Гл. 3. Виды темпераментов

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Cariyāvaṇṇanā ¶
43. Idāni attano cariyānukūlanti ettha cariyāti cha cariyā rāgacariyā, dosacariyā, mohacariyā, saddhācariyā, buddhicariyā, vitakkacariyāti. 74.Now, as to the words, one that suits his temperament (§28): there are six kinds of temperament, that is, greedy temperament, hating temperament, deluded temperament, faithful temperament, intelligent temperament, and speculative temperament. В части слов "что подходит его темпераменту". Таковы шесть темпераментов: алчный, ненавидящий, заблуждающийся, убеждённый, интеллектуальный, склонный к пустым рассуждениям.
Keci pana rāgādīnaṃ saṃsaggasannipātavasena aparāpi catasso, tathā saddhādīnanti imāhi aṭṭhahi saddhiṃ cuddasa icchanti. Some would have fourteen, taking these six single ones together with the four made up of the three double combinations and one triple combination with the greed triad and likewise with the faith triad.
Evaṃ pana bhede vuccamāne rāgādīnaṃ saddhādīhipi saṃsaggaṃ katvā anekā cariyā honti, tasmā saṅkhepena chaḷeva cariyā veditabbā. But if this classification is admitted, there are many more kinds of temperament possible by combining greed, etc., with faith, etc.; therefore the kinds of temperament should be understood briefly as only six.
Cariyā, pakati, ussannatāti atthato ekaṃ. As to meaning the temperaments are one, that is to say, personal nature, idiosyncrasy.
Tāsaṃ vasena chaḷeva puggalā honti rāgacarito, dosacarito, mohacarito, saddhācarito, buddhicarito, vitakkacaritoti. ¶ According to [102] these there are only six types of persons, that is, one of greedy temperament, one of hating temperament, one of deluded temperament, one of faithful temperament, one of intelligent temperament, and one of speculative temperament. ¶
Tattha yasmā rāgacaritassa kusalappavattisamaye saddhā balavatī hoti, rāgassa āsannaguṇattā. 75.Herein, one of faithful temperament is parallel to one of greedy temperament because faith is strong when profitable [kamma] occurs in one of greedy temperament, owing to its special qualities being near to those of greed.
Yathā hi akusalapakkhe rāgo siniddho nātilūkho, evaṃ kusalapakkhe saddhā. For, in an unprofitable way, greed is affectionate and not over-austere, and so, in a profitable way, is faith.
Yathā rāgo vatthukāme pariyesati, evaṃ saddhā sīlādiguṇe. Greed seeks out sense desires as object, while faith seeks out the special qualities of virtue and so on.
Yathā rāgo ahitaṃ na pariccajati, evaṃ saddhā hitaṃ na pariccajati, tasmā rāgacaritassa saddhācarito sabhāgo. ¶ And greed does not give up what is harmful, while faith does not give up what is beneficial. ¶
Yasmā pana dosacaritassa kusalappavattisamaye paññā balavatī hoti, dosassa āsannaguṇattā. 76.One of intelligent temperament is parallel to one of hating temperament because understanding is strong when profitable [kamma] occurs in one of hating temperament, owing to its special qualities being near to those of hate.
Yathā hi akusalapakkhe doso nissineho na ārammaṇaṃ allīyati, evaṃ kusalapakkhe paññā. For, in an unprofitable way, hate is disaffected and does not hold to its object, and so, in a profitable way, is understanding.
Yathā ca doso abhūtampi dosameva pariyesati, evaṃ paññā bhūtaṃ dosameva. Hate seeks out only unreal faults, while understanding seeks out only real faults.
Yathā doso sattaparivajjanākārena pavattati, evaṃ paññā saṅkhāraparivajjanākārena, tasmā dosacaritassa buddhicarito sabhāgo. ¶ And hate occurs in the mode of condemning living beings, while understanding occurs in the mode of condemning formations. ¶
Yasmā pana mohacaritassa anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya vāyamamānassa yebhuyyena antarāyakarā vitakkā uppajjanti, mohassa āsannalakkhaṇattā. 77.One of speculative temperament is parallel to one of deluded temperament because obstructive applied thoughts arise often in one of deluded temperament who is striving to arouse unarisen profitable states, owing to their special qualities being near to those of delusion.
