Комментарий к 17 строфе - история Дэвадатты (devadattavatthu)

Опубликовано khantibalo от 19 апреля, 2017 - 17:22

Краткий пересказ истории из Виная Питаки, содержащий отсутствующий в ней фрагмент о кончине Дэвадатты.

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Английский E.W. Burlingame
Русский Рената, Кхантибало
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История Сарипутты и Моггаланы - PTS DhPA 1.87
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Пали - CST Английский - E.W. Burlingame Русский - Рената, Кхантибало Комментарии
Idha tappatīti imaṃ dhammadesanaṃ satthā jetavane viharanto devadattaṃ ārabbha kathesi. "Here he suffers" This religious instruction was given by the Teacher while in residence at Jetavana with reference to Devadatta.
Devadattassa vatthu pabbajitakālato paṭṭhāya yāva pathavippavesanā devadattaṃ ārabbha bhāsitāni sabbāni jātakāni vitthāretvā kathitaṃ. The story of Devadatta, from the time he became a monk to the time the earth opened and swallowed him up, is related in all the Jātakas.
Ayaṃ panettha saṅkhepo : satthari anupiyaṃ nāma mallānaṃ nigamo atthi. Taṃ nissāya anupiyambavane viharanteyeva tathāgatassa lakkhaṇapaṭiggahaṇadivaseyeva asītisahassehi ñātikulehi «rājā vā hotu, buddho vā, khattiyaparivārova vicarissatī»ti asītisahassaputtā paṭiññātā. The following is a synopsis of the story: While the Teacher was in residence at Anupiya Mango-grove, which lies near Anupiya, a market-town of the Mallas, eighty thousand [28.231] kinsmen one day recognized on him the Characteristics of a Tathāgata, and eighty thousand youths asserted, “Let him be a king or a Buddha, he will spend his days surrounded by a retinue of Warrior-princes.”
Tesu yebhuyyena pabbajitesu bhaddiyaṃ nāma rājānaṃ, anuruddhaṃ, ānandaṃ, bhaguṃ, kimilaṃ, devadattanti ime cha sakye apabbajante disvā, «mayaṃ attano putte pabbājema, ime cha sakyā na ñātakā maññe, kasmā na pabbajantī»ti? kathaṃ samuṭṭhāpesuṃ. After all but six of these youths had retired from the world and become monks, the company of princes, observing that the six Sakyan princes, King Bhaddiya, Anuruddha, Ānanda, Bhagu, Kimbila, and Devadatta, had not yet retired from the world, discussed the matter as follows, “We admit only our own sons to the Order. But of course these six Sakyan princes are not kinsmen of the Buddha. For this reason, doubtless, they have not retired from the world and become monks.”
Atha kho mahānāmo sakyo anuruddhaṃ upasaṅkamitvā, «tāta, amhākaṃ kulā pabbajito natthi, tvaṃ vā pabbaja, ahaṃ vā pabbajissāmī»ti āha. Now one day the Sakyan prince Mahānāma approached Anuruddha and said, “Friend, there isn’t one of our family who has become a monk. You become a monk and I will follow your example. ” Однажды сакья Маханама подошёл к Ануруддхе и сказал: "Любезный, из нашей семьи никто так и не стал монахом. Давай или ты станешь монахом или я стану". Интересно откуда у Burlingame такой перевод - "ты станешь монахом, а я последую твоему примеру".
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So pana sukhumālo hoti sampannabhogo, «natthī»ti vacanampi tena na sutapubbaṃ. Now Anuruddha is said to have been brought up in such softness and luxury that he had never heard the word isn’t before. Он (Ануруддха) воспитывался в такой утончённости и богатстве, что никогда не слышал слова "нет".
Ekadivasañhi tesu chasu khattiyesu guḷakīḷaṃ kīḷantesu anuruddho pūvena parājito pūvatthāya pahiṇi, athassa mātā pūve sajjetvā pahiṇi . For example, one day these six Sakyan princes engaged in a game of marbles. Anuruddha staked cakes on the result, proved a loser, and sent home for cakes. His mother prepared cakes and sent them. Однажды эти трое кшатриев из рода сакья играли в азартную игру. Ануруддха проиграл пирог и послал за пирогами домой. Его мама приготовила пироги и отправила их ему. Наши монахи сказали, что эта история произошла, когда эти шестеро были детьми.
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Te khāditvā puna kīḷiṃsu. The princes ate the cakes and resumed their play. Они поели и продолжили игру.
Punappunaṃ tasseva parājayo hoti. Anuruddha lost repeatedly. Ануруддха вновь и вновь проигрывал.
Mātā panassa pahite pahite tikkhattuṃ pūve pahiṇitvā catutthavāre «pūvā natthī»ti pahiṇi. Three times in all his mother sent him cakes. The fourth time she sent back word, “There isn’t cake to send. Три раза мама присылала ему пироги, но в четвёртый раз она передала сообщение "пирогов нет".
So «natthī»ti vacanassa asukapubbattā «esāpekā pūvavikati bhavissatī»ti maññamāno «natthipūvaṃ me āharathā»ti pesesi. Now Anuruddha had never before heard the word isn’t. Therefore, supposing that this must be a variety of cake, he sent the man back, saying to him, “Fetch me some isn’t cakes.” Ануруддха ранее не слышал слова "нет" и подумав, что это какая-то разновидность пирогов, послал слугу обратно, сказав ему "принеси мне пирог под названием "нет".
Mātā panassa «natthipūvaṃ kira, ayye, dethā»ti vutte, «mama puttena «natthī»ti padaṃ na sutapubbaṃ, iminā pana upāyena naṃ etamatthaṃ jānāpessāmī»ti tucchaṃ suvaṇṇapātiṃ aññāya suvaṇṇapātiyā paṭikujjitvā pesesi. When his mother received the message, “Then, my lady, send me some isn’t cakes,” she thought to herself, “My son has never heard the word isn’t before. By this means, however, I can teach him the meaning of it. ” So she took an empty golden bowl, covered it with another golden bowl, and sent it to her son. Мать, услышав от слуги просьбу передать пирог "нет", подумала "мой сын никогда ранее не слышал слова "нет", и вот как я объясню ему смысл этого слова". Она взяла пустую золотую тарелку, накрыла другой золотой тарелкой и отправила сыну.
Nagarapariggāhikā devatā cintesuṃ : «anuruddhasakyena annabhārakāle attano bhāgabhattaṃ upariṭṭhapaccekabuddhassa datvā ««natthī»ti me vacanassa savanaṃ mā hotu, bhojanuppattiṭṭhānajānanaṃ mā «hotū»ti patthanā katā, sacāyaṃ tucchapātiṃ passissati, devasamāgamaṃ pavisituṃ na labhissāma, sīsampi no sattadhā phaleyyā»ti. The guardian deities of the city thought, “When Anuruddha the Sakyan was Annabhāra, he gave food that was his own portion to the Private Buddha Upariṭṭha, making the Earnest Wish, ‘May I never hear the word isn’t; may I never know where food comes from. ’ Now if he sees the empty bowl, we shall never be able to enter the assembly of the gods; it may even happen that our heads will split into seven pieces.” Божества-защитники города подумали "Когда сакья Ануруддха был человеком по имени Аннабхара, он отдал собственную порцию пищи паччекабудде Упариттхе, сделав следующее пожелание: "Пусть я никогда не буду слышать слова "нет", пусть я никогда не буду знать откуда берётся еда". Если он увидит пустую тарелку, мы не сможем войти в собрание божеств, и может выйти, что наши головы разобьются на семь частей".
Atha naṃ pātiṃ dibbapūvehi puṇṇaṃ akaṃsu. So they filled the bowl with celestial cakes. И они наполнили тарелку пирогами из мира божеств.
Kassā guḷamaṇḍale ṭhapetvā ugghāṭitamattāya pūvagandho sakalanagare chādetvā ṭhito. As soon as the bowl was set down on the round platter uncovered, the fragrance of the cakes permeated the entire city. Когда открытую тарелку поставили на круглую подставку, запах пирогов распространился на весь город.
Pūvakhaṇḍaṃ mukhe ṭhapitamattameva sattarasaharaṇīsahassāni anuphari. Moreover, the moment a morsel of cake was placed in the mouth, it thrilled the seven thousand nerves of taste. Кроме того, когда кусок пирога попадал в рот, он возбуждал семь тысяч вкусовых рецепторов.
So cintesi : «nāhaṃ mātu piyo, ettakaṃ me kālaṃ imaṃ natthipūvaṃ nāma na paci, ito paṭṭhāya aññaṃ pūvaṃ nāma na khādissāmī»ti, so gehaṃ gantvāva mātaraṃ pucchi : «amma, tumhākaṃ ahaṃ piyo, appiyo»ti? Anuruddha thought to himself, “My mother does not love me; all this time she has never fried this isn’t cake [28.232] for me. From this time forth I shall eat no other kind of cake. ” So he went home and asked his mother, “Mother, do you love me or do you not?” Ануруддха подумал "Мать меня не любит. Всё это время она ни разу не приготовила мне пирог под названием "нет". Отныне я не буду есть другие пироги." Отправившись домой он спросил мать: "Мама, ты любишь меня или нет?".
