanameva gocarasampajaññaṃ. Further, purposefulness and suitability, here, too, should be understood just according to the manner in which they are explained in connection with the worshipping of a relic shrine and so forth.{41} И также цель и степень с которой подходит следует понимать по тому принципу, как они описаны в почитании монумента и прочего.
Tasmā khandhadhātuāyatanakammaṭṭhānikehi attano kammaṭṭhānavaseneva, kasiṇādikammaṭṭhānikehi vā pana kammaṭṭhānasīseneva ālokanavilokanaṃ kātabbaṃ. Because clear comprehension of resort is just the keeping to the course of meditation, looking straight on and looking away from the front should be done just according to each person's meditation (on the aggregates, processes and bases or on a contemplation-device and so forth) with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind. Поскольку осознавание пастбища состоит лишь в удерживании объекта медитации, смотрение вперёд и смотрение в сторону должно исполняться согласно медитации конкретного человека (на совокупностях, первоэлементах, сферах восприятия, касинах и т.п.) с мыслью о медитации, занимающей в уме первое место.
Abbhantare attā nāma āloketā vā viloketā vā natthi, ālokessāmīti pana citte uppajjamāne teneva cittena saddhiṃ cittasamuṭṭhānā vāyodhātu viññattiṃ janayamānā uppajjati. Within, it is said, there certainly is no self or soul which looks straight on or looks away from the front. Still, at the arising of the thought "I shall look straight on," and with that thought the process of oscillation (vayo dhatu) originating from mind, [citta samutthana] bringing into being bodily expression [viññatti] arises. Внутри же нет никакого "я", которое смотрит прямо или в сторону. В то же время, при появлении мысли "я посмотрю вперёд" и при появлении исходящего из ума элемента вибрации, происходит телесное выражение.
Iti cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāravaseneva heṭṭhimaṃ akkhidalaṃ adho sīdati, uparimaṃ uddhaṃ laṅgheti, koci yantakena vivaranto nāma natthi, tato cakkhuviññāṇaṃ dassanakiccaṃ sādhentaṃ uppajjatīti. Thus owing to the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity [cittakiriyavayodhatu vipphara], the lower eyelid goes down and the upper eyelid goes up. Surely there is no one who opens with a contrivance. Thereupon, eye-consciousness arises fulfilling the function of sight [tato cakkhu viññanam dassana kiccam sadhentam uppajjati], it is said. Поэтому благодаря распространению элемента вибрации, порождённого умственной деятельностью, нижнее веко опускается, а верхнее веко поднимается. Нет кого-либо, кто открывает их с помощью приспособления. Затем возникает зрительное сознание, исполняющее функцию зрения.
Evaṃ sampajānanaṃ panettha asammohasampajaññaṃ nāma. Clear comprehension of this kind here is indeed called the clear comprehension of non-delusion [evam sampajananam panettha asammoha sampajaññam nama]. Осознавание этого вида здесь называется осознаванием отсутствия неведения.
Apica mūlapariññāāgantukatāvakālikabhāvavasenapettha asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. Further, clear comprehension of non-delusion should be also understood, here, through accurate knowledge of the root (mula pariñña), through the casual state (agantuka bhava) and through the temporary state [tavakalika bhava]. И также отсутствие неведения здесь следует понимать путём точного знания корня через причинное состояние и через временное состояние.
Mūlapariññāvasena tāva : First (is the consideration) by way of the accurate knowledge of the root: —
Bhavaṅgāvajjanañceva, dassanaṃ sampaṭicchanaṃ. There is (first) the mental state of the life-continum, And (then) there are adverting, seeing, receiving,
Santīraṇaṃ voṭṭhabbanaṃ, javanaṃ bhavati sattamaṃ. Considering, determining, and impulsion Which is seventh (in cognition's course).
Tattha bhavaṅgaṃ upapattibhavassa aṅgakiccaṃ sādhayamānaṃ pavattati, taṃ āvaṭṭetvā kiriyamanodhātu āvajjanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā, tannirodhā cakkhuviññāṇaṃ dassanakiccaṃ sādhayamānaṃ , tannirodhā vipākamanodhātu sampaṭicchanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā, tannirodhā vipākamanoviññāṇadhātu santīraṇakiccaṃ sādhayamānā, tannirodhā kiriyamanoviññāṇadhātu voṭṭhabbapanakiccaṃ sādhayamānā, tannirodhā sattakkhattuṃ javanaṃ javati. There, in the course of cognition, the life-continum goes on fulfilling the function of a (main) factor of the rebirth-process [tattha bhavangam upapatti bhavassa anga kiccam sadhayamanam pavattati]; after the turning round of the life-continum, a barely active mind process, fulfilling the function of adverting or attending to an object at the sense-door of the eye, goes on [tam avattetva kiriya mano dhatu avajjana kiccam sadhayamana]; from the cessation of that, fulfilling the function of seeing, eye-consciousness goes on [tannirodha cakkhu viññanam dassana kiccam sadhayamana]; from the cessation of that, a resultant mind process, fulfilling the function of receiving, goes on [tannirodha vipaka mano dhatu sampaticchanna kiccam sadhayamana]; from the cessation of that, a resultant mind consciousness process, fulfilling the function of considering, goes on [tannirodha vipaka mano viññana dhatu santirana kiccam sadhyamana]; from the cessation of that, a barely active mind consciousness process, fulfilling the function of determining, goes on [tannirodha kiriya mano viññana dhatu votthapana kiccam sadhayamana]; from the cessation of that, an impulsion impels seven times [tannirodha sattakkhattum javanam javati].
Tattha paṭhamajavanepi «ayaṃ itthī, ayaṃ puriso»ti rajjanadussanamuyhanavasena ālokitavilokitaṃ na hoti. Now, among the mental states of the life-continum and so forth or even in the mental state of the first impulsion, there is no looking straight on or looking away from the front, by way of lust, hatred or ignorance by him who sees in any direction.
Dutiyajavanepi - pe - sattamajavanepi. Also there is no such stained vision by him in the mental state of the second impulsion, the third, the fourth, the fifth, sixth or even in the seventh impulsion.
Etesu pana yuddhamaṇḍale yodhesu viya heṭṭhupariyavasena bhijjitvā patitesu «ayaṃ itthī, ayaṃ puriso»ti rajjanādivasena ālokitavilokitaṃ hoti. But when, like soldiers in a battlefield, the mental states, after breaking-up gradually are fallen, one atop of another, there takes place looking straight on or looking away from the front, by way of lust, hate and ignorance, accompanied by the discriminatory thought: "This is a woman," or "This is a man," much in the same way as the fallen are distinguished after a battle; for in the frenzy of fighting there is no room for recognition of the individuals engaged in the fray. [24]
Evaṃ tāvettha mūlapariññāvasena asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. Thus here in the first instance, clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood, by way of the accurate knowledge of the root. {42}
Cakkhudvāre pana rūpe āpāthagate bhavaṅgacalanato uddhaṃ sakakiccaṃ nipphādanavasena āvajjanādīsu uppajjitvā niruddhesu avasāne javanaṃ uppajjati. On an object falling within reach of consciousness at the eye-door, impulsion arises right at the very end when from the movement of the life-continum onwards, the states of adverting, seeing, receiving, considering and determining, having arisen, have ceased.
Taṃ pubbe uppannānaṃ āvajjanādīnaṃ gehabhūte cakkhudvāre āgantukapuriso viya hoti. That impulsion is like a visitor, at the eyedoor which is comparable to a house belonging to the states of adverting and the rest mentioned above born there before the arising of impulsion.