Yathā hi moho paribyākulatāya anavaṭṭhito, evaṃ vitakko nānappakāravitakkanatāya. For just as delusion is restless owing to perplexity, so are applied thoughts that are due to thinking over various aspects.
Yathā ca moho apariyogāhaṇatāya cañcalo. And just as delusion vacillates owing to superficiality,
Tathā vitakko lahuparikappanatāya, tasmā mohacaritassa vitakkacarito sabhāgoti. ¶ so do applied thoughts that are due to facile conjecturing. ¶
Apare taṇhāmānadiṭṭhivasena aparāpi tisso cariyā vadanti. 78.Others say that there are three more kinds of temperament with craving, pride, and views.
Tattha taṇhā rāgoyeva, māno ca taṃsampayuttoti tadubhayaṃ rāgacariyaṃ nātivattati. Herein craving is simply greed; and pride18 is associated with that, so neither of them exceeds greed.
Mohanidānattā ca diṭṭhiyā diṭṭhicariyā mohacariyameva anupatati. ¶ And since views have their source in delusion, the temperament of views falls within the deluded temperament. ¶
44. Tā panetā cariyā kinnidānā? 79.What is the source of these temperaments?
Kathañca jānitabbaṃ "ayaṃ puggalo rāgacarito, ayaṃ puggalo dosādīsu aññataracarito"ti? And how is it to be known that such a person is of greedy temperament, that such a person is of one of those beginning with hating temperament?
Kiṃ caritassa puggalassa kiṃ sappāyanti? ¶ What suits one of what kind of temperament? ¶
Tatra purimā tāva tisso cariyā pubbāciṇṇanidānā, dhātudosanidānā cāti ekacce vadanti. 80.Herein, as some say,19 the first three kinds of temperament to begin with have their source in previous habit; and they have their source in elements and humours.
Pubbe kira iṭṭhappayogasubhakammabahulo rāgacarito hoti, saggā vā cavitvā idhūpapanno. Apparently one of greedy temperament has formerly had plenty of desirable tasks and gratifying work to do, or has reappeared here after dying in a heaven.
Pubbe chedanavadhabandhanaverakammabahulo dosacarito hoti, nirayanāgayonīhi vā cavitvā idhūpapanno. And one of hating temperament has formerly had plenty of stabbing and torturing and brutal work to do or has reappeared here after dying in one of the hells or the nāga (serpent) existences.
Pubbe majjapānabahulo sutaparipucchāvihīno ca mohacarito hoti, tiracchānayoniyā vā cavitvā idhūpapannoti evaṃ pubbāciṇṇanidānāti vadanti. And one [103] of deluded temperament has formerly drunk a lot of intoxicants and neglected learning and questioning, or has reappeared here after dying in the animal existence. It is in this way that they have their source in previous habit, they say.
Dvinnaṃ pana dhātūnaṃ ussannattā puggalo mohacarito hoti pathavīdhātuyā ca āpodhātuyā ca. 81. Then a person is of deluded temperament because two elements are prominent, that is to say, the earth element and the water element.
Itarāsaṃ dvinnaṃ ussannattā dosacarito. He is of hating temperament because the other two elements are prominent.
Sabbāsaṃ samattā pana rāgacaritoti. But he is of greedy temperament because all four are equal.
Dosesu ca semhādhiko rāgacarito hoti. And as regards the humours, one of greedy temperament has phlegm in excess
Vātādhiko mohacarito. and one of deluded temperament has wind in excess.