«Tāta, ekakkhino akkhi viya ca hadayaṃ viya ca ativiya piyo me ahosī»ti. “My dear son, even as the eye is dear to one who possesses but one eye, and even as the heart, so are you exceedingly dear to me.” "Милый, как глаз дорог одноглазому человеку, как дорого сердце, так и ты мне крайне дорог".
«Atha kasmā ettakaṃ kālaṃ mayhaṃ natthi pūvaṃ na pacittha, ammā»ti? “Then, dear mother, why is it that all this time you have not fried isn’t cake for me?” "Тогда, милая мама, почему за всё это время ты ни разу не испекла мне пирог "нет"?".
Sā cūḷūpaṭṭhākaṃ pucchi : «atthi kiñci pātiyaṃ, tātā»ti? Said the mother to her little page, “Boy, is there nothing in the bowl?” Мама сказала юному прислужнику: "Любезный, в тарелке что-нибудь есть?".
«Paripuṇṇā, ayye, pāti pūvehi, evarūpā pūvā nāma me na diṭṭhapubbā»ti ārocesi. “My lady, the plate is filled to overflowing with cakes, and with such cakes as I have never seen before.” "О госпожа, тарелка полна пирогами и это такие пироги, которые я никогда раньше не видел".
Sā cintesi : «mayhaṃ putto puññavā katābhinīhāro bhavissati, devatāhi pātiṃ pūretvā pūvā pahitā bhavissantī»ti. The mother thought to herself, “It must be that my son has acquired great merit; it must be that he has made an Earnest Wish; deities must have filled the plate with cakes and sent them.” Мама подумала: "Наверняка у моего сына огромные заслуги, наверняка он сделал пожелание, наверняка божества наполнили тарелку пирогами и отправили их".
«Atha naṃ putto, amma, ito paṭṭhāyāhaṃ aññaṃ pūvaṃ nāma na khādissāmi, natthipūvameva paceyyāsī»ti. Said the son to the mother, “Dear mother, from this time forth I will eat no other kind of cake than this; henceforth, I pray you, fry isn’t cake alone for me.” Сын сказал матери: "Милая мама, отныне я не буду есть никакие другие пироги, умоляю тебя, пеки только пироги под названием "нет"".
Sāpissa tato paṭṭhāya «pūvaṃ khāditukāmomhī»ti vutte tucchapātimeva aññāya pātiyā paṭikucchitvā pesesi. From that time forth, whenever her son said, “I should like some cakes to eat,” she would send a bowl absolutely empty, covered with another bowl. С того момента, когда сын говорил "я хочу поесть пирогов" она посылала совершенно пустую тарелку, накрытую другой тарелкой.
Yāva agāramajjhe vasi, tāvassa devatāva pūve pahiṇiṃsu. So long as he continued to live at home, during all that time deities sent him celestial cakes. Пока он продолжал жить в доме, всё это время божества посылали ему пироги из мира божеств.
So ettakampi ajānanto pabbajjaṃ nāma kiṃ jānissati? Since Anuruddha was so unsophisticated as all this, how could he be expected to know the meaning of the expression becoming a monk? Поскольку Ануруддха был так невежественен, откуда он мог знать что означает слово "монашество"?
Tasmā «kā esā pabbajjā nāmā»ti bhātaraṃ pucchitvā «ohāritakesamassunā kāsāyanivatthena kaṭṭhattharake vā bidalamañcake vā nipajjitvā piṇḍāya carantena viharitabbaṃ. Esā pabbajjā nāmā»ti vutte, «bhātika, ahaṃ sukhumālo. Nāhaṃ sakkhissāmi pabbajitu»nti āha. For this reason, therefore, he asked his brother, “What is this becoming a monk? ” His brother replied, “The life of a monk involves cutting off the hair and beard, sleeping with indifference whether in a thorn-brake or in a fine bed, and going the rounds for alms,” Anuruddha replied, “Brother, I am exceedingly delicate; I shall never be able {1.136} to become a monk.” Поэтому он спросил брата: "Что такое монашество?". Брат ответил: "Монашество означает сбрить волосы и бороду, спать без разницы на чём - на подстилке из веток или на хорошей кровати, жить собирая подаяние". На то Ануруддха ответил: "Брат, я крайне утончён, я не смогу стать монахом".
«Tena hi, tāta, kammantaṃ uggahetvā gharāvāsaṃ vasa. “Very well, my dear brother, then learn farming and live the life of a householder. "Тогда, любезный, изучи земледелие и живи как домохозяин.
Na hi sakkā amhesu ekena apabbajitu»nti. But at least one of us must become a monk.” Не может такого быть, чтобы кто-то из нас не стал монахом".
Atha naṃ «ko esa kammanto nāmā»ti pucchi. Then said Anuruddha, “What is this farming? ” Тогда Ануруддха спросил: "Что такое земледелие?".
«Bhattuṭṭhānaṭṭhānampi ajānanto kulaputto kammantaṃ nāma kiṃ jānissatī»ti? How could you expect a youth to know the meaning of the word farming who did not know where food comes from? Откуда выходцу из [знатной] семьи, не знающему откуда берётся еда, знать что такое земледелие? М.б. лучше "выходцу из [богатой] семьи".
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Ekadivasañhi tiṇṇaṃ khattiyānaṃ kathā udapādi : «bhattaṃ nāma kuhiṃ uṭṭhahatī»ti? For example, on a certain day a discussion arose among the three princes Kimbila, Bhaddiya, and Anuruddha as to where food comes from. Однажды у трёх кшатриев - Кимбилы, Бхаддии и Ануруддхи возникло обсуждение откуда берётся еда.
Kimilo āha : «koṭṭhe uṭṭhahatī»ti. Kimbila said, “It comes from the barn.” Кимбила сказал: "Она берётся из амбара".
Atha naṃ bhaddiyo «tvaṃ bhattassa uṭṭhānaṭṭhānaṃ na jānāsi, bhattaṃ nāma ukkhaliyaṃ uṭṭhahatī»ti āha. Bhaddiya said to him, “You do not know where food comes from; it comes from the boiler,” Бхаддия сказал ему: "Ты не знаешь, откуда берётся еда, она берётся из кастрюли".
Anuruddho «tumhe dvepi na jānātha, bhattaṃ nāma ratanamakuḷāya suvaṇṇapātiyaṃ uṭṭhahatī»ti āha. Anuruddha said, “Both of you together do not know where food comes from. It comes from a golden bowl with jeweled knob. ” Ануруддха сказал: "Вы оба не знаете откуда берётся еда. Она берётся из золотой тарелки с набалдашником из драгоценного камня".
Tesu kira ekadivasaṃ kimilo koṭṭhato vīhī otāriyamāne disvā, «ete koṭṭheyeva jātā»ti saññī ahosi. We are told that one day Kimbila saw rice being removed from a barn, and immediately formed the opinion, “These grains of rice were produced in the barn.” Якобы однажды Кимбила увидел, как рис выносят из амбара и у него сложилось мнение: "Эти зерна риса появляются в амбаре".
Bhaddiyo ekadivasaṃ ukkhalito bhattaṃ vaḍḍhiyamānaṃ disvā «ukkhaliyaññeva uppanna»nti saññī ahosi. Likewise one day Bhaddiya saw food being taken out of a boiler, and formed the opinion, “It was produced [28.233] in the boiler.” И также Бхаддия однажды увидел как еду вынимают из кастрюли и у него сложилось мнение: "Она [сама] появляется в кастрюле".
Anuruddhena pana neva vīhī koṭṭentā, na bhattaṃ pacantā, na vaḍḍhentā diṭṭhapubbā, vaḍḍhetvā pana purato ṭhapitameva passati. Anuruddha, however, had never seen men pounding rice or boiling it or taking it out of the boiler, but had seen it only after it had been taken out of the boiler and set before him. Однако Ануруддха никогда не видел как обмолачивают рис, как его варят или вынимают из кастрюли. Он видел только когда его уже вынули из кастрюли и поставили перед ним.
So bhuñjitukāmakāle «bhattaṃ pātiyaṃ uṭṭhahatī»ti saññamakāsi. So Anuruddha formed the opinion, “When one desires to eat, food makes its appearance in a golden bowl.” Поэтому во время обеда у него сложилось мнение: "Еда возникает в тарелке". Тут кавычки в другом месте стоят, поэтому перевод отличается от Burlingame, у которого: "когда человек хочет есть, еда сама возникает в тарелке".