Tassa yathā paragehe kiñci yācituṃ paviṭṭhassa āgantukapurisassa gehasāmikesu tuṇhīmāsinesu āṇākaraṇaṃ na yuttaṃ. As it is not fit for a visitor who has arrived at a strange house for the purpose of getting some assistance from the owners of the house to do any kind of ordering when the owners themselves are silent,
Evaṃ āvajjanādīnaṃ gehabhūte cakkhudvāre āvajjanādīsupi arajjantesu adussantesu amuyhantesu ca rajjanadussanamuyhanaṃ ayuttanti evaṃ āgantukabhāvavasena asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. so it is unfit for impulsion to be involved in lust, hate and ignorance, at the eyedoor house of adverting and the other states of mind, when those states of mind are themselves not lusting, hating or bound up with ignorance. Clear comprehension of non-delusion should thus be known by way of the casual state.
Yāni pana tāni cakkhudvāre voṭṭhabbapanapariyosānāni cittāni uppajjanti, tāni saddhiṃ sampayuttadhammehi tattha tattheva bhijjanti, aññamaññaṃ na passantīti ittarāni tāvakālikāni honti. At the eye-door, the mental states that close with the state of determining arise and break up together with associated phenomena, at just those places on which they arise. They do not see each other. Therefore the mental states that close with determining are brief and temporary.
Tattha yathā ekasmiṃ ghare sabbesu mānusakesu matesu avasesassa ekassa taṅkhaṇeññeva maraṇadhammassa na yuttā naccagītādīsu abhirati nāma, evameva ekadvāre sasampayuttesu āvajjanādīsu tattha tattheva matesu avasesassa taṅkhaṇeññeva maraṇadhammassa javanassāpi rajjanadussanamuyhanavasena abhirati nāma na yuttāti evaṃ tāvakālikabhāvavasena asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. There, as in a house of the dead, where here is one more to die just at that very instant, it is not proper for that one who is to die to be given to delight in dancing and singing and the like, even so, at a sense-door, when the states of adverting and the rest with associated phenomena have died just where they arose, it is not fit for the remaining impulsion that is to die shortly to take delight in anything by way of lust and the like. Clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood thus by way of the temporary state. {43}
Apica khandhāyatanadhātupaccayapaccavekkhaṇavasenapetaṃ veditabbaṃ. And further this clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood, by way of the reflection on the aggregates, bases, processes and conditions. И также это осознавание отсутствия неведения следует понимать путём размышления о совокупностях, сферах, первичных элементах и условиях.
Ettha hi cakkhu ceva rūpañca rūpakkhandho, dassanaṃ viññāṇakkhandho, taṃsampayuttā vedanā vedanākkhandho, saññā saññākkhandho, phassādikā saṅkhārakkhandho. To be sure, here, eye and visible object are materiality-aggregate; seeing is consciousness-aggregate; feeling that is associated with seeing is feeling-aggregate; perceiving is perception-aggregate, and those beginning with sense-impression are formation-aggregate. Здесь глаз и тело является совокупностью тел, зрение является совокупностью сознания, ощущение, связанное со зрением является совокупностью ощущений, распознавание является совокупностью распознаваний, соприкосновение и т.д. является совокупностью умственных конструкций.
Evametesaṃ pañcannaṃ khandhānaṃ samavāye ālokanavilokanaṃ paññāyati. Thus looking-straight-on-and-looking-away-from-the-front is seen in the combination of these five aggregates. Таким образом смотрение вперёд и в сторону наблюдается как сочетание этих пяти совокупностей.
Tattha ko eko āloketi, ko viloketi? There, who, singly, looks straight on? Who looks away from the front? {44} Кто конкретно здесь смотрит вперёд, кто смотрит в сторону?
Tathā cakkhu cakkhāyatanaṃ, rūpaṃ rūpāyatanaṃ, dassanaṃ manāyatanaṃ, vedanādayo sampayuttadhammā dhammāyatanaṃ. In the same way, eye is eye-base; visible object is materiality-base; seeing is mind-base; feeling and so forth, the associated things, are thing-base. Аналогичным образом зрение/глаз является сферой зрения, наблюдаемый объект является совокупностью материальных тел, видение является сферой рассудка, связанные понятия являются сферой понятий.
Evametesaṃ catunnaṃ āyatanānaṃ samavāye ālokanavilokanaṃ paññāyati. Thus looking-straight-on-and-looking-away-from-the-front is seen in the combination of these four bases. Таким образом смотрение вперёд и в сторону наблюдается как сочетание этих четырёх сфер.
Tattha ko eko āloketi, ko viloketi? There, who, singly, looks straight on? Who looks away from the front? Кто конкретно здесь смотрит вперёд, кто смотрит в сторону?
Tathā cakkhu cakkhudhātu, rūpaṃ rūpadhātu, dassanaṃ cakkhuviññāṇadhātu, taṃsampayuttā vedanādayo dhammadhātu. Likewise, eye is eye-process; visible object is materiality-process; seeing is eye-consciousness-process; and the things beginning with feeling associated with eye-consciousness are mind-process.
Evametāsaṃ catunnaṃ dhātūnaṃ samavāye ālokanavilokanaṃ paññāyati. Thus, looking-straight-on-and-looking-away-from-the-front is seen in the combination of these four processes.
Tattha ko eko āloketi, ko viloketi? There, who, singly, looks straight on? Who looks away from the front?
Tathā cakkhu nissayapaccayo, rūpaṃ ārammaṇapaccayo, āvajjanaṃ anantarasamanantarūpanissayanatthivigatapaccayo, āloko upanissayapaccayo vedanādayo sahajātapaccayo. Exactly, in the manner already stated, eye is support-condition; visible object is object-condition; adverting is condition of proximity, contiguity, decisive-support, absence and disappearance; light is condition of decisive-support and those beginning with feeling are conascence-condition.
Evametesaṃ paccayānaṃ samavāye ālokanavilokanaṃ paññāyati. Thus looking straight-on-and-looking-away-from-the-front is seen in the combination of these conditions.
Tattha ko eko āloketi, ko viloketīti? There, who, singly, looks straight on? Who looks away from the front? {45}
Evamettha khandhāyatanadhātupaccayapaccavekkhaṇavasenapi asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. Here, in this way, by reflection on the aggregates, bases, processes, and conditions, too, clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood. Так здесь путём размышления о совокупностях, сферах, первичных элементах и также условиях следует понимать осознавание отсутствия неведения.
Samiñjite pasāriteti pabbānaṃ samiñjanapasāraṇe. 3. Clear comprehension in the bending and the stretching of limbs Sammiñjite pasarite = "in bending and in stretching." In the bending and the stretching of the joints. "В сгибании и разгибании" - в сгибании и разгибании суставов.
Tattha cittavaseneva samiñjanapasāraṇaṃ akatvā hatthapādānaṃ samiñjanapasāraṇapaccayā atthānatthaṃ pariggahetvā atthapariggahaṇaṃ sātthakasampajaññaṃ. The consideration of purpose and lack of purpose in regard to any contemplated act of bending or stretching, and the taking up of that which is purposeful, after not bending and stretching according to merely the mind's inclination, is clear comprehension of purpose. Рассмотрение цели и отсутствия цели в отношении любого отслеживаемого акта сгибания и разгибания, а также исполнение того, что полезно, не согнув или разогнув лишь только под влиянием склонности ума - это осознание цели.
Tattha hatthapāde aticiraṃ samiñjetvā pasāretvā eva vā ṭhitassa khaṇe khaṇe vedanā uppajjanti, cittaṃ ekaggaṃ na labhati, kammaṭṭhānaṃ paripatati, visesaṃ nādhigacchati. In this matter, a person who experiences pain every moment due to standing long with bent or stretched hands or feet does not get concentration of mind (mental one-pointedness), his subject of meditation entirely falls away, and he does not obtain distinction (absorption and so forth). В этом вопросе тот человек, кто испытывает боль каждую секунду из-за длительного стояния с согнутыми или вытянутыми руками или ногами не обретает умственную собранность, его объект медитации разваливается и он не обретает достижений.