Semhādhiko vā mohacarito. Or one of deluded temperament has phlegm in excess
Vātādhiko rāgacaritoti evaṃ dhātudosanidānāti vadanti. ¶ and one of greedy temperament has wind in excess. So they have their source in the elements and the humours, they say. ¶
Tattha yasmā pubbe iṭṭhappayogasubhakammabahulāpi saggā cavitvā idhūpapannāpi ca na sabbe rāgacaritāyeva honti, na itare vā dosamohacaritā. 82.[Now, it can rightly be objected that] not all of those who have had plenty of desirable tasks and gratifying work to do, and who have reappeared here after dying in a heaven, are of greedy temperament, or the others respectively of hating and deluded temperament;
Evaṃ dhātūnañca yathāvutteneva nayena ussadaniyamo nāma natthi. and there is no such law of prominence of elements (see XIV.43f.) as that asserted;
Dosaniyame ca rāgamohadvayameva vuttaṃ, tampi ca pubbāparaviruddhameva. and only the pair, greed and delusion, are given in the law of humours, and even that subsequently contradicts itself;
Saddhācariyādīsu ca ekissāpi nidānaṃ na vuttameva. and no source for even one among those beginning with one of faithful temperament is given.
Tasmā sabbametaṃ aparicchinnavacanaṃ. ¶ Consequently this definition is indecisive. ¶
Ayaṃ panettha aṭṭhakathācariyānaṃ matānusārena vinicchayo, vuttañhetaṃ ussadakittane (dha. sa. aṭṭha. 498) "ime sattā pubbahetuniyāmena lobhussadā dosussadā mohussadā alobhussadā adosussadā amohussadā ca honti. ¶ 83.The following is the exposition according to the opinion of the teachers of the commentaries; or this is said in the “explanation of prominence”: “The fact that these beings have prominence of greed, prominence of hate, prominence of delusion, is governed by previous root-cause.“ ¶
Yassa hi kammāyūhanakkhaṇe lobho balavā hoti alobho mando, adosāmohā balavanto dosamohā mandā, tassa mando alobho lobhaṃ pariyādātuṃ na sakkoti. For when in one man, at the moment of his accumulating [rebirth-producing] kamma, greed is strong and non-greed is weak, non-hate and non-delusion are strong and hate and delusion are weak, then his weak non-greed is unable to prevail over his greed,
Adosāmohā pana balavanto dosamohe pariyādātuṃ sakkoti. but his non-hate and non-delusion being strong are able to prevail over his hate and delusion.
Tasmā so tena kammena dinnapaṭisandhivasena nibbatto luddho hoti sukhasīlo akkodhano paññavā vajirūpamañāṇo. ¶ That is why, on being reborn through rebirth-linking given by that kamma, he has greed, is good-natured and unangry, and possesses understanding with knowledge like a lightning flash. ¶
Yassa pana kammāyūhanakkhaṇe lobhadosā balavanto honti alobhādosā mandā, amoho balavā moho mando, so purimanayeneva luddho ceva hoti duṭṭho ca. 84.“When, at the moment of another’s accumulating kamma, greed and hate are strong and non-greed and non-hate weak, and non-delusion is strong and delusion weak, then in the way already stated he has both greed and hate
Paññavā pana hoti vajirūpamañāṇo dattābhayatthero viya. ¶ but possesses understanding with knowledge like a lightning flash, like the Elder Datta-Abhaya. ¶
Yassa kammāyūhanakkhaṇe lobhādosamohā balavanto honti itare mandā, so purimanayeneva luddho ceva hoti dandho ca, sīlako pana hoti akkodhano (bākulatthero viya). ¶ “When, at the moment of his accumulating kamma, greed, non-hate and delusion are strong and the others are weak, then in the way already stated he both has greed and is dull but is good-tempered20 and unangry, like the Elder Bahula.“ ¶
Tathā yassa kammāyūhanakkhaṇe tayopi lobhadosamohā balavanto honti alobhādayo mandā, so purimanayeneva luddho ceva hoti duṭṭho ca mūḷho ca. ¶ Likewise when, at the moment of his accumulating kamma, the three, namely, greed, hate and delusion are strong and non-greed, etc., are weak, then in the way already stated he has both greed and hate and is deluded. ¶