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Evaṃ tayopi te bhattuṭṭhānaṭṭhānaṃ na jānanti. Such was the ignorance of all three princes as to where food comes from. Таково было невежество трёх кшатриев на тему откуда берётся еда.
Tenāyaṃ «ko esa kammanto nāmā»ti pucchitvā, «paṭhamaṃ khettaṃ kasāpetabba»ntiādikaṃ saṃvacchare saṃvacchare kattabbaṃ kiccaṃ sutvā, «kadā kammantānaṃ anto paññāyissati, kadā mayaṃ appossukkā bhoge bhuñjissāmā»ti vatvā kammantānaṃ apariyantatāya akkhātāya «tena hi tvaññeva gharāvāsaṃ vasa, na mayhaṃ etenattho»ti mātaraṃ upasaṅkamitvā, «anujānāhi maṃ, amma, pabbajissāmī»ti vatvā tāya nānappakārehi tikkhattuṃ paṭikkhipitvā, «sace te sahāyako bhaddiyarājā pabbajissati, tena saddhiṃ pabbajāhī»ti vutte taṃ upasaṅkamitvā, «mama kho, samma, pabbajjā tava paṭibaddhā»ti vatvā taṃ nānappakārehi saññāpetvā sattame divase attanā saddhiṃ pabbajanatthāya paṭiññaṃ gaṇhi. Now when Anuruddha asked the question, “What is this farming? ” he received the following answer, “First the field must be plowed, and after that such and such other things must be done, and these things must be done year after year. ” Said he to himself, “When will the duties connected with farming ever come to an end? When shall we ever have time to enjoy our possessions in peace? ” And because it seemed to him that the duties connected with farming would never come to an end and never cease, he said to his brother, “Well then, if this is the case, you may live the life of a householder. But as for me, I have no use for it. ” Accordingly he approached his mother {1.137} and said to her, “Mother, give me your permission; I wish to become a monk. ” Thrice Anuruddha requested his mother to give him permission to become a monk, and thrice she refused to do so. Finally she said to him, “If your friend King Bhaddiya will become a monk, then you may become a monk with him. ” Accordingly he approached his friend Bhaddiya and said to him, “Friend, whether I shall become a monk or not is conditional upon your becoming a monk. ” Anuruddha urged his friend Bhaddiya with every argument at his command to become a monk, and finally, on the seventh day, obtained Bhaddiya’s promise to become a monk with him. С этого момента есть в Виная Питаке.
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Tato bhaddiyo sakyarājā anuruddho ānando bhagu kimilo devadattoti ime cha khattiyā upālikappakasattamā devā viya dibbasampattiṃ sattāhaṃ sampattiṃ anubhavitvā uyyānaṃ gacchantā viya caturaṅginiyā senāya nikkhamitvā paravisayaṃ patvā rājāṇāya senaṃ nivattāpetvā paravisayaṃ okkamiṃsu. So six princes of the Warrior caste, Bhaddiya, king of the Sakyans, Anuruddha, Ānanda, Bhagu, Kimbila, and Devadatta, accompanied by Upāli the barber as seventh man, for seven days enjoyed celestial glory like gods, and then set out with fourfold array, as though on their way to a pleasure-garden. When they reached foreign territory, they turned back their army by royal command, and then entered foreign territory.
Tattha cha khattiyā attano attano ābharaṇāni omuñcitvā bhaṇḍikaṃ katvā, «handa bhaṇe, upāli, nivattassu, alaṃ te ettakaṃ jīvikāyā»ti tassa adaṃsu. There each of the six princes removed his own ornaments, made a bundle of them, and gave them to Upāli, saying, “Now, Upāli, turn back. All this wealth will suffice to provide you with means of livelihood."
So tesaṃ pādamūle parivattitvā paridevitvā tesaṃ āṇaṃ atikkamituṃ asakkonto uṭṭhāya taṃ gahetvā nivatti. Upāli flung himself at their feet, rolled over and over on the ground, and wept bitterly. But not daring to disobey the order, he arose and turned back.
Tesaṃ dvidhā jātakāle, vanaṃ ārodanappattaṃ viya pathavīkampamānākārappattā viya ahosi. When they parted, the forest wept, as it were, and the earth quaked, as it were.
Upāli kappakopi thokaṃ gantvā nivattitvā «caṇḍā kho sākiyā, «iminā kumārā nippātitā»ti ghāteyyumpi maṃ. When Upāli had gone a little way, he thought to himself, “Harsh and cruel are these Sakyans; they may kill me, thinking I have killed their brethren.
Ime hi nāma sakyakumārā evarūpaṃ sampattiṃ pahāya imāni anagghāni ābharaṇāni kheḷapiṇḍaṃ viya chaḍḍetvā pabbajissanti, kimaṅgaṃ panāha»nti bhaṇḍikaṃ omuñcitvā tāni ābharaṇāni rukkhe laggetvā «atthikā gaṇhantū»ti vatvā tesaṃ santikaṃ gantvā tehi «kasmā nivattosī»ti puṭṭho tamatthaṃ ārocesi. These Sakyan princes have renounced all this splendor, have cast away these priceless ornaments like a mass of saliva, and intend to become monks; {1.138} why not I? ” So saying, he untied the bundle, hung those ornaments on a tree, and said, “Let those who want them take them.” Having so done, he went to the Sakyan princes, and when they asked him why he had turned back, told them the whole story.
Atha naṃ te ādāya satthu santikaṃ gantvā, «mayaṃ, bhante, sākiyā nāma mānanissitā, ayaṃ amhākaṃ dīgharattaṃ paricārako, imaṃ paṭhamataraṃ pabbājetha, mayamassa abhivādanādīni karissāma, evaṃ no māno nimmānāyissatī»ti vatvā taṃ paṭhamataraṃ pabbājetvā pacchā sayaṃ pabbajiṃsu. So the six Sakyan princes took Upāli the barber with them, went to the Teacher, and said to him, “We, Reverend Sir, are proud Sakyans. This man has been a servitor of ours for a long time. Admit him to the Order first; to him first we will offer respectful salutations; so will our pride be humbled. ” Thus first did they cause Upāli the barber to be admitted to the Order, and after that entered the Order themselves.
Tesu āyasmā bhaddiyo teneva antaravassena tevijjo ahosi. Of the six Sakyan princes. Venerable Bhaddiya attained Threefold Knowledge in that very rainy season.
Āyasmā anuruddho dibbacakkhuko hutvā pacchā mahāvitakkasuttaṃ (a. ni. 8.30) sutvā arahattaṃ pāpuṇi. Venerable Anuruddha attained Supernatural Vision, and after listening to the Sutta entitled “The Reflections of a Great Man,” 03 attained Arahatship.
Āyasmā ānando sotāpattiphale patiṭṭhahi. Venerable Ānanda was established in the Fruit of Conversion.
Bhagutthero ca kimilatthero ca aparabhāge vipassanaṃ vaḍḍhetvā arahattaṃ pāpuṇiṃsu. Elder Bhagu and Elder Kimbila subsequently developed Spiritual Insight and attained Arahatship.
Devadatto pothujjanikaṃ iddhiṃ patto. Devadatta attained the lower grade of Magic Power.
Aparabhāge satthari kosambiyaṃ viharante sasāvakasaṅghassa tathāgatassa mahanto lābhasakkāro nibbatti. After a time, while the Teacher was in residence at Kosambi, rich gain and honor accrued to the Tathāgata and his company of disciples.
Vatthabhesajjādihatthā manussā vihāraṃ pavisitvā «kuhiṃ satthā, kuhiṃ sāriputtatthero, kuhiṃ mahāmoggallānatthero, kuhiṃ mahākassapatthero, kuhiṃ bhaddiyatthero, kuhiṃ anuruddhatthero, kuhiṃ ānandatthero, kuhiṃ bhagutthero, kuhiṃ kimilatthero»ti asītimahāsāvakānaṃ nisinnaṭṭhānaṃ olokentā vicaranti. Men entered the monastery bearing in their hands robes, medicines, and other offerings and asked, “Where is the Teacher? Where is the Elder Sāriputta? Where is the Elder Moggallāna? Where is the Elder Kassapa? Where is the Elder Bhaddiya? Where is the Elder Anuruddha? Where is the Elder Ānanda? Where is the Elder Bhagu? Where is the Elder Kimbila? ” So saying, they went about looking at the places where sat the eighty Chief Disciples.
«Devadattatthero kuhiṃ nisinno vā, ṭhito vā»ti pucchanto nāma natthi. Since no one asked, “Where does the Elder Devadatta sit and stand?”
So cintesi : «ahampi etehi saddhiññeva pabbajito, etepi khattiyapabbajitā, ahampi khattiyapabbajito, lābhasakkārahatthā manussā eteyeva pariyesanti, mama nāmaṃ gahetāpi natthi. Devadatta thought to himself, “I became a monk at the same time as these other monks. Even as they are men of the Warrior caste who have become monks, so also am I a man of the Warrior caste who have become a monk. But whereas men bearing rich [28.235] offerings seek out these monks, no one takes my name on his lips.