Kāle samiñjentassa kāle pasārentassa pana tā vedanā na uppajjanti, cittaṃ ekaggaṃ hoti, kammaṭṭhānaṃ phātiṃ gacchati, visesamadhigacchatīti evaṃ atthānatthapariggahaṇaṃ veditabbaṃ. But he who bends or stretches his hands and feet for the proper length of time does not experience pain, gets concentration of mind, develops his subject of meditation and attains distinction. Thus the comprehension of purpose and non-purpose should be known. Но тот, кто сгибает и разгибает руки и ноги в течение должного отрезка времени не испытывает боли, обретает собранность ума, развивает объект медитации и обретает достижение. Так следует понимать осознание цели и отсутствия цели.
Atthe pana satipi sappāyāsappāyaṃ pariggaṇhitvā sappāyapariggahaṇaṃ sappāyasampajaññaṃ. Clear comprehension of suitability is the comprehension of the suitable after considering the suitable and the non-suitable even in a matter that is purposeful. Осознанием подходящего является осознание подходящего после определения подходящего и неподходящего в том, что полезно.
Tatrāyaṃ nayo : mahācetiyaṅgaṇe kira daharabhikkhū sajjhāyaṃ gaṇhanti. In this connection, the following is the method of explanation: It is said that on the terrace of the Great Relic Shrine, while young bhikkhus were rehearsing the doctrine, В этой связи даётся следующий метод объяснения: якобы на террасе большого монумента молодые монахи повторяли учение.
Tesaṃ piṭṭhipasse daharabhikkhuniyo dhammaṃ suṇanti. young bhikkhunis standing at the back of the bhikkhus were listening to the rehearsal. Молодые монахини, стоявшие за спиной монахов, слушали повторение.
Tatreko daharo hatthaṃ pasārento kāyasaṃsaggaṃ patvā teneva kāraṇena gihī jāto. Then a young bhikkhu came into bodily contact with a bhikkhuni while stretching out his hand, and, by just that fact, became a layman. Тогда молодой монах совершил телесный контакт с монахиней вытянув руку и, из-за этого стал мирянином. Позже расстригся.
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Aparopi bhikkhu pādaṃ pasārento aggimhi pasāresi, aṭṭhiṃ āhacca pādo jhāyi. Another bhikkhu in stretching his foot stretched it into fire and his foot got burnt to the bone. Другой монах вытянув ногу попал ногой в огонь и нога обгорела до костей.
Aparo vammike pasāresi, so āsīvisena daṭṭho. Another stretched his foot on an ant-hill and was bitten in the foot by a poisonous snake. Другой вытянув ногу попал в муравейник и был в эту ногу укушен змеёй.
Aparo cīvarakuṭidaṇḍake pasāresi, taṃ maṇisappo ḍaṃsi. Another bhikkhu stretched out his hand till it rested on the pole of a robe-tent, a ribbon-snake on the pole bit the hand of that bhikkhu. Другой монах вытянул руку и она легла на столб навеса из одеяний. Змея, находившаяся на столбе укусила монаха за руку.
Tasmā evarūpe asappāye apasāretvā sappāye pasāretabbaṃ. Therefore the stretching of one's limbs should be done in a suitable and not an unsuitable place. Поэтому разгибание частей тела следует исполнять в подходящем месте, а не в неподходящем.
Idamettha sappāyasampajaññaṃ. This should be understood here as clear comprehension of suitability. {46} Это следует понимать как осознание подходящего.
Gocarasampajaññaṃ pana mahātheravatthunā dīpetabbaṃ : mahāthero kira divāṭṭhāne nisinno antevāsikehi saddhiṃ kathayamāno sahasā hatthaṃ samiñjetvā puna yathāṭhāne ṭhapetvā saṇikaṃ samiñjesi. Clear comprehension of resort should indeed be illustrated by the story of the senior bhikkhu called Great Elder. It is said that Great Elder seated in his day-quarters bent his arm quickly whilst talking to his resident pupils and then after putting back his arm to the position in which it first was, bent it again slowly. Осознавание пастбища также можно проиллюстрировать с помощью истории монаха по имени "великий старейшина". Якобы этот великий старейшина сидя в месте дневного отдыха разговаривая с местными монахами быстро согнул руку и затем, вернув руку в исходное положение, снова согнул её медленно.
Taṃ antevāsikā pucchiṃsu «kasmā bhante sahasā hatthaṃ samiñjetvā puna yathāṭhāne ṭhapetvā saṇikaṃ samiñjayitthā»ti. The resident pupils questioned him thus: "Reverend Sir, why, after bending the arm quickly, did you, having placed it in the position in which it first was, bend it slowly?" Местные монахи спросили его: "Почтенный, почему согнув руку быстро вы, вернув её в исходное положение, согнули её медленно?".
Yato paṭṭhāyāhaṃ, āvuso, kammaṭṭhānaṃ manasikātuṃ āraddho, na me kammaṭṭhānaṃ muñcitvā hattho samiñjitapubbo, idāni pana tumhehi saddhiṃ kathayamānena kammaṭṭhānaṃ muñcitvā samiñjito, tasmā puna yathāṭhāne ṭhapetvā samiñjesinti. "Friends, until now I did not bend this arm with a mind separate from the subject of meditation ever since I began to attend to the subject of meditation. Therefore, having put back the arm in the place it was first in, I bent." "Друзья, до этого момента я не сгибал эту руку с мыслью, отдельной от объекта медитации с того момента, как я стал практиковать этот объект. Поэтому вернув руку в исходное положение, я согнул её."
Sādhu, bhante, bhikkhunā nāma evarūpena bhavitabbanti. "Good! Reverend Sir. A bhikkhu should be one who acts thus." "Прекрасно, о почтенный. Монах должен поступать именно так."
Evametthāpi kammaṭṭhānāvijahanameva gocarasampajaññanti veditabbaṃ. Here, too, it should be understood that the non-abandoning of the subject of meditation is clear comprehension of resort. {47} Здесь также следует понимать, что не оставление объекта медитации является осознаванием пастбища.
Abbhantare attā nāma koci samiñjento vā pasārento vā natthi. Within there is no soul that bends or stretches. Нет никого, кто бы сгибал или разгибал.
Vuttappakāracittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphārena pana suttakaḍḍhanavasena dāruyantassa hatthapādalaḷanaṃ viya samiñjanapasāraṇaṃ hotīti evaṃ parijānanaṃ panettha asammohasampajaññanti veditabbaṃ. By the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, bending and stretching occur. Indeed, here, it should be understood that the knowing in this way is clear comprehension of non-delusion. Сгибание и разгибание происходит путём распространения элемента вибрации, порождённого умственной активностью. Здесь следует понимать, что подобное знание является осознаванием отсутствия заблуждения.
Saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇeti ettha saṅghāṭicīvarānaṃ nivāsanapārupanavasena pattassa bhikkhāpaṭiggahaṇādivasena paribhogo dhāraṇaṃ nāma. Tattha saṅghāṭicīvaradhāraṇe tāva nivāsetvā pārupitvā ca piṇḍāya carato āmisalābho «sītassa paṭighātāyā»tiādinā nayena bhagavatā vuttappakāroyeva ca attho attho nāma. 4. Clear comprehension in wearing shoulder-cloak and so forth Sanghati patta civara dharane = "In wearing the shoulder-cloak, the other (two) robes and the bowl." In this connection, purpose is what accrues materially to one, on the almsround, and what is stated by the Blessed One according to the method beginning with the words, "for keeping out cold, for keeping out heat." "Когда он носит накидку, две части одеяния и сосуд для еды": в этой связи целью является то, что поступает во владение монаха во время сбора подаяния и что объяснено Благословенным путём фразы: "для защиты от холода, для защиты от жары".
Tassa vasena sātthakasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. С помощью этой фразы следует понимать осознавание цели.
Uṇhapakatikassa pana dubbalassa ca cīvaraṃ sukhumaṃ sappāyaṃ. Suitable to one who is naturally warm-bodied is fine clothing, and that is suitable to one who is weak, too. Для того, кто от природы имеет сильное телесное тепло, подходит тонкое одеяние, и также это подходит ослабленному.