Yassa pana kammāyūhanakkhaṇe alobhadosamohā balavanto honti itare mandā, so purimanayeneva aluddho appakileso hoti dibbārammaṇampi disvā niccalo, duṭṭho pana hoti dandhapañño ca. ¶ 85. “When, at the moment of his accumulating kamma, non-greed, hate and delusion are strong and the others are weak, then in the way already stated he has little defilement and is unshakable even on seeing a heavenly object, but he has hate and is slow in understanding.“ ¶
Yassa pana kammāyūhanakkhaṇe alobhādosamohā balavanto honti itare mandā, so purimanayeneva aluddho ceva hoti aduṭṭho sīlako ca, dandho pana hoti. ¶ When, at the moment of his accumulating kamma, non-greed, non-hate and non-delusion are strong and the rest weak, then in the way already stated he has no greed and no hate, and is good-tempered but slow in understanding.“ ¶
Tathā yassa kammāyūhanakkhaṇe alobhadosāmohā balavanto honti itare mandā, so purimanayeneva aluddho ceva hoti paññavā ca, duṭṭho ca pana hoti kodhano. ¶ Likewise when, at the moment of his accumulating kamma, non-greed, hate and non-delusion are strong and the rest weak, then in the way already stated he both has no greed and possesses understanding but has hate and is irascible.“ ¶
Yassa pana kammāyūhanakkhaṇe tayopi alobhādosāmohā balavanto honti lobhādayo mandā, so purimanayeneva mahāsaṅgharakkhitatthero viya aluddho aduṭṭho paññavā ca hotī"ti. ¶ Likewise when, at the moment of his accumulating kamma, the three, that is, non-hate, non-greed, and non-delusion, are strong and greed, etc., are weak, then in the way already stated he has no greed and no hate and possesses understanding, like the Elder Mahā-Saṅgharakkhita. ” ¶
Ettha ca yo luddhoti vutto, ayaṃ rāgacarito. 86.One who, as it is said here, “has greed” is one of greedy temperament;
Duṭṭhadandhā dosamohacaritā. one who “has hate” and one who “is dull” are respectively of hating temperament and deluded temperament.
Paññavā buddhicarito. One who “possesses understanding” is one of intelligent temperament.
Aluddhaaduṭṭhā pasannapakatitāya saddhācaritā. One who “has no greed” and one who “has no hate” are of faithful temperament because they are naturally trustful.
Yathā vā amohaparivārena kammunā nibbatto buddhicarito, evaṃ balavasaddhāparivārena kammunā nibbatto saddhācarito. Or just as one who is reborn through kamma accompanied by non-delusion is of intelligent temperament, so one who is reborn through kamma accompanied by strong faith is of faithful temperament,
Kāmavitakkādiparivārena kammunā nibbatto vitakkacarito. one who is reborn through kamma accompanied by thoughts of sense desire is of speculative temperament,
Lobhādinā vomissaparivārena kammunā nibbatto vomissacaritoti. and one who is reborn through kamma accompanied by mixed greed, etc., is of mixed temperament.
Evaṃ lobhādīsu aññataraññataraparivāraṃ paṭisandhijanakaṃ kammaṃ cariyānaṃ nidānanti veditabbaṃ. ¶ So it is the kamma productive of rebirth-linking and accompanied by someone among the things beginning with greed that should be understood as the source of the temperaments. ¶
45. Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ kathañca jānitabbaṃ ayaṃ puggalo rāgacaritotiādi. 87. But it was asked, and how is it to be known that “This person is of greedy temperament? ” (§79), and so on.
Tatrāyaṃ nayo. ¶ This is explained as follows: ¶
Iriyāpathato kiccā, bhojanā dassanādito; ¶ By the posture, by the action, By eating, seeing, and so on, ¶
Dhammappavattito ceva, cariyāyo vibhāvayeti. ¶ By the kind of states occurring, May temperament be recognized. ¶
Tattha iriyāpathatoti rāgacarito hi pakatigamanena gacchanto cāturiyena gacchati, saṇikaṃ pādaṃ nikkhipati, samaṃ nikkhipati, samaṃ uddharati, ukkuṭikañcassa padaṃ hoti. 88. Herein, by the posture: when one of greedy temperament is walking in his usual manner, he walks carefully, puts his foot down slowly, puts it down evenly, lifts it up evenly, and his step is springy. 21
Dosacarito pādaggehi khaṇanto viya gacchati, sahasā pādaṃ nikkhipati, sahasā uddharati, anukaḍḍhitañcassa padaṃ hoti. One of hating temperament walks as though he were digging with the points of his feet, puts his foot down quickly, lifts it up quickly, and his step is dragged along.