Kena nu kho saddhiṃ ekato hutvā kaṃ pasādetvā mama lābhasakkāraṃ nibbatteyya»nti. With whom now can I make common cause? With whom can I ingratiate myself, that I may obtain gain and honor for myself? ”
Athassa etadahosi : «ayaṃ kho rājā bimbisāro paṭhamadassaneneva ekādasahi nahutehi saddhiṃ sotāpattiphale patiṭṭhito, na sakkā etena saddhiṃ ekato bhavituṃ, kosalaraññāpi saddhiṃ na sakkā bhavituṃ. Then the following thought occurred to him, “This King Bimbisāra, on the day when he first saw the Buddha, became established in the Fruit of Conversion, together with eleven nahutas of men besides; I cannot make common cause with him. Neither can I make common cause with the king of Kosala.
Ayaṃ kho pana rañño putto ajātasattu kumāro kassaci guṇadose na jānāti, etena saddhiṃ ekato bhavissāmī»ti. But this king’s son Ajātasattu knows no one’s good qualities or bad qualities; I will make common cause with him.”
So kosambito rājagahaṃ gantvā kumārakavaṇṇaṃ abhinimminitvā cattāro āsīvise catūsu hatthapādesu ekaṃ gīvāya pilandhitvā ekaṃ sīse cumbaṭakaṃ katvā ekaṃ ekaṃsaṃ karitvā imāya ahimekhalāya ākāsato oruyha ajātasattussa ucchaṅge nisīditvā tena bhītena «kosi tva»nti vutte «ahaṃ devadatto»ti vatvā tassa bhayavinodanatthaṃ taṃ attabhāvaṃ paṭisaṃharitvā saṅghāṭipattacīvaradharo purato ṭhatvā taṃ pasādetvā lābhasakkāraṃ nibbattesi. Accordingly Devadatta departed from Kosambi to Rājagaha, transformed himself into a youth, put four snakes on his hands and feet, put one snake about his neck, coiled one snake about his head as a cushion-rest, placed one snake on one shoulder, and thus arrayed in a girdle of snakes, he descended from the air and seated himself in Ajātasattu’s lap. Ajātasattu was frightened and said, “Who are you? ” “I am Devadatta. ” In order to dispel Ajātasattu’s fear, Devadatta changed his form, stood before Ajātasattu wearing the robe of a monk and carrying a monk’s bowl, ingratiated himself with Ajātasattu, and obtained for himself gain and honor.
So lābhasakkārābhibhūto «ahaṃ bhikkhusaṅghaṃ pariharissāmī»ti pāpakaṃ cittaṃ uppādetvā saha cittuppādena iddhito parihāyitvā satthāraṃ veḷuvanavihāre sarājikāya parisāya dhammaṃ desentaṃ vanditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā añjaliṃ paggayha : «bhagavā, bhante, etarahi jiṇṇo vuḍḍho mahallako, appossukko diṭṭhadhammasukhavihāraṃ anuyuñjatu, ahaṃ bhikkhusaṅghaṃ pariharissāmi, niyyādetha me bhikkhusaṅgha»nti vatvā satthārā kheḷāsakavādena apasādetvā paṭikkhitto anattamano imaṃ paṭhamaṃ tathāgate āghātaṃ bandhitvā pakkāmi. Overcome with the gain and honor he received, Devadatta thought to himself, “It is I who ought to be at the head of the Congregation of Monks. ” Once having allowed this evil thought to spring up in his breast, with the springing up of the evil thought Devadatta lost the power to work miracles. Now at this time the Teacher was preaching the Law to the Congregation at Veḷuvana monastery, and the king was among the Congregation. While the Exalted One was preaching the Law, Devadatta paid obeisance to him, and then rising from his seat, extended his hands in an attitude of reverent salutation and said, “Reverend Sir, the Exalted One is now worn out, stricken with years, and aged; let him live a pleasant life in this world, free from care. I will direct the Congregation of Monks; commit the Congregation of Monks to my hands. ” {1.140} The Teacher, instead of consenting to the arrangement suggested by Devadatta, refused his request and called him a lick-spittle. Therefore Devadatta was highly indignant, and now for the first time conceiving hatred towards the Teacher, departed.
Athassa bhagavā rājagahe pakāsanīyakammaṃ kāresi. The Teacher caused public proclamation to be made concerning Devadatta at Rājagaha.
So «pariccatto dāni ahaṃ samaṇena gotamena, idānissa anatthaṃ karissāmī»ti ajātasattuṃ upasaṅkamitvā, «pubbe kho, kumāra, manussā dīghāyukā, etarahi appāyukā. Devadatta thought to himself, “Now I have been rejected by the monk Gotama; now I will make trouble for him. ” With this thought in mind he approached Ajātasattu and said to him, “Youth, aforetime [28.236] men were long-lived, but now they are short-lived.
Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ vijjati, yaṃ tvaṃ kumārova samāno kālaṃ kareyyāsi, tena hi tvaṃ, kumāra, pitaraṃ hantvā rājā hohi, ahaṃ bhagavantaṃ hantvā buddho bhavissāmī»ti vatvā tasmiṃ rajje patiṭṭhite tathāgatassa vadhāya purise payojetvā tesu sotāpattiphalaṃ patvā nivattesu sayaṃ gijjhakūṭapabbataṃ abhiruhitvā, «ahameva samaṇaṃ gotamaṃ jīvitā voropessāmī»ti silaṃ pavijjhitvā ruhiruppādakakammaṃ katvā imināpi upāyena māretuṃ asakkonto puna nāḷāgiriṃ vissajjāpesi. This makes it probable that you, being a prince, will soon die. Well then! You kill your father and become king, and I will kill the Exalted One and become Buddha. ” So when Ajātasattu was established in his kingdom, Devadatta hired men to kill the Tathāgata. But the men he hired attained the Fruit of Conversion and turned back. Then Devadatta himself climbed Vulture Peak and said to himself, “I alone will deprive the monk Gotama of life. ” So saying, he split off a piece of rock and hurled it down. But he succeeded only in drawing the Teacher’s blood. Failing in this way also to kill him, he next dispatched the elephant Nālāgiri against the Teacher.
Tasmiṃ āgacchante ānandatthero attano jīvitaṃ satthu pariccajitvā purato aṭṭhāsi. When the elephant approached, the Elder Ānanda offered his own life in behalf of the Teacher and stood in the breach.
Satthā nāgaṃ dametvā nagarā nikkhamitvā vihāraṃ gantvā anekasahassehi upāsakehi abhihaṭaṃ mahādānaṃ paribhuñjitvā tasmiṃ divase sannipatitānaṃ aṭṭhārasakoṭisaṅkhātānaṃ rājagahavāsīnaṃ anupubbiṃ kathaṃ kathetvā caturāsītiyā pāṇasahassānaṃ dhammābhisamaye jāte «aho āyasmā ānando mahāguṇo, tathārūpe nāma hatthināge āgacchante attano jīvitaṃ pariccajitvā satthu puratova aṭṭhāsī»ti therassa guṇakathaṃ sutvā «na, bhikkhave, idāneva, pubbepesa mamatthāya jīvitaṃ pariccajiyevā»ti vatvā bhikkhūhi yācito cūḷahaṃsa (jā. 1.15.133 ādayo 2.21.1 ādayo) : mahāhaṃsa (jā. 2.21.89 ādayo) : kakkaṭakajātakāni (jā. 1.3.49 ādayo) kathesi. The Teacher subdued the elephant, and then departed from the city and went to the monastery. After partaking of the offerings of food brought by countless thousands of lay disciples, he preached in due course to the residents of Rājagaha, one hundred and eighty millions in number, and eighty-four thousand living beings obtained Comprehension of the Law. Said the monks, “How noble is the Venerable Ānanda! When so mighty an elephant approached, he offered his own life {1.141} and stood in front of the Teacher. ” The Teacher, hearing the Elder praised in this wise, said, “Monks, this is not the first time he has renounced his life for my sake; he did the same thing in a previous state of existence,” And in response to a request of the monks he related the Culla Haṁsa, 05 Mahā Haṁsa, 06 and Kakkaṭa 07 Jātakas.
Devadattassāpi kammaṃ neva pākaṭaṃ, tathā rañño mārāpitattā, na vadhakānaṃ payojitattā na silāya paviddhattā pākaṭaṃ ahosi, yathā nāḷāgirihatthino vissajjitattā. Devadatta’s wickedness did not by any means become so notorious from his having compassed the king’s death nor from his hiring murderers to kill the Tathāgata nor from his splitting off the piece of rock, as it did from his letting loose the elephant Nālāgiri.
Tadā hi mahājano «rājāpi devadatteneva mārāpito, vadhakopi payojito, silāpi apaviddhā. For upon that, the people raised a tumult and said, “Devadatta alone had the king killed and hired murderers and cast down the rock.