Sītālukassa ghanaṃ dupaṭṭaṃ. To the susceptible to cold is suitable thick clothing made of two pieces of cloth laid one over the other and stitched together (called also a double cloth), Для склонного мёрзнуть подходит толстое одеяние, сделанное из двух слоёв ткани один над другим, сшитых вместе.
Viparītaṃ asappāyaṃ. Non-suitable to these is clothing contrary to the kind mentioned above. Неподходящим здесь является одеяние, противоположное указанному выше.
Yassa kassaci jiṇṇaṃ asappāyameva. Aggaḷādidāne hissa taṃ palibodhakaraṃ hoti. A worn-out robe is indeed not suitable as that robe will even be hindrance-causing when one patches and sews or darns it. Изношенная одежда не подходит, поскольку она будет создавать препятствия, когда монах будет штопать, шить и латать её.
Tathā paṭṭuṇṇadukūlādibhedaṃ lobhanīyacīvaraṃ. Likewise, hindrance-causing are robes of silk, fine hemp and similar material that stimulate cupidity. Также создающими препятствия являются одежды из шёлка, тонкой конопли и подобных материалов, стимулирующих алчность.
Tādisañhi araññe ekakassa nivāsantarāyakaraṃ jīvitantarāyakaraṃ vāpi hoti. For, to the lone-dweller in the forest such robes are productive of loss of clothing and of life. {48} Ведь для живущего в лесу одиночки такие одежды способны стать причиной утраты одеяний и жизни.
Nippariyāyena pana yaṃ nimittakammādimicchājīvavasena uppannaṃ, yañcassa sevamānassa akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyanti, taṃ asappāyaṃ. The robe acquired by wrong means of livelihood and the robe which decreases the good and increases the bad in the one who wears it, are irreversibly not suitable. {49} Одеяние, полученное недопустимыми средствами заработка на жизнь, которое порождает неблаготворное поведение и уменьшает благотворное поведение носящего его, является неподходящим.
Viparītaṃ sappāyaṃ . Если этого недостатка нет, они являются подходящими.
Tassa vasenettha sappāyasampajaññaṃ, kammaṭṭhānāvijahanavaseneva ca gocarasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. Here, from the foregoing, clear comprehension of the suitable and the non-suitable should be understood; as the holding fast to the line of meditative thought, by way of the non-abandoning of the line of contemplation which the commentator is going to state [vakkhamana kammatthanassa avijahana vasena], clear comprehension of resort should be understood. Из вышесказанного следует понимать осознание подходящего и не подходящего, осознавание пастбища следует понимать через не оставление способа медитации, который будет объяснён далее.
Abbhantare attā nāma koci cīvaraṃ pārupanto natthi. Within there is nothing called a soul that robes itself. Внутри нет ничего, что можно было бы назвать собой, которое одевает себя.
Vuttappakāracittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāreneva pana cīvarapārupanaṃ hoti. According to the method of exposition adopted already, only by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity does the act of robing take place. Акт одевания согласно ранее применявшемуся методу объяснения является лишь распространением элемента вибрации, порождённого умственной активностью.
Tattha cīvarampi acetanaṃ, kāyopi acetano. The robe has no power to think and the body too has not that power. У одеяния нет способности мыслить и у тела также нет такой способности.
Cīvaraṃ na jānāti «mayā kāyo pāruto»ti. The robe is not aware of the fact that it is draping the body, Одеяние не знает, что оно одевает тело.
Kāyopi na jānāti «ahaṃ cīvarena pāruto»ti, dhātuyova dhātusamūhaṃ paṭicchādenti paṭapilotikāya potthakarūpapaṭicchādane viya. and the body too of itself does not think: "I am being draped round with the robe.," Mere processes clothe a process-heap, in the same way that a modelled figure is covered with a piece of cloth. И тело также само по себе не знает "Вокруг меня обматывают одеяние". Лишь первичные элементы одевают нагромождение из первичных элементов подобно фигурке, обматываемой куском ткани.
Tasmā neva sundaraṃ cīvaraṃ labhitvā somanassaṃ kātabbaṃ, na asundaraṃ labhitvā domanassaṃ. Therefore, there is neither room for elation on getting a fine robe nor for depression on getting one that is not fine. {50} Поэтому нет оснований для радости при получении прекрасных одеяний, и нет оснований для уныния при получении одеяний низкого качества.
Nāgavammikacetiyarukkhādīsu hi keci mālāgandhadhūmavatthādīhi sakkāraṃ karonti, keci gūthamuttakaddamadaṇḍasatthappahārādīhi asakkāraṃ, na te nāgavammikarukkhādayo somanassaṃ vā domanassaṃ vā karonti evameva neva sundaraṃ cīvaraṃ labhitvā somanassaṃ kātabbaṃ, na asundaraṃ labhitvā domanassanti evaṃ pavattapaṭisaṅkhānavasena panettha asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. Some honor an ant-hill where a cobra de capello lives, a tree-shrine, and so forth, with garlands, perfumes, incense, cloth, and similar things. Others maltreat these objects. Ant-hill, tree-shrine and the like are, however, neither elated by the good nor depressed by the bad treatment. Just in the same way there should be no elation on receiving a good robe or depression on getting a bad one. Clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood, in this connection, as the proceeding of reflective thought, in this way. Некоторые оказывают почтение гирляндами, духами, благовониями, тканями и прочими вещами муравейнику с живущей в нём коброй, священному дереву и т.п. Но муравейник и священное дерево не радуются и не горюют от хорошего или плохого отношения к себе. Таким же образом не должно быть радости или горя при получении хорошего или плохого одеяния. Осознание отсутствия заблуждения следует понимать в этой связи как наличие подобных размышлений.
Pattadhāraṇepi pattaṃ sahasāva aggahetvā imaṃ gahetvā piṇḍāya caramāno bhikkhaṃ labhissāmīti evaṃ pattagahaṇapaccayā paṭilabhitabbaatthavasena sātthakasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. And in using the bowl, clear comprehension of purpose should be understood, by way of the benefit obtainable through the action of one who takes the bowl unhurriedly and thinks: "Going out to beg with this I shall get alms."{51} В использовании сосуда для подаяния осознание цели следует понимать путём пользы, приобретаемой благодаря действиям того, кто берёт сосуд без спешки и думает: "Я пойду с ним и получу подаяние".
Kisadubbalasarīrassa pana garu patto asappāyo. To one with a lean body which is weak a heavy bowl is not suitable. Для человека с тощим и слабым телом тяжёлый сосуд является неподходящим.
Yassa kassaci catupañcagaṇḍikāhato dubbisodhanīyo asappāyova. And not suitable is a damaged bowl that is tied with thread and stopped in four or five places and hard to wash properly. И также неподходящим является повреждённый сосуд, связанный верёвкой и прохудившийся в 4 или 5 местах, что затрудняет его мытьё.
Duddhotapatto hi na vaṭṭati, taṃ dhovantasseva cassa palibodho hoti. A bowl that is hard to wash well, certainly, is not fit. There will be inconvenience caused to him who washes that kind of bowl. {52} И конечно, сосуд, который трудно вымыть как следует, не подходит. Для моющего такой сосуд будут возникать трудности.
Maṇivaṇṇapatto pana lobhanīyo cīvare vuttanayeneva asappāyo. A bright bowl which shines like a gem and therefore is capable of stimulating the cupidity of others is not suitable for the same reasons given in regard to robes of silk, fine hemp and so forth. Блестящий сосуд, сверкающий как драгоценный камень и способный вызвать алчность у других является неподходящим по тем же причинам, как и одеяния из шёлка, тонкой конопли и т.д.
Nimittakammādivasena laddho pana yañcassa sevamānassa akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyanti, ayaṃ ekantaasappāyova. Just irreversibly unsuitable are the bowl acquired by wrong means of livelihood and the bowl by which good decreases and evils increase. Непоправимо неподходящим является сосуд, приобретённый недопустимыми способами заработка на жизнь, а также такой сосуд, благодаря которому неблаготворные виды поведения возрастают, а благотворные - уменьшаются.