Mohacarito paribyākulāya gatiyā gacchati, chambhito viya padaṃ nikkhipati, chambhito viya uddharati, sahasānupīḷitañcassa padaṃ hoti. One of deluded temperament walks with a perplexed gait, puts his foot down hesitantly, lifts it up hesitantly, [105] and his step is pressed down suddenly.
Vuttampi cetaṃ māgaṇḍiyasuttuppattiyaṃ – ¶ And this is said in the account of the origin of the Māgandiya Sutta: ¶
"Rattassa hi ukkuṭikaṃ padaṃ bhave, ¶ The step of one of greedy nature will be springy; ¶
Duṭṭhassa hoti anukaḍḍhitaṃ padaṃ; ¶ The step of one of hating nature, dragged along; ¶
Mūḷhassa hoti sahasānupīḷitaṃ, ¶ Deluded, he will suddenly press down his step; ¶
Vivaṭṭacchadassa idamīdisaṃ pada"nti. ¶ And one without defilement has a step like this. 22 ¶
Ṭhānampi rāgacaritassa pāsādikaṃ hoti madhurākāraṃ, dosacaritassa thaddhākāraṃ, mohacaritassa ākulākāraṃ. 89.The stance of one of greedy temperament is confident and graceful. That of one of hating temperament is rigid. That of one of deluded temperament is muddled,
Nisajjāyapi eseva nayo. likewise in sitting.
Rāgacarito ca ataramāno samaṃ seyyaṃ paññapetvā saṇikaṃ nipajjitvā aṅgapaccaṅgāni samodhāya pāsādikena ākārena sayati, vuṭṭhāpiyamāno ca sīghaṃ avuṭṭhāya saṅkito viya saṇikaṃ paṭivacanaṃ deti. And one of greedy temperament spreads his bed unhurriedly, lies down slowly, composing his limbs, and he sleeps in a confident manner. When woken, instead of getting up quickly, he gives his answer slowly as though doubtful.
Dosacarito taramāno yathā vā tathā vā seyyaṃ paññapetvā pakkhittakāyo bhākuṭiṃ katvā sayati, vuṭṭhāpiyamāno ca sīghaṃ vuṭṭhāya kupito viya paṭivacanaṃ deti. One of hating temperament spreads his bed hastily anyhow; with his body flung down he sleeps with a scowl. When woken, he gets up quickly and answers as though annoyed.
Mohacarito dussaṇṭhānaṃ seyyaṃ paññapetvā vikkhittakāyo bahulaṃ adhomukho sayati, vuṭṭhāpiyamāno ca huṅkāraṃ karonto dandhaṃ vuṭṭhāti. One of deluded temperament spreads his bed all awry and sleeps mostly face downwards with his body sprawling. When woken, he gets up slowly, saying, “Hum. ”
Saddhācaritādayo pana yasmā rāgacaritādīnaṃ sabhāgā, tasmā tesampi tādisova iriyāpatho hotīti. 90. Since those of faithful temperament, etc., are parallel to those of greedy temperament, etc., their postures are therefore like those described above.
Evaṃ tāva iriyāpathato cariyāyo vibhāvaye. ¶ This firstly is how the temperaments may be recognized by the posture. ¶
Kiccāti sammajjanādīsu ca kiccesu rāgacarito sādhukaṃ sammajjaniṃ gahetvā ataramāno vālikaṃ avippakiranto sinduvārakusumasantharamiva santharanto suddhaṃ samaṃ sammajjati. 91.By the action: also in the acts of sweeping, etc., one of greedy temperament grasps the broom well, and he sweeps cleanly and evenly without hurrying or scattering the sand, as if he were strewing sinduvāra flowers.
Dosacarito gāḷhaṃ sammajjaniṃ gahetvā taramānarūpo ubhato vālikaṃ ussārento kharena saddena asuddhaṃ visamaṃ sammajjati. One of hating temperament grasps the broom tightly, and he sweeps uncleanly and unevenly with a harsh noise, hurriedly throwing up the sand on each side.