Idāni pana tena nāḷāgiri vissajjāpito, evarūpaṃ nāma pāpakaṃ gahetvā rājā vicaratī»ti kolāhalamakāsi. But now he has turned the elephant Nālāgiri loose. Behold what manner of evildoer the king has on his hands!”
Rājā mahājanassa kathaṃ sutvā pañca thālipākasatāni nīharāpetvā na puna tassūpaṭṭhānaṃ agamāsi, nāgarāpissa kulaṃ upagatassa bhikkhāmattampi na adaṃsu. The king then, hearing the words of the populace, caused Devadatta’s five hundred cooking-vessels to be removed and did not thereafter minister to his wants. Likewise the citizens did not so much as offer food to him when he came to their houses.
So parihīnalābhasakkāro kohaññena jīvitukāmo satthāraṃ upasaṅkamitvā pañca vatthūni yācitvā bhagavato «alaṃ, devadatta, yo icchati, so āraññako hotū»ti paṭikkhitto kassāvuso, vacanaṃ sobhanaṃ, kiṃ tathāgatassa udāhu mama, ahañhi ukkaṭṭhavasena evaṃ vadāmi, «sādhu, bhante, bhikkhū yāvajīvaṃ āraññakā assu, piṇḍapātikā, paṃsukūlikā, rukkhamūlikā, macchamaṃsaṃ na khādeyyu»nti. When he had thus lost gain and honor, he determined to live by [28.237] deceit. Therefore he approached the Teacher and made the Five Demands. But the Teacher rejected his demands, saying, “Enough, Devadatta! Whoever so desires, let him be a forest hermit. ” “Brethren, whose words are the nobler, the words of the Tathāgata or the words which I myself have uttered? Very well, Reverend Sir, all their life long monks should be forest-dwellers, beggars, wearers of rags from a dust-heap, living at the foot of a tree, eating neither fish nor flesh.
«Yo dukkhā muccitukāmo, so mayā saddhiṃ āgacchatū»ti vatvā pakkāmi. Whosoever desires release from suffering, let him come with me. ” So saying, Devadatta departed. {1.142}
Tassa vacanaṃ sutvā ekacce navakapabbajitā mandabuddhino «kalyāṇaṃ devadatto āha, etena saddhiṃ vicarissāmā»ti tena saddhiṃ ekato ahesuṃ. Some monks who had but recently retired from the world and who possessed little intelligence, hearing his words, said, “Devadatta spoke fair; let us join him. ” So they joined him.
Iti so pañcasatehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṃ tehi pañcahi vatthūhi lūkhappasannaṃ janaṃ saññāpento kulesu viññāpetvā viññāpetvā bhuñjanto saṅghabhedāya parakkami. Thus Devadatta with his five hundred monks sought to persuade all manner of people, both hardened and believing, to accept the Five Points. And living by soliciting food from various families, he strove to create a schism in the Order.
So bhagavatā, «saccaṃ kira tvaṃ, devadatta, saṅghabhedāya parakkamasi cakkabhedāyā»ti puṭṭho «saccaṃ bhagavā»ti vatvā, «garuko kho, devadatta, saṅghabhedo»tiādīhi ovaditopi satthu vacanaṃ anādiyitvā pakkanto āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ rājagahe piṇḍāya carantaṃ disvā, «ajjatagge dānāhaṃ, āvuso ānanda, aññatreva bhagavatā, aññatra, bhikkhusaṅghā uposathaṃ karissāmi, saṅghakammaṃ karissāmī»ti āha. The Exalted One asked him, “Devadatta, is it true, as men say, that you are striving to create schism and heresy in the Order? ” “It is true,” replied Devadatta. Said the Teacher, “Devadatta, it is a grievous thing to create a schism in the Order. ” Continuing, the Teacher admonished him at length. But Devadatta paid no attention to the Teacher’s words. He went forth, and seeing the Venerable Elder Ānanda going his round for alms in Rājagaha, said to him, “Brother Ānanda, from this day forth I shall keep Fast and Chapter apart from the Exalted One, apart from the Order.”
Thero tamatthaṃ bhagavato ārocesi. The Elder told the Exalted One.
Taṃ viditvā satthā uppannadhammasaṃvego hutvā, «devadatto sadevakassa lokassa anatthanissitaṃ attano avīcimhi paccanakakammaṃ karotī»ti vitakketvā : When the Teacher realized the fact, he was filled with righteous indignation and said to himself, “Devadatta is doing that which will be of no profit to him in the Worlds of the Gods and the world of men; that which will cause him to be tormented in the Avīci hell. ” And he reflected,
«Sukarāni asādhūni, attano ahitāni ca. Easy to do are deeds that are evil, deeds that bring harm.
Yaṃ ve hitañca sādhuñca, taṃ ve paramadukkara»nti. (Dha. pa. 163) : But the deed that brings welfare, the deed that is good, that truly is hard to do.
Imaṃ gāthaṃ vatvā puna imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi : Having pronounced this Stanza, he then breathed forth the following Solemn Utterance,
«Sukaraṃ sādhunā sādhu, sādhu pāpena dukkaraṃ. Easy to do for the good is the good; the good for the evil man is hard.
Pāpaṃ pāpena sukaraṃ, pāpamariyehi dukkara»nti. (Udā. 48 cūḷava. 343). Evil for the evil man is easy to do; evil for the noble is hard.
Atha kho devadatto uposathadivase attano parisāya saddhiṃ ekamantaṃ nisīditvā, «yassimāni pañca vatthūni khamanti, so salākaṃ gaṇhatū»ti vatvā pañcasatehi vajjiputtakehi navakehi appakataññūhi salākāya gahitāya saṅghaṃ bhinditvā te bhikkhū ādāya gayāsīsaṃ agamāsi. On Fast-day, as Devadatta sat on one side with his own retinue, he said, “Let whoever approves of these Five Points take a ticket. ” [28.238] {1.143} Five hundred Licchavi princes, novices having little gratitude, took tickets. Devadatta took these monks with him and went to Gayāsīsa.
Tassa tattha gatabhāvaṃ sutvā satthā tesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ ānayanatthāya dve aggasāvake pesesi. When the Teacher heard that he had gone there, he sent forth the two Chief Disciples to bring those monks back.
Te tattha gantvā ādesanāpāṭihāriyānusāsaniyā ceva iddhipāṭihāriyānusāsaniyā ca anusāsantā te amataṃ pāyetvā ādāya ākāsena āgamiṃsu. The Chief Disciples went there, instructed the monks by performing miracles and wonders, caused them to drink the Deathless, and returned through the air, bringing them with them.
Kokālikopi kho «uṭṭhehi, āvuso devadatta, nītā te bhikkhū sāriputtamoggallānehi, nanu tvaṃ mayā vutto «mā, āvuso, sāriputtamoggallāne vissāsī»ti. Said Kokālika, “Rise, brother Devadatta; Sāriputta and Moggallāna have carried off your monks. Do you not remember my saying to you, ‘Brother, trust not Sāriputta and Moggallāna’?”
Pāpicchā sāriputtamoggallānā, pāpikānaṃ icchānaṃ vasaṃ gatā»ti vatvā jaṇṇukena hadayamajjhe pahari, tassa tattheva uṇhaṃ lohitaṃ mukhato uggañchi. Said Devadatta, “Sāriputta and Moggallāna cherish evil desires, are under the control of evil desires. ” As he spoke thus, he struck the center of his heart with his knee, and straightway hot blood burst forth from his mouth.
Āyasmantaṃ pana sāriputtaṃ bhikkhusaṅghaparivutaṃ ākāsena āgacchantaṃ disvā bhikkhū āhaṃsu : «bhante, āyasmā sāriputto gamanakāle attadutiyo gato, idāni mahāparivāro āgacchanto sobhatī»ti. When the monks saw Venerable Sāriputta, surrounded by his retinue of monks, soaring through the air, they said, “Reverend Sir, when Venerable Sāriputta went hence, he went with but a single companion; but now he is returning resplendent with a great retinue.”
Satthā «na, bhikkhave, idāneva sāriputto sobhati, pubbe tiracchānayoniyaṃ nibbattakālepi mayhaṃ putto mama santikaṃ āgacchanto sobhiyevā»ti vatvā : Said the Teacher, “Monks, it is not the first time this has happened; when my son was reborn in the form of an animal, then also did he return to me resplendent. ”
«Hoti sīlavataṃ attho, paṭisanthāravuttinaṃ. All goes well with the virtuous, with those whose disposition is friendly.
Lakkhaṇaṃ passa āyantaṃ, ñātisaṅghapurakkhataṃ. Behold Lakkhaṇa returning at the head of a host of relatives;
Atha passasimaṃ kāḷaṃ, suvihīnaṃva ñātibhī»ti. (Jā. 1.1.11) : Then look upon yonder Kāla without relatives.