Viparīto sappāyo. Сосуд лишённый этих недостатков является подходящим.
Tassa vasenettha sappāyasampajaññaṃ, kammaṭṭhānāvijahanavaseneva ca gocarasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. Through this explanation, clear comprehension of suitability in this connection should be understood. And by the fact even of the holding fast to the subject of meditation should clear comprehension of resort be understood. Осознавание подходящего в этом отношении следует понимать с помощью этого объяснения. Осознавание пастбища следует понимать через крепкое удерживание объекта медитации.
Abbhantare attā nāma koci pattaṃ gaṇhanto natthi. Within there is nothing called a self that is taking the bowl. Внутри нет кого-либо, кто берёт сосуд.
Vuttappakāracittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāreneva pana pattaggahaṇaṃ nāma hoti. As stated already, by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, there is the taking of the bowl. Как уже говорилось, путём распространения элемента вибрации, порождённого умственной активностью, осуществляется взятие сосуда.
Tattha pattopi acetano, hatthāpi acetanā. In this matter of taking the bowl, the bowl cannot think. Hands too cannot think. В процессе взятия сосуда сосуд не может думать. Руки также на это не способны.
Patto na jānāti «ahaṃ hatthehi gahito»ti. The bowl does not cognize that it is taken by the hands. Сосуд не знает, что его взяли в руки.
Hatthāpi na jānanti «patto amhehi gahito»ti. Hands do not cognize that the bowl is taken by them. И руки не знают, что они взяли сосуд.
Dhātuyova dhātusamūhaṃ gaṇhanti saṇḍāsena aggivaṇṇapattaggahaṇe viyāti evaṃ pavattapaṭisaṅkhānavasenettha asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. Just processes take a process-heap. It is comparable to the taking of a red-hot vessel with a pair of tongs. By way of the proceeding of reflective thought in this way, clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood in bowl-taking. Лишь элементы берут скопление элементов. Это подобно взятию щипцами раскалённого докрасна сосуда. Путём размышления в этой последовательности следует понимать осознание отсутствия неведения во взятии сосуда.
Apica yathā chinnahatthapāde vaṇamukhehi paggharitapubbalohitakimikule nīlamakkhikasamparikiṇṇe anāthasālāyaṃ nipanne anāthamanusse disvā dayālukā purisā tesaṃ vaṇapaṭṭacoḷakāni ceva kapālādīhi ca bhesajjāni upanāmenti. And further, it is like this: When kindly people see, in a refuge for the helpless, unfortunate persons, with hands and feet cut off, and with blood, pus, and many maggots in the open wounds, and give to the unfortunate persons bandages and medicine in containers, И также следующий пример: когда милосердные люди видят в убежище беспомощных, несчастных людей с отрезанными руками и ногами, с кровью, гноем и личинками в открытых ранах, они подают несчастным повязки и лекарства в сосудах.
Tattha coḷakānipi kesañci saṇhāni, kesañci thūlāni pāpuṇanti. some of the miserable sufferers in the refuge may get thick bandages and containers not shapely; Некоторые из больных могут получить толстые повязки и некрасивые сосуды с лекарствами,
Bhesajjakapālakānipi kesañci susaṇṭhānāni, kesañci dussaṇṭhānāni pāpuṇanti, na te tattha sumanā vā dummanā vā honti. others may get thin bandages and shapely containers. None of the sufferers will feel elated or depressed about the kind of bandages and containers they receive. другие могут получить тонкие повязки и красивые сосуды. Но никто из больных не будет радоваться или печалиться на предмет полученных повязок и сосудов с лекарствами.
Vaṇappaṭicchādanamatteneva hi coḷakena bhesajjapaṭiggahaṇamatteneva ca kapālakena tesamattho, evameva yo bhikkhu vaṇacoḷakaṃ viya cīvaraṃ, bhesajjakapālakaṃ viya pattaṃ, kapāle bhesajjamiva ca patte laddhaṃ bhikkhaṃ sallakkheti. Ayaṃ saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe asammohasampajaññena uttamasampajānakārīti veditabbo. That is because they merely want cloth to cover their wounds and containers for keeping medicine. Now, the bhikkhu who regards the robe as a bandage, the bowl as a medicine-container, and alms-food as medicine in the bowl, through clear comprehension of non-delusion should be taken as a person endowed with the highest clear comprehension. {53} Дело в том, что им всего лишь нужна ткань для закрытия ран и сосуды для хранения лекарства. Монах, с помощью осознания отсутствия неведения считающий одеяние повязкой, сосуд для подаяния сосудом для лекарства, еду, полученную как подаяние как лекарство в сосуде, является монахом, обладающим осознанием в высшей мере.
Asitādīsu asiteti piṇḍapātabhojane.
Pīteti yāguādipāne.
Khāyiteti piṭṭhakhajjakādikhādane.
Sāyiteti madhuphāṇitādisāyane.
Tattha «neva davāyā»tiādinā nayena vutto aṭṭhavidhopi attho attho nāma. 5. Clear comprehension in the partaking of food and drink As to purpose, there is the eightfold purpose referred to with the words, "Not for sport" and so forth in the formula of reflection on the four requisites of a bhikkhu. В части цели существует восьмеричная цель, описываемая фразой, начинающейся с "не для развлечения" и т.д.
Tassa vasena sātthakasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. As such should clear comprehension of purpose be known. Именно так следует понимать осознание цели.
Lūkhapaṇītatittamadhurādīsu pana yena bhojanena yassa aphāsu hoti, taṃ tassa asappāyaṃ. Non-suitable to one is the food by which to that one there is discomfort, whatever the food may be in quality or taste: coarse or fine or bitter or sweet or anything else. {Suitable is food that does not cause discomfort.} Неподходящей является еда, вызывающая неприятные ощущения, без разницы каково её качество или вкус: грубая или утончённая, горькая или сладкая и т.п.
Yaṃ pana nimittakammādivasena paṭiladdhaṃ, yañcassa bhuñjato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyanti, taṃ ekantaasappāyameva. Just irreversibly non-suitable are these: the food acquired by wrong means of livelihood and the food by which good decreases and evils increase in one who partakes of it. Непоправимо неподходящей являются следующие виды пищи: пища, полученная недопустимыми средствами заработка на жизнь, а также пища, благодаря которому неблаготворные виды поведения возрастают, а благотворные - уменьшаются.
Viparītaṃ sappāyaṃ. Food which is got by right means and food which does not cause decrease of good and increase of evil in the one taking it are suitable. Пища, лишённая этих недостатков является подходящей.
Tassa vasenettha sappāyasampajaññaṃ, kammaṭṭhānāvijahanavaseneva ca gocarasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. In this matter of the partaking of food, clear comprehension of suitability should be understood according to the explanation given above, and the clear comprehension of resort should be understood by way of the non-abandoning of the subject of meditation. В принятии пищи осознавание подходящего следует понимать согласно данному объяснению выше, а осознавание пастбища следует понимать путём неоставления объекта медитации.
Abbhantare attā nāma koci bhuñjako natthi, vuttappakāracittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāravaseneva pana pattapaṭiggahaṇaṃ nāma hoti. Within there is no eater called a self. As stated already, by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, only, there is the receiving of food in the bowl; Внутри нет какого-либо "меня", кто ест. Как уже говорилось, лишь благодаря распространению элемента вибрации, возникшего от умственной деятельности, происходит принятие поданной пищи в сосуд.
Cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāreneva hatthassa patte otāraṇaṃ nāma hoti. by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, only, there is the descent of the hand into the bowl; Лишь благодаря распространению элемента вибрации, возникшего от умственной деятельности, происходит опускание руки в сосуд.
Cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāreneva ālopakaraṇaṃ ālopauddharaṇaṃ mukhavivaraṇañca hoti. and by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, only, the making of the food into suitable lumps, the raising of the lumps from the bowl, and the opening of the mouth take place. Лишь благодаря распространению элемента вибрации, возникшего от умственной деятельности, происходит формирование комков пищи, поднятие комков из сосуда и открытие рта.
Na koci kuñcikāya yantakena ca hanukaṭṭhīni vivarati, cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāreneva ālopassa mukhe ṭhapanaṃ, uparidantānaṃ musalakiccasādhanaṃ, heṭṭhādantānaṃ udukkhalakiccasādhanaṃ, jivhāya hatthakiccasādhanañca hoti. No one opens the jaws with a key. No one opens the jaws with a contrivance. Just by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, take place the putting of a lump of food in the mouth, the pestle-action of the upper row of teeth, the mortar-work of the lower row of teeth, and the tongue's activity comparable to that of the hand collecting together material that is being crushed. Никто не открывает челюсти ключом или с помощью приспособления. Лишь благодаря распространению элемента вибрации, возникшего от умственной деятельности, происходит помещение комка пищи в рот, пестикоподобное действие зубов верхней челюсти, ступкоподобное действие зубов нижней челюсти и действие языка, сравнимое с работой руки по собиранию материала, который крошится (в ступке).
Iti taṃ tattha aggajivhāya tanukakheḷo mūlajivhāya bahalakheḷo makkheti. Thus that lump of food in the mouth is mixed together with the thin saliva at the end of the tongue and the thick saliva at the root of the tongue. Таким образом этот комок пищи во рту смешивается с жидкой слюной на конце языка и с густой слюной у корня языка.
Taṃ heṭṭhādantaudukkhale jivhāhatthaparivattitaṃ kheḷaudakatemitaṃ uparidantamusalasañcuṇṇitaṃ koci kaṭacchunā vā dabbiyā vā antopavesento nāma natthi, vāyodhātuyāva pavisati. That food in the mortar of the lower teeth, turned by the tongue, moistened by the saliva, and ground fine by the pestle of the upper teeth is not put into the stomach by anyone with a ladle or a spoon. Just by the process of oscillation it goes on. Эта пища в ступке нижних зубов перевёрнутая языком, смоченная слюной и раздробленная на мелкие куски пестиком верхних зубов не помещается кем-либо в живот с помощью ложки или половника. Это происходит лишь благодаря элементу вибрации.
Paviṭṭhaṃ paviṭṭhaṃ koci palālasantharaṃ katvā dhārento nāma natthi, vāyodhātuvaseneva tiṭṭhati. There is no one within who having made a straw mat is bearing each lump that goes in. Each lump stands by reason of the process of oscillation. Внутри нет никого, кто, сделав матрас из соломы, принимает каждый попавший внутрь комок. Каждый комок оказывается там благодаря элементу вибрации.
Ṭhitaṃ ṭhitaṃ koci uddhanaṃ katvā aggiṃ jāletvā pacanto nāma natthi, tejodhātuyāva paccati. There is no one who having put up an oven and lit a fire is cooking each lump standing there. By only the process of caloricity the lump of food matures. Там нет никого, кто установив печь разжигает огонь и готовит каждый попавший туда комок. Лишь благодаря стихии огня каждый комок переваривается.
Pakkaṃ pakkaṃ koci daṇḍena vā yaṭṭhiyā vā bahi nīhārako nāma natthi, vāyodhātuyeva nīharati. There is no one who expels each digested lump with a stick or pole. Just the process of oscillation expels the digested food. Там нет никого кто выбрасывает каждый переваренный комок с помощью палочки или шеста. Лишь благодаря элементу вибрации он выходит.
Iti vāyodhātu atiharati ca vītiharati ca dhāreti ca parivatteti ca sañcuṇṇeti visoseti ca nīharati ca. It is oscillation [vayodhatu] that does the taking onward, the moving away from side to side; and it is oscillation that bears, turns round, pulverizes, causes the removal of liquidity, and expels. Именно элемент вибрации занимается проталкиванием вперёд и перемещением из стороны в сторону. Именно элемент вибрации держит, поворачивает, дробит, приводит к удалению жидкости и выталкивает.
Pathavīdhātu dhāreti ca parivatteti ca sañcuṇṇeti ca visoseti ca. Extension [pathavidhatu] also does bearing up, turning round, pulverizing and the removal of liquidity. Элемент твёрдости также исполняет удерживание, дробление и удаление жидкости.
Āpodhātu sineheti ca allattañca anupāleti. Cohesion (apodhatu] moistens and preserves wetness. Элемент жидкости увлажняет и сохраняет влажность.
Tejodhātu antopaviṭṭhaṃ paripāceti. Caloricity [tejodhatu] ripens or digests the food that goes in. Элемент тепла переваривает попавшую внутрь пищу.
Ākāsadhātu añjaso hoti. Space [akasadhatu] becomes the way for the entering of the food. Элемент пространства является путём для вхождения пищи.
Viññāṇadhātu tattha tattha sammāpayogamanvāya ābhujatīti evaṃpavattapaṭisaṅkhānavasenettha asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. Consciousness [viññanadhatu] as a consequence of right kind of action knows in any particular situation. According to reflection of this sort, should the clear comprehension of non-delusion be understood here.{54} Элемент сознания как следствие надлежащего действия постигает каждую ситуацию. Согласно подобному рассуждению здесь следует понимать осознание отсутствия неведения.
Apica gamanato pariyesanato paribhogato āsayato nidhānato aparipakkato paripakkato phalato nissandato sammakkhaṇatoti evaṃ dasavidhapaṭikūlabhāvapaccavekkhaṇatopettha asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. Further, the clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood through reflection on the unpleasantness connected with food, in the following ten ways: By way of the need to go to get it (1), to seek it (2), the process of eating it (3), by way of the receptacle (in the form of secretion of bile, and so forth) (4), by way of the belly (5), by way of food that is undigested (6), by way of food that is digested (7), by way of the consequences of eating (8), by way of the trickling or oozing of food from the body's openings in the form of excretions (9), and by way of the pollution due to food (10). И кроме того, осознание отсутствия неведения следует понимать путём размышления о непривлекательности, связанной с пищей следующими десятью способами: (1) путём необходимости идти за ней, (2) путём её поиска, (3) путём поглощения её, (4) путём принимающей полости (в формы выделения желчи и прочего), (5) путём живота, (6) путём непереваренной пищи, (7) путём переваренной пищи, (8) путём последствий принятий пищи, (9) вытекания пищи из отверстий тела в форме выделений, (10) путём загрязнения из-за еды.
Vitthārakathā panettha visuddhimagge āhārapaṭikūlasaññāniddesato gahetabbā. The detailed exposition of the contemplation on the unpleasantness connected with food is given in the Path of Purity (and its commentary, The Casket of the Highest Thing, Paramattha Mañjusa).{55} Подробное объяснение распознавания непривлекательности, связанного с пищей, даётся в Висуддхимагге. В сноске эта десятка разбирается. Нужно ли переводить фрагмент Висм.?
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Uccārapassāvakammeti uccārassa ca passāvassa ca karaṇe. 6. Clear comprehension of cleansing the body Uccara passavakamme = In defecating and in urinating" means: When the time is come, when the time is proper, "Когда испражняется и мочится" означает когда пришло время, когда должное время.
Tattha pattakāle uccārapassāvaṃ akarontassa sakalasarīrato sedā muccanti, akkhīni bhamanti, cittaṃ na ekaggaṃ hoti, aññe ca rogā uppajjanti. if one does not defecate or urinate, then, one's body perspires, one's eyes reel, one's mind is not collected, and illness in the form of sharp pain, fistula, and so forth arise for one. Если человек не испражняется или не мочится, его тело начинает потеть, глаза начинают блуждать, ум не собран и возникают болезни в форме острой боли, свищей и прочего.