Mohacarito sithilaṃ sammajjaniṃ gahetvā samparivattakaṃ āḷolayamāno asuddhaṃ visamaṃ sammajjati. ¶ One of deluded temperament grasps the broom loosely, and he sweeps neither cleanly nor evenly, mixing the sand up and turning it over. ¶
Yathā sammajjane, evaṃ cīvaradhovanarajanādīsupi sabbakiccesu nipuṇamadhurasamasakkaccakārī rāgacarito. 92.As with sweeping, so too with any action such as washing and dyeing robes, and so on. One of greedy temperament acts skilfully, gently, evenly and carefully.
Gāḷhathaddhavisamakārī dosacarito. One of hating temperament acts tensely, stiffly and unevenly.
Anipuṇabyākulavisamāparicchinnakārī mohacarito. One of deluded temperament acts unskilfully as if muddled, unevenly and indecisively.
Cīvaradhāraṇampi ca rāgacaritassa nātigāḷhaṃ nātisithilaṃ hoti pāsādikaṃ parimaṇḍalaṃ. Also one of greedy temperament wears his robe neither too tightly nor too loosely, confidently and level all round.
Dosacaritassa atigāḷhaṃ aparimaṇḍalaṃ. One of hating temperament wears it too tight and not level all round.
Mohacaritassa sithilaṃ paribyākulaṃ. One of deluded temperament wears it loosely and in a muddled way.
Saddhācaritādayo tesaṃyevānusārena veditabbā, taṃ sabhāgattāti. Those of faithful temperament, etc., should be understood in the same way as those just described, since they are parallel.
Evaṃ kiccato cariyāyo vibhāvaye. ¶ This is how the temperaments may be recognized by the actions. ¶
Bhojanāti rāgacarito siniddhamadhurabhojanappiyo hoti, bhuñjamāno ca nātimahantaṃ parimaṇḍalaṃ ālopaṃ katvā rasapaṭisaṃvedī ataramāno bhuñjati, kiñcideva ca sāduṃ labhitvā somanassaṃ āpajjati. 93.By eating: One of greedy temperament likes eating rich sweet food. When eating, he makes a round lump not too big and eats unhurriedly, savouring the various tastes. He enjoys getting something good.
Dosacarito lūkhaambilabhojanappiyo hoti, bhuñjamāno ca mukhapūrakaṃ ālopaṃ katvā arasapaṭisaṃvedī taramāno bhuñjati, kiñcideva ca asāduṃ labhitvā domanassaṃ āpajjati. One of hating temperament likes eating rough sour food. When eating he makes a lump that fills his mouth, and he eats hurriedly without savouring the taste. He is aggrieved when he gets something not good.
Mohacarito aniyataruciko hoti, bhuñjamāno ca aparimaṇḍalaṃ parittaṃ ālopaṃ katvā bhājane chaḍḍento mukhaṃ makkhento vikkhittacitto taṃ taṃ vitakkento bhuñjati. One of deluded temperament has no settled choice. When eating, he makes a small un-rounded lump, and as he eats he drops bits into his dish, smearing his face, with his mind astray, thinking of this and that.
Saddhācaritādayopi tesaṃyevānusārena veditabbā, taṃsabhāgattāti. Also those of faithful temperament, etc., should be understood in the same way as those just described since they are parallel.
Evaṃ bhojanato cariyāyo vibhāvaye. ¶ This is how the temperament may be recognized by eating. ¶
Dassanāditoti rāgacarito īsakampi manoramaṃ rūpaṃ disvā vimhayajāto viya ciraṃ oloketi, parittepi guṇe sajjati, bhūtampi dosaṃ na gaṇhāti, pakkamantopi amuñcitukāmova hutvā sāpekkho pakkamati. 94.And by seeing and so on: when one of greedy temperament sees even a slightly pleasing visible object, he looks long as if surprised, he seizes on trivial virtues, discounts genuine faults, and when departing, he does so with regret as if unwilling to leave.