Idaṃ jātakaṃ kathesi. So saying, he recited the Lakkhaṇa Jātaka.
Puna bhikkhūhi, «bhante, devadatto kira dve aggasāvake ubhosu passesu nisīdāpetvā «buddhalīḷāya dhammaṃ desessāmī»ti tumhākaṃ anukiriyaṃ karotī»ti vutte, «na, bhikkhave, idāneva, pubbepesa mama anukiriyaṃ kātuṃ vāyami, na pana sakkhī»ti vatvā : Again said the monks, “Reverend Sir, they say that Devadatta seats a Chief Disciple on either side of him and imitates you, saying, ‘I will preach the Law with the grace of a Buddha. ’ ” Said the Teacher, “Monks, this is not the first time he has so done; in a previous state of existence also he strove to imitate me, but was not able to do so.
«Api vīraka passesi, sakuṇaṃ mañjubhāṇakaṃ. Vīraka, have you seen a sweet-voiced bird
Mayūragīvasaṅkāsaṃ, patiṃ mayhaṃ saviṭṭhakaṃ. With neck like that of a peacock, my husband Saviṭṭhaka?
«Udakathalacarassa pakkhino, Niccaṃ āmakamacchabhojino. Tassānukaraṃ saviṭṭhako, Sevāle paliguṇṭhito mato»ti. (Jā. 1.2.107-108) : Because he tried to imitate a bird that walks both on water and on land, Saviṭṭhaka became entangled in a sevāla-plant and died.
Ādinā jātakaṃ vatvā aparāparesupi divasesu tathānurūpameva kathaṃ ārabbha : Supplying the rest of the story, the Teacher related the Vīraka Jātaka. On succeeding days, with reference to the same subject, the Teacher related the Kandagalaka 12 and Virocana Jātakas: 13 [28.239]
«Acāri vatāyaṃ vitudaṃ vanāni, Kaṭṭhaṅgarukkhesu asārakesu. Athāsadā khadiraṃ jātasāraṃ, Yatthabbhidā garuḷo uttamaṅga»nti. (Jā. 1.2.120). This garuḍa bird went through the woods pecking at trees whose branches were soft and rotten. At last he came to an acacia-tree, whose wood is always sound, and broke his head.
«Lasī ca te nipphalikā, matthako ca padālito. Your brains have run out, your head is split open,
Sabbā te phāsukā bhaggā, ajja kho tvaṃ virocasī»ti. (Jā. 1.1.143) : All your ribs are broken; to-day you are a pretty sight!
Evamādīni jātakāni kathesi.
Puna «akataññū devadatto»ti kathaṃ ārabbha : Again one day, hearing the remark, “Devadatta was ungrateful,” the Teacher related the Java Sakuṇa Jātaka: 14
«Akaramhasa te kiccaṃ, yaṃ balaṃ ahuvamhase. We did you what service we could.
Migarāja namo tyatthu, api kiñci labhāmase. King of beasts, we render homage to you. May we obtain some favor from you.
«Mama lohitabhakkhassa, niccaṃ luddāni kubbato. Seeing that I hold you fast between my jaws, I who feed upon blood,
Dantantaragato santo, taṃ bahuṃ yampi jīvasī»ti. (Jā. 1.4.29-30) : I whose nature is to kill, it is a great deal that you yet live.
Ādīni jātakāni kathesi.
Puna vadhāya parisakkanamassa ārabbha : Again with reference to Devadatta’s going about for the purpose of slaying, he related the Kuruṅga Jātaka: 15
«Ñātametaṃ kuruṅgassa, yaṃ tvaṃ sepaṇṇi siyyasi. It is well known to the antelope, that you let drop the fruit of the sepaṇṇi.
Aññaṃ sepaṇṇi gacchāmi, na me te ruccate phala»nti. (Jā. 1.1.21) : Let us go to another sepaṇṇi; your tree likes me not.
Ādīni jātakāni kathesi.
Punadivase «ubhato parihīno devadatto lābhasakkārato ca sāmaññato cā»ti kathāsu pavattamānāsu «na, bhikkhave, idāneva devadatto parihīno, pubbepesa parihīnoyevā»ti vatvā : Again when the discussion took this turn, “Devadatta fell away both from gain and honor and from the high position of a monk,” the Teacher said, “Monks, this is not the first time he has so fallen away; in a previous state of existence also he fell away. ” So saying, he related the Ubhatobhaṭṭha Jātaka: 16 {1.146}
«Akkhī bhinnā paṭo naṭṭho, sakhigehe ca bhaṇḍanaṃ. Your eyes are put out, your garments are lost, in your own house there is strife;
Ubhato paduṭṭhā kammantā, udakamhi thalamhi cā»ti. (Jā. 1.1.139) : Your business is ruined in both places, both on water and on land.
Ādīni jātakāni kathesi.
Evaṃ rājagahe viharantova devadattaṃ ārabbha bahūni jātakāni kathetvā rājagahato sāvatthiṃ gantvā jetavane vihāre vāsaṃ kappesi. In this wise did the Teacher, while he was in residence at Rājagaha, relate many Jātakas about Devadatta. From Rājagaha he went to Sāvatthi, and took up his residence at Jetavana monastery.
Devadattopi kho nava māse gilāno pacchime kāle satthāraṃ daṭṭhukāmo hutvā attano sāvake āha : «ahaṃ satthāraṃ daṭṭhukāmo, taṃ me dassethā»ti. Devadatta’s sickness continued for nine months; at the last, desiring to see the Teacher, he said to his own disciples, “I desire to see the Teacher; make it possible for me to see him.” Девять месяцев продолжалась болезнь Дэвадатты, наконец, пожелав увидеть Учителя он сказал своим ученикам: "Я желаю увидеть Учителя, сделайте так, чтобы я смог увидеть его".
«Tvaṃ samatthakāle satthārā saddhiṃ verī hutvā acari, na mayaṃ tattha nessāmā»ti vutte, «mā maṃ nāsetha, mayā satthari āghāto kato, satthu pana mayi kesaggamattopi āghāto natthi». They replied, “When you enjoyed good health, you walked at enmity with the Teacher; we will not lead you to him.” Said Devadatta, “Do not destroy me; I have indeed conceived hatred towards the Teacher, but the Teacher has not cherished so much as the tip of a hair’s hatred towards me.” Они отвечали: "Когда вы были здоровы вы разгуливали враждуя с Учителем; мы не поведём вас к нему". Дэвадатта сказал: "Не губите меня, я действительно таил ненависть по отношению к Учителю, но Учитель не имел ко мне и капли ненависти". дословно "ненависть на кончике волоса"
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So hi bhagavā : And in very truth, И Благословенный действительно
«Vadhake devadattamhi, core aṅgulimālake. Towards the murderer Devadatta, towards the robber Aṅgulimāla, к убийце Дэвадатте, разбойнику Ангулимале,
Dhanapāle rāhule ca, sabbattha samamānaso»ti. (Apa. thera 1.1.585 mi. pa. 6.6.5) : Towards Dhanapāla and Rāhula, to each and all he manifested an even temper. Дханапале и Рахуле - ко всем им он относился одинаково.
«Dassetha me bhagavanta»nti punappunaṃ yāci. “Let me see the Exalted One,” begged Devadatta again and again; "Дайте мне увидеть Благословенного", - умолял Дэвадатта снова и снова,
Atha naṃ te mañcakenādāya nikkhamiṃsu. so finally they laid him on a litter and started out with him. так что в конце концов его уложили на носилки и двинулись в путь.
Tassa āgamanaṃ sutvā bhikkhū satthu ārocesuṃ : «bhante, devadatto kira tumhākaṃ dassanatthāya āgacchatī»ti. When the monks heard that Devadatta was approaching, they informed the Teacher of the fact, saying, “Reverend Sir, we hear that Devadatta is coming to see you.” Когда монахи услышали, что Дэвадатта приближается, они пошли к Учителю и сказали: "Досточтимый, мы услышали что Дэвадатта приближается чтобы увидеть вас".
«Na, bhikkhave, so tenattabhāvena maṃ passituṃ labhissatī»ti. “Monks, he will not succeed in seeing me in this present existence.” "Монахи, в этом существовании он не сможет увидеть меня".
Devadatto kira pañcannaṃ vatthūnaṃ āyācitakālato paṭṭhāya puna buddhaṃ daṭṭhuṃ na labhati, ayaṃ dhammatā. (It is said that from the moment monks make the Five Demands, they invariably fail to see the Buddhas again.) {1.147} (Якобы Дэвадатта с момента просьбы пяти дополнительных пунктов никоим образом не мог получить возможности увидеть Будду, таково правило). В нашем переводе везде "пунктов". в пали vatthu
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«Asukaṭṭhānañca asukaṭṭhānañca āgato, bhante»ti. “Reverend Sir, he has reached such and such a place; he has reached such and such a place.” "Досточтимый, он уже там-то и там-то, он добрался до такого-то и такого-то места".