Karontassa pana sabbaṃ taṃ na hotīti ayamettha attho. But to one who defecates and urinates at the proper time none of these discomforts, disadvantages, troubles and illnesses arise. This is the sense in which this matter should be understood, Но у того, кто в должное время испражняется и мочится такие проблемы не возникают. Так нужно понимать этот вопрос.
Tassa vasena sātthakasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. and in this sense should clear comprehension of purpose in defecation and urination be taken. И так следует понимать осознавание цели испражнения и мочеиспускания.
Aṭṭhāne uccārapassāvaṃ karontassa pana āpatti hoti, ayaso vaḍḍhati, jīvitantarāyo hoti. By defecating or urinating in an improper place, one commits disciplinary offences, one goes on getting a bad name, and one endangers one's life.{56} Испражняясь и мочась в неподходящем месте монах совершает нарушение, у него растёт дурная репутация и он подвергает угрозе свою жизнь.
Patirūpe ṭhāne karontassa sabbaṃ taṃ na hotīti idamettha sappāyaṃ. But to one evacuating the bowels or the bladder in a place suitable for such evacuation those offences or troubles just mentioned above have no reference. Но испражняющийся и мочащийся в подходящем для этого месте свободен от нарушений и проблем, перечисленных выше. Это является подходящим.
Tassa vasena sappāyasampajaññaṃ, kammaṭṭhānāvijahanavaseneva ca gocarasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. And by way of that fitness of place, clear comprehension of suitability should be understood. By the non-abandoning of the subject of meditation, clear comprehension of resort should be understood. И благодаря подходящему месту следует понимать осознание подходящего. Осознание пастбища следует понимать путём неоставления объекта медитации.
Abbhantare attā nāma koci uccārapassāvaṃ karonto natthi. Within there is no doer of the act of defecation or urination. Внутри нет кого-либо, кто исполнял акт испражнения или мочеиспускания.
Cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphāreneva pana uccārapassāvakammaṃ hoti. Only by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity defecation and urination occur, . Только путём распространения элемента вибрации, порождённого умственной активностью, происходит испражнение и мочеиспускание.
Yathā pana pakke gaṇḍe gaṇḍabhedena pubbalohitaṃ akāmatāya nikkhamati, yathā ca atibharitā udakabhājanā udakaṃ akāmatāya nikkhamati, evaṃ pakkāsayamuttavatthīsu sannicitā uccārapassāvā vāyuvegasamuppīḷitā akāmatāyapi nikkhamanti. just as in a matured boil, by the bursting of the boil, pus and blood come out without any kind of wishing to come out and just as from an overfull water-pot water comes out without any desire for coming out, so too, the feces and urine accumulated in the abdomen and the bladder are pressed out by the force of the process of oscillation Как у вызревшего фурункула когда он лопнул гной и кровь выходят без какого-либо желаний выйти или как из переполненного сосуда вода вытекает без какого-либо желаний вытечь, так и кал и моча, накопившиеся в животе и мочевом пузыре выталкиваются силой стихии колебаний.
So panāyaṃ evaṃ nikkhamanto uccārapassāvo neva tassa bhikkhuno attano hoti, na parassa. Certainly this feces-and-urine coming out thus is neither that bhikkhu's own nor another's. Этот кал и моча не являются принадлежащими монаху или принадлежащими кому-то другому.
Kevalaṃ sarīranissandova hoti. It is just bodily excretion. Этого всего лишь выделения тела.
Yathā kiṃ? Как что?
Yathā udakakumbhato purāṇaudakaṃ chaḍḍentassa neva taṃ attano hoti, na paresaṃ. When from a water-vessel or calabash a person throws out the old water, the water thrown out is neither his nor other's. Когда из сосуда или пустой тыквы человек выливает старую воду, вылитая вода не принадлежит ни ему ни кому-то другому.
Kevalaṃ paṭijagganamattameva hoti. It simply forms parts of a process of cleansing. Она лишь образует часть процесса очищения.
Evaṃpavattapaṭisaṅkhānavasenettha asammohasampajaññaṃ veditabbaṃ. In the form of reflection proceeding in this way clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood. В форме такого рассуждения следует понимать осознание отсутствия неведения.
Gatādīsu gateti gamane. Ṭhiteti ṭhāne. Nisinneti nisajjāya. Sutteti sayane. Jāgariteti jāgaraṇe. Bhāsiteti kathane. Tuṇhībhāveti akathane. 7. Clear comprehension of walking and so forth Now we come to the explanation of the instruction dealing with clear comprehension "in walking, in standing in a place, in sitting in some position, in sleeping, in walking, in speaking and in keeping silence" = Gate thite nisinne sutte jagarite bhasite tunhibhave. Во фрагменте "Когда идёт"... "Когда идёт" - в процессе ходьбы, "когда стоит" - в положении стоя на месте, "когда сидит" - сидя на месте, "когда засыпает" - засыпая, "Когда пробуждается" - бодрствуя, "когда разговаривает" - говорит, "когда молчит" - не говорит.
«Gacchanto vā gacchāmīti pajānāti, ṭhito vā ṭhitomhīti pajānāti, nisinno vā nisinnomhīti pajānāti, sayāno vā sayānomhīti pajānātī»ti imasmiñhi ṭhāne addhānairiyāpathā kathitā. By the words: "When he is going a bhikkhu understands 'I am going,'" and so froth, postures of long duration are indicated. Словами "Когда он идёт, он распознаёт "иду" и т.д. описываются положения тела большой продолжительности.
«Abhikkante paṭikkante ālokite vilokite samiñjite pasārite»ti imasmiṃ majjhimā. And by the words, "in going forwards and backwards... in bending and in stretching," postures of middling duration; Словами "шагает вперёд и назад... сгибает и разгибает конечности" описываются положения тела средней продолжительности.
«Gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite»ti idha pana khuddakacuṇṇikairiyāpathā kathitā. and by the words, "in walking, in standing... In sleeping," postures of short, brief duration. Слова "когда идёт, стоит, сидит, засыпает, пробуждается" описываются положения тела короткой продолжительности.
Tasmā etesupi vuttanayeneva sampajānakāritā veditabbā. Therefore in these three parts of the instruction the practicing of clear comprehension should be known even by the triple method stated here.{57} Поэтому в этих трёх частях следует понимать указания по практике осознавания тройным методом, описанным здесь.
Tipiṭakamahāsīvatthero panāha : yo ciraṃ gantvā vā caṅkamitvā vā aparabhāge ṭhito iti paṭisañcikkhati «caṅkamanakāle pavattā rūpārūpadhammā ettheva niruddhā»ti, ayaṃ gate sampajānakārī nāma. The Elder Tipitaka Maha Siva indeed said: Who, after walking or exercising long in the ambulatory, stands and reflects: "The bodily and mental things which existed during the time of exercises on the ambulatory ended just there on the ambulatory," is called a doer of clear comprehension in walking. Старейшина Типитака Махасива сказал: "Тот, кто после длительного путешествия или хождения (по дорожке для ходьбы) стоит и размышляет "Умственные и телесные процессы, существовавшие во время хождения по дорожке закончились именно здесь" является практикующим осознавание ходьбы.
Yo sajjhāyaṃ vā karonto pañhaṃ vā vissajjento kammaṭṭhānaṃ vā manasikaronto ciraṃ ṭhatvā aparabhāge nisinno iti paṭisañcikkhati «ṭhitakāle pavattā rūpārūpadhammā ettheva niruddhā»ti, ayaṃ ṭhite sampajānakārī nāma. When, after standing for a long time in study or answering a question or minding a subject of meditation, sits and reflects: "The bodily and mental things which existed during the time of standing ended just at the time of standing," is called a doer of clear comprehension in standing. Когда простояв длительное время в обучении, отвечая на вопрос или внимая объекту медитации он садится и размышляет: "Умственные и телесные процессы, существовавшие во время стояния закончились именно здесь" является практикующим осознавание стояния.