«Yaṃ icchati, taṃ karotu, na so maṃ passituṃ labhissatī»ti. “Let him do as he likes; he will never succeed in seeing me again.” "Пусть делает что хочет, он не сможет увидеть меня вновь".
«Bhante, ito yojanamattaṃ āgato, aḍḍhayojanaṃ, gāvutaṃ, jetavanapokkharaṇīsamīpaṃ āgato, bhante»ti. “Reverend Sir, now he is only a league distant, now he is only half a league distant, now he is only a gavuta distant, now he has reached the lotus-tank.” "Досточтимый, сейчас он всего лишь на расстоянии йоджаны, сейчас он на расстоянии в полйоджаны, сейчас он всего лишь на расстоянии гавуты, сейчас он достиг лотосового пруда рощи Джеты".
«Sacepi antojetavanaṃ pavisati, neva maṃ passituṃ labhissatī»ti. “Even if he enters within the Jetavana, he will not succeed in seeing me. ” "Даже если он войдёт в рощу Джеты, он не сможет увидеть меня".
Devadattaṃ gahetvā āgatā jetavanapokkharaṇītīre mañcaṃ otāretvā pokkharaṇiṃ nhāyituṃ otariṃsu. Those who came with Devadatta set the litter down on the bank of the lotus-tank at the Jetavana and descended into the tank to bathe. Те кто шёл с Дэвадаттой опустили носилки на берег лотосового пруда Джетаваны и зашли в воду помыться.
Devadattopi kho mañcato vuṭṭhāya ubho pāde bhūmiyaṃ ṭhapetvā nisīdi. Devadatta arose from his litter and sat down, resting both feet on the ground, Дэвадатта поднялся с носилок и присел, поставив ступни на землю.
Pādā pathaviṃ pavisiṃsu . whereupon his feet sank into the earth. И тут его ступни ушли в землю.
So anukkamena yāva gopphakā, yāva jaṇṇukā, yāva kaṭito, yāva thanato, yāva gīvato pavisitvā hanukaṭṭhikassa bhūmiyaṃ paviṭṭhakāle : By degrees he sank into the earth, first to the ankles, then to the knees, then to the hips, then to the breast, then to the neck. Finally, when his jaw-bone rested on the ground: Мало-помалу он стал уходить под землю: сначала земля поглотила его лодыжки, потом колени, потом бедра, потом грудь, потом шею. Наконец, когда только его челюсть оставалась на земле, он сказал:
«Imehi aṭṭhīhi tamaggapuggalaṃ, Devātidevaṃ naradammasārathiṃ. Samantacakkhuṃ satapuññalakkhaṇaṃ, Pāṇehi buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ upemī»ti. (Mi. pa. 4.1.3) : With these bones, with these vital airs, I seek refuge in the Buddha, Preeminent among men, god of gods, charioteer of untamed humanity, All-seeing, endowed with the auspicious marks of a hundred virtues. "С этими костями, с этим последним вздохом я иду как к прибежищу к Будде, высшему среди людей, величайшему из божеств, проводнику для обуздания людей, всевидящему, наделённому благоприятными знаками сотни добродетелей".
Imaṃ gāthamāha. he pronounced the following Stanza. Вот такие строфы произнёс он.
Idaṃ kira ṭhānaṃ disvā tathāgato devadattaṃ pabbājesi. There is a tradition that when the Tathāgata saw that matters had gone thus far, he made a monk of Devadatta. Якобы когда Татхагата видит это положение дел, он принимает Дэвадатту в монахи.
Sace hi na so pabbajissa, gihī hutvā kammañca bhāriyaṃ akarissa, āyatiṃ bhavanissaraṇapaccayaṃ kātuṃ na sakkhissa, pabbajitvā ca pana kiñcāpi kammaṃ bhāriyaṃ karissati, āyatiṃ bhavanissaraṇapaccayaṃ kātuṃ sakkhissatīti taṃ satthā pabbājesi. And this he did because he became aware of the following, “If he shall remain a layman and not be received into the Order as a monk, inasmuch as he has been guilty of grievous crimes, it will be impossible for him to look forwards with confidence to future existence; but if he shall become a monk, no matter how grievous the crimes he has committed, it will be possible for him to look forwards with confidence to future existence.” Если бы он остался мирянином и не был принят в монахи, то совершив тяжкие преступления он не мог бы с уверенностью ожидать будущее рождение. Но будь он принят в монахи, то каковы бы ни были его преступления, он может с уверенностью ждать будущего рождения. Поняв это Учитель принял его.
So hi ito satasahassakappamatthake aṭṭhissaro nāma paccekabuddho bhavissati, so pathaviṃ pavisitvā avīcimhi nibbatti. (At the end of a hundred thousand cycles of time he will become a Private Buddha named Aṭṭhissara.) When Devadatta had sunk into the earth, he was reborn in the Avīci hell. По истечение ста тысяч циклов вселенной он станет паччекабуддой по имени Аттхиссара. Когда Дэвадатту поглотила земля, он переродился в аду Авичи.
Niccale buddhe aparajjhabhāvena pana niccalova hutvā paccatūti yojanasatike anto avīcimhi yojanasatubbedhamevassa sarīraṃ nibbatti. “Since he sinned against an unchanging Buddha, let him endure torture unchanging;” and such was the torture he suffered. When he had entered the Avīci hell, which is a hundred leagues in extent, his body became a hundred leagues in height. "Поскольку он совершил злодеяние против неизменного Будды, пусть он страдает в неизменном виде" - таковы были его мучения. Попав в ад Авичи, протянувшийся на сто йоджан, тело его стало размеров в сто йоджан в высоту.
Sīsaṃ yāva kaṇṇasakkhalito upari ayakapallaṃ pāvisi, pādā yāva gopphakā heṭṭhā ayapathaviyaṃ paviṭṭhā, mahātālakkhandhaparimāṇaṃ ayasūlaṃ pacchimabhittito nikkhamitvā piṭṭhimajjhaṃ bhinditvā urena nikkhamitvā purimabhittiṃ pāvisi, aparaṃ dakkhiṇabhittito nikkhamitvā dakkhiṇapassaṃ bhinditvā vāmapassena nikkhamitvā uttarabhittiṃ pāvisi, aparaṃ upari kapallato nikkhamitvā matthakaṃ bhinditvā adhobhāgena nikkhamitvā ayapathaviṃ pāvisi. His head, as far as the outer ear, entered an iron skull; his feet, as far as the ankles, [28.241] entered earth of iron. An iron stake as thick as the trunk of a palmyra-tree proceeded forth from the west wall of the iron shell, pierced the small of his back, came forth from his breast, and penetrated the east wall. Another iron stake proceeded forth from the south wall, pierced his right side, came forth from his left side, and penetrated the north wall. Another iron stake proceeded forth from the top of the iron skull, pierced his skull, came forth from his lower parts, and penetrated earth of iron. Его голова до ушей была погружена в железный череп, его ноги до лодыжек погрузились в землю из железа. Железный кол, толстый как ствол пальмировой пальмы, протянувшись от западной стены железного кожуха пронзил его спину, вышел через грудь и вошёл в восточную стену. Другой железный кол, выйдя из южной стены пронзил его правую сторону, вышел из левой стороны и вошёл в северную стену. Ещё один железный кол, выйдя из верхушки железного черепа пронзил его череп, вышел из нижней части его туловища и вошёл в землю из железа. ayapathaviyaṃ = earth of iron = земля из железа. странно как-то. PED даёт pathavi как синоним paṭhavī (земля)
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Evaṃ so tattha niccalova pacci. In this position, immovable, he suffers this mode of torture. В этом положении, неподвижный, он страдает от мук.
Bhikkhū «ettakaṃ ṭhānaṃ devadatto āgacchanto satthāraṃ daṭṭhuṃ alabhitvāva pathaviṃ paviṭṭho»ti kathaṃ samuṭṭhāpesuṃ. The monks began a discussion, saying, “All this distance came Devadatta, but failed to see the Teacher, and was swallowed up by the earth.” Монахи обсуждали произошедшее, говоря: "Дэвадатта прошёл весь путь, но не смог увидеть Учителя и был поглощён землей".
Satthā «na, bhikkhave, devadatto idāneva mayi aparajjhitvā pathaviṃ pāvisi, pubbepi paviṭṭhoyevā»ti vatvā hatthirājakāle maggamūḷhaṃ purisaṃ samassāsetvā attano piṭṭhiṃ āropetvā khemantaṃ pāpitassa puna tikkhattuṃ āgantvā aggaṭṭhāne majjhimaṭṭhāne mūlehi evaṃ dante chinditvā tatiyavāre mahāpurisassa cakkhupathaṃ atikkamantassa tassa pathaviṃ paviṭṭhabhāvaṃ dīpetuṃ : Said the Teacher, “Monks, this was not the first time Devadatta sinned against me and was swallowed up by the earth; in a previous state of existence also he was swallowed up by the earth,” And by way of illustrating the point, he told the story of an incident in his own previous existence as king of the elephants. He directed aright a man who had lost his way, allowed him to mount his own back, and carried him to a place of safety, only to have the man return to him three successive times and saw off first the tips of his tusks, then the middle, and then the roots. As the man passed out of sight of the Great Creature, he was swallowed up by the earth. Учитель сказал: "Монахи, не впервые Дэвадатта совершил злодеяние против меня и был поглощён землей; ранее он так же был поглощён землей". И чтобы пояснить сказанное он поведал историю о том, что с ним случилось в одном из его предыдущих рождений вожаком слонов. Он указал правильное направление потерявшемуся человеку, позволил ему взобраться к себе на спину и отвёз в безопасное место только для того, чтобы этот человек в течении трёх раз возвращался и отпиливал сначала кончики его бивней, затем их середину, затем корни. Когда человек ушёл из поля зрения Великого Существа, то был поглощён землей.
«Akataññussa posassa, niccaṃ vivaradassino. If one should give the whole earth to an ungrateful man, Если кто-то неблагодарному, постоянно ищущему возможность
Sabbaṃ ce pathaviṃ dajjā, neva naṃ abhirādhaye»ti. (Jā. 1.1.72 1.9.107) : A man who is ever looking for an opportunity, it would not satisfy him. (Sīlava Nāga Jātaka) даёт в руки весь мир, это его не удовлетворит. (Силава Нага джатака)
Idaṃ jātakaṃ kathetvā punapi tatheva kathāya samuṭṭhitāya khantivādibhūte attani aparajjhitvā kalāburājabhūtassa tassa pathaviṃ paviṭṭhabhāvaṃ dīpetuṃ khantivādijātakañca (jā. 1.4.49 ādayo), cūḷadhammapālabhūte attani aparajjhitvā mahāpatāparājabhūtassa tassa pathaviṃ paviṭṭhabhāvaṃ dīpetuṃ cūḷadhammapālajātakañca (jā. 1.5.44 ādayo) kathesi. The discussion reverting to the same subject again and again, in order to illustrate the swallowing up of Devadatta by the earth in his existence as Kalāburājā for an offense against himself in his existence as Khantivādi, he related the Khantivādi Jātaka. Again, in order to illustrate the swallowing up of Devadatta by the earth in his existence as Mahāpatāparājā for an offense against himself in his existence as Culla Dhammapāla, he related the Culla Dhammapāla 19 Jātaka. Когда эта джатака была рассказана, дискуссия вновь и вновь возвращалась к той же теме и чтобы показать поглощение Дэвадатты землёй когда он был рождён правителем по имени Калабу и совершил злодеяние против Благословенного, который тогда родился учителем терпения, он рассказал Кхантивади джатаку. И также чтобы показать поглощение Дэвадатты землёй когда он был рождён правителем Махапатапой и совершил злодеяние против Благословенного, который тогда родился Чуллой Дхаммапалой, он рассказал Чулла Дхаммапала джатаку.
Pathaviṃ paviṭṭhe pana devadatte mahājano haṭṭhatuṭṭho dhajapaṭākakadaliyo ussāpetvā puṇṇaghaṭe ṭhapetvā «lābhā vata no»ti mahantaṃ chaṇaṃ anubhoti. Now when Devadatta was swallowed up by the earth, the populace was pleased and delighted, and raising flags and banners and plantain-trees and setting up brimming jars, held high festival, saying, “His death is indeed our great gain.” Когда земля поглотила Дэвадатту люди обрадовались этому; довольные, они украсили всё вокруг флагами, знаменами и пальмовыми ветвями, установили наполненные до краев чаши и стали праздновать, говоря: "Его смерть безусловно наша большая удача".
Tamatthaṃ bhagavato ārocesuṃ. When the monks reported this incident to the Exalted One, Когда монахи рассказали о случившемся Благословенному,
Bhagavā «na, bhikkhave, idāneva devadatte mate mahājano tussati, pubbepi tussiyevā»ti vatvā sabbajanassa appiye caṇḍe pharuse bārāṇasiyaṃ piṅgalaraññe nāma mate mahājanassa tuṭṭhabhāvaṃ dīpetuṃ : the Exalted One said, “Monks, this is not the first time the populace has rejoiced at Devadatta’s death; [28.242] in times past also the populace rejoiced thereat. ” And when he had thus spoken, to illustrate the rejoicing of the populace at the death of King Piṅgala of Benāres, a man who was hated by all the people for his harshness and cruelty, Благословенный сказал: "Монахи, не впервые народ празднует смерть Дэвадатты, в прошлом народ тоже праздновал её". И сказав это он, чтобы пояснить свои слова рассказал о праздненствах, устроенных по случаю смерти короля Пингалы из Варанаси, человека, которого все ненавидели за его жестокость и злобу.
«Sabbo jano hiṃsito piṅgalena, All the people suffered harm at the hands of Piṅgala; Все люди страдали от вреда, который причинял Пингала
Tasmiṃ mate paccayā vedayanti. so soon as he was dead they recovered confidence. и только после его смерти они вновь обрели спокойствие.
Piyo nu te āsi akaṇhanetto, Was he of the yellow eyes dear to you? Этот желтоглазый был дорог тебе?
Kasmā tuvaṃ rodasi dvārapāla. Why do you weep, porter? Почему ты плачешь, слуга?
«Na me piyo āsi akaṇhanetto, He of the yellow eyes was not dear to me; Этот желтоглазый не был мне дорог,
Bhāyāmi paccāgamanāya tassa. I fear to think of his return. Я боюсь, что он вернется.
Ito gato hiṃseyya maccurājaṃ, Now that he has gone hence, he may harm the king of death, Ведь уйдя отсюда он может причинить вред королю смерти :-)))))))
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So hiṃsito āneyya puna idhā»ti. (Jā. 1.2.179-180) : and the king of death thus harmed may send him back again. и из-за этого вреда король смерти может выслать его сюда опять.
Idaṃ piṅgalajātakaṃ kathesi. he related the Piṅgala Jātaka. Так он рассказал Пингала джатаку.
Bhikkhū satthāraṃ pucchiṃsu : «idāni, bhante, devadatto kuhiṃ nibbatto»ti? Finally the monks asked the Teacher, “Now, Reverend Sir, tell us where Devadatta was reborn.” Под конец монахи спросили Благословенного: "Досточтимый, скажите нам где переродился Дэвадатта".
«Avīcimahāniraye, bhikkhave»ti. “Monks, he was reborn in the Avīci hell.” "Монахи, он переродился в аду Авичи".
«Bhante, idha tappanto vicaritvā puna gantvā tappanaṭṭhāneyeva nibbatto»ti. “Reverend Sir, during his life here on earth he suffered, and when he went hence he was reborn in a place of suffering.” "Досточтимый, здесь он мучался и уйдя туда он переродился в месте, полном мучений".
«Āma, bhikkhave, pabbajitā vā hontu gahaṭṭhā vā, pamādavihārino ubhayattha tappantiyevā»ti vatvā imaṃ gāthamāha : “Yes, monks, they that abide in Heedlessness, be they monks or laymen, suffer in both places. ” So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, "Да, монахи, те кто пребывают в беспечности, будь то монахи или миряне, мучаются в обоих мирах". Сказав это, он произнёс следующие строки:
17. «Idha tappati pecca tappati, pāpakārī ubhayattha tappati. 17. Here he suffers, after death he suffers; the evildoer suffers in both places. 17. Здесь он мучается и после смерти мучается; в обоих мирах мучается злодей.
Pāpaṃ me katanti tappati, bhiyyo tappati duggatiṃ gato»ti. He suffers to think, “I have done evil;” yet more does he suffer, gone to a place of suffering. Он мучается, думая: "Я совершил зло", ещё больше он мучается, попав в место, полное страданий".
Tattha idha tappatīti idha kammatappanena domanassamattena tappati.
Peccāti paraloke pana vipākatappanena atidāruṇena apāyadukkhena tappati.
Pāpakārīti nānappakārassa pāpassa kattā.
Ubhayatthāti iminā vuttappakārena tappanena ubhayattha tappati nāma.
Pāpaṃ meti so hi kammatappanena kappanto «pāpaṃ me kata»nti tappati.
Taṃ appamattakaṃ tappanaṃ, vipākatappanena pana tappanto bhiyyo tappati duggatiṃ gato atipharusena tappanena ativiya tappatīti.
Gāthāpariyosāne bahū sotāpannādayo ahesuṃ.
Desanā mahājanassa sātthikā jātāti.
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История Сарипутты и Моггаланы - PTS DhPA 1.87
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Редакция перевода от 20.04.2017 11:04