Yo sajjhāyādikaraṇavaseneva ciraṃ nisīditvā aparabhāge nipanno iti paṭisañcikkhati «nisinnakāle pavattā rūpārūpadhammā ettheva niruddhā»ti, ayaṃ nisinne sampajānakārī nāma. Who, after sitting for a long time in study or other similar work, lies down and reflects: "The bodily and mental things which existed when sitting ended just at the time of sitting," is called a doer of clear comprehension in sitting. Когда просидев длительное время, занимаясь обучением или другой подобной работой, человек ложится и думает: "Умственные и телесные процессы, существовавшие во время сидения закончились именно тогда" является практикующим осознавание сидения.
Yo pana nipannako sajjhāyaṃ vā karonto kammaṭṭhānaṃ vā manasikaronto niddaṃ okkamitvā aparabhāge vuṭṭhāya iti paṭisañcikkhati «sayanakāle pavattā rūpārūpadhammā ettheva niruddhā»ti, ayaṃ sutte jāgarite ca sampajānakārī nāma. Who, after lying down falls asleep, and, then, after getting up from his sleep, reflects: "The bodily and mental things which existed during the time of sleep ended just during sleep," is called a doer of clear comprehension in sleeping and waking.{58} Тот, кто улёгся и заснул и потом проснувшись думает: "Умственные и телесные процессы, существовавшие во время сна закончились именно здесь" является практикующим осознавание засыпания и пробуждения.
Kiriyamayacittānañhi appavattaṃ suttaṃ nāma, pavattaṃ jāgaritaṃ nāmāti. The non-occurrence of processes which make action or are made of action is sleep; the occurrence, waking. {59} Отсутствие проявления процессов, составляющих собой дела или состоящих из дел является сном, проявление их является бодрствованием.
Yo pana bhāsamāno «ayaṃ saddo nāma oṭṭhe ca paṭicca dante ca jivhañca tāluñca paṭicca cittassa tadanurūpaṃ payogaṃ paṭicca jāyatī»ti sato sampajāno bhāsati, ciraṃ vā pana kālaṃ sajjhāyaṃ vā katvā dhammaṃ vā kathetvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ vā parivattetvā pañhaṃ vā vissajjetvā aparabhāge tuṇhībhūto iti paṭisañcikkhati «bhāsitakāle uppannā rūpārūpadhammā ettheva niruddhā»ti, ayaṃ bhāsite sampajānakārī nāma. He who whilst speaking thinks: "This sound arises dependent on the lips, teeth, tongue, palate, and the act of the mind that accords to that sound," speaks, mindful and clearly comprehending. He who for a long time has studied or expounded the Teaching or recited the words of the subject of meditation, or cleared a question, and later, on becoming silent, thinks: "The bodily and mental things which arose during the time of speaking ended just then," is called a doer of clear comprehension in speaking. Тот, кто во время разговора думает "Этот звук возникает в зависимости от губ, зубов, языка, нёба и действий ума, согласующихся с этим звуком" говорит осознанно и с памятованием. Тот, кто длительное время изучал или объяснял Учение, или декламировал формулу объекта медитации или прояснял вопрос, после чего замолчал и думает: "Умственные и телесные процессы, существовавшие во время разговора закончились именно тогда" - он является практикующим осознавания разговора.
Yo tuṇhībhūto ciraṃ dhammaṃ vā kammaṭṭhānaṃ vā manasikatvā aparabhāge iti paṭisañcikkhati «tuṇhībhūtakāle pavattā rūpārūpadhammā ettheva niruddhā, upādārūpapavattiyā sati bhāsati nāma, asati tuṇhī bhavati nāmā»ti, ayaṃ tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī nāmāti. He who, after remaining silent long considering the Teaching or his subject of meditation, thinks that the bodily and mental things that existed in the time of silence ended just then, that the occurrence of derived material qualities is speech, and that the non-occurrence of these is silence, is called a doer of clear comprehension in keeping silence. Тот, кто сохраняя молчание долго обдумывал учение или объект медитации, думает, что умственные и телесные процессы, существовавшие в процессе молчания закончились именно тогда, что проявление производных материальных составляющих является речью и что невозникновение их является тишиной, зовётся практикующим осознавание молчания.
Tayidaṃ mahāsīvattherena vuttaṃ asammohadhuraṃ imasmiṃ satipaṭṭhānasutte adhippetaṃ. This dominance of non-delusion stated by the Elder Maha Siva is intended here in this Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness. Преобладание отсутствия неведения, высказанное старейшиной Махасивой подразумевается в этом наставлении о способах установления памятования.
Sāmaññaphale pana sabbampi catubbidhaṃ sampajaññaṃ labbhati. But in the Discourse on the Fruit of the Homeless Life (Samañña phala Sutta) even the entire fourfold clear comprehension is found. Но в наставлении о плодах отшельничества (ДН2) присутствует целое четырёхчастное осознание.
Tasmā visesato ettha asammohasampajaññasseva vasena sampajānakāritā veditabbā. Therefore in a special way, here, only by way of clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood the state of doing clear comprehension. {60} Поэтому здесь практику осознавания следует понимать особым образом - через осознание отсутствия неведения.
Sampajānakārī sampajānakārīti ca sabbapadesu satisampayuttasseva sampajaññassa vasenattho veditabbo. In all statements the meaning of the term "clear comprehension" should be understood by way of only clear comprehension that is endowed with mindfulness. Во всех предложениях смысл слова "осознавание" следует понимать путём осознавания, которое обладает памятованием.
Vibhaṅgappakaraṇe pana, «sato sampajāno abhikkamati, sato sampajāno paṭikkamatī»ti (vibha. 523) evametāni padāni vibhattāneva. Indeed in the Book of Classifications (Vibhangappakarana) these are put just in this way: "One goes forward, mindful and clearly comprehending; one goes backwards, mindful and clearly comprehending." [26]{61} И действительно, в Вибханге они выражены следующим образом: "Он шагает вперёд осознанно и с памятованием, он шагает назад осознанно и с памятованием".
Iti ajjhattaṃ vāti evaṃ catusampajaññapariggahaṇena attano vā kāye, parassa vā kāye, kālena vā attano, kālena vā parassa kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." Thus the bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body by way of the laying hold of the fourfold comprehension either in his own body or in another's body, or at one time in his own body, and in another's at another time. "Так ... внутренне" - так монах живёт отслеживая тело в теле путём удерживания четырёхчастного осознавания в своём теле или в теле другого, или в одно время в своём теле, а в другое время в теле другого.
Idha samudayavayadhammānupassītiādīsu rūpakkhandhasseva samudayo ca vayo ca nīharitabbo. And, here too, "in contemplating origination" and so forth, the origin and the dissolution of only the materiality aggregate should, in the exposition, be taken out. И здесь тоже "отслеживая возникновение" и т.д. возникновение и исчезновение только совокупности тел должно быть взято из [ранее приведённого] объяснения.
Sesaṃ vuttasadisameva. The remainder is to be understood just by the method already stated by the commentator. Остальное следует понимать как было объяснено.
Idha catusampajaññapariggāhikā sati dukkhasaccaṃ, tassā samuṭṭhāpikā purimataṇhā samudayasaccaṃ, ubhinnaṃ appavatti nirodhasaccaṃ, vuttappakāro ariyamaggo maggasaccaṃ. Here, the Truth of Suffering is the mindfulness which lays hold of the fourfold clear comprehension; the Truth of Origination is the pre-craving which originates that mindfulness; the non-occurrence of either is the Truth of Cessation; the Real Path already stated is the Way-truth.
Evaṃ catusaccavasena ussakkitvā nibbutiṃ pāpuṇātīti idamekassa catusampajaññapariggāhakassa bhikkhuno vasena yāva arahattā niyyānamukhanti. Thus, the bhikkhu having striven by way of the Four Noble Truths reaches peace. This is indeed the means of deliverance up to arahantship of one who lays hold of the fourfold clear comprehension.
Catusampajaññapabbavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.
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Редакция перевода от 23.06.2019 10:51