Dosacarito īsakampi amanoramaṃ rūpaṃ disvā kilantarūpo viya na ciraṃ oloketi, parittepi dose paṭihaññati, bhūtampi guṇaṃ na gaṇhāti, pakkamantopi muñcitukāmova hutvā anapekkho pakkamati. When one of hating temperament sees even a slightly unpleasing visible object, he avoids looking long as if he were tired, he picks out trivial faults, discounts genuine virtues, and when departing, he does so without regret as if anxious to leave.
Mohacarito yaṃkiñci rūpaṃ disvā parapaccayiko hoti, paraṃ nindantaṃ sutvā nindati, pasaṃsantaṃ sutvā pasaṃsati, sayaṃ pana aññāṇupekkhāya upekkhakova hoti. When one of deluded temperament sees any sort of visible object, he copies what others do: if he hears others criticizing, he criticizes; if he hears others praising, he praises; but actually he feels equanimity in himself—the equanimity of unknowing.
Esa nayo saddasavanādīsupi. So too with sounds, and so on.
Saddhācaritādayo pana tesaṃyevānusārena veditabbā, taṃsabhāgattāti. And those of faithful temperament, etc., should be understood in the same way as those just described since they are parallel.
Evaṃ dassanādito cariyāyo vibhāvaye. ¶ This is how the temperaments may be recognized by seeing and so on. ¶
Dhammappavattito cevāti rāgacaritassa ca māyā, sāṭheyyaṃ, māno, pāpicchatā, mahicchatā, asantuṭṭhitā, siṅgaṃ, cāpalyanti evamādayo dhammā bahulaṃ pavattanti. 95.By the kind of states occurring: in one of greedy temperament there is frequent occurrence of such states as deceit, fraud, pride, evilness of wishes, greatness of wishes, discontent, foppery and personal vanity.
Dosacaritassa kodho, upanāho, makkho, paḷāso, issā, macchariyanti evamādayo. 23 [107] In one of hating temperament there is frequent occurrence of such states as anger, enmity, disparaging, domineering, envy and avarice.
Mohacaritassa thinaṃ, middhaṃ, uddhaccaṃ, kukkuccaṃ, vicikicchā, ādhānaggāhitā, duppaṭinissaggitāti evamādayo. In one of deluded temperament there is frequent occurrence of such states as stiffness, torpor, agitation, worry, uncertainty, and holding on tenaciously with refusal to relinquish.
Saddhācaritassa muttacāgatā, ariyānaṃ dassanakāmatā, saddhammaṃ sotukāmatā, pāmojjabahulatā, asaṭhatā, amāyāvitā, pasādanīyesu ṭhānesu pasādoti evamādayo. In one of faithful temperament there is frequent occurrence of such states as free generosity, desire to see Noble Ones, desire to hear the Good Dhamma, great gladness, ingenuousness, honesty, and trust in things that inspire trust.
Buddhicaritassa sovacassatā, kalyāṇamittatā, bhojanemattaññutā, satisampajaññaṃ, jāgariyānuyogo, saṃvejanīyesu ṭhānesu saṃvego, saṃviggassa ca yoniso padhānanti evamādayo. In one of intelligent temperament there is frequent occurrence of such states as readiness to be spoken to, possession of good friends, knowledge of the right amount in eating, mindfulness and full awareness, devotion to wakefulness, a sense of urgency about things that should inspire a sense of urgency, and wisely directed endeavour.
Vitakkacaritassa bhassabahulatā, gaṇārāmatā, kusalānuyoge arati, anavaṭṭhitakiccatā, rattiṃ dhūmāyanā, divā pajjalanā, hurāhuraṃ dhāvanāti evamādayo dhammā bahulaṃ pavattantīti. In one of speculative temperament there is frequent occurrence of such states as talkativeness, sociability, boredom with devotion to the profitable, failure to finish undertakings, smoking by night and flaming by day (see M I 144—that is to say, hatching plans at night and putting them into effect by day), and mental running hither and thither (see Ud 37).
Evaṃ dhammappavattito cariyāyo vibhāvaye. ¶ This is how the temperaments may be recognized by the kind of states occurring. ¶
Yasmā pana idaṃ cariyāvibhāvanavidhānaṃ sabbākārena neva pāḷiyaṃ na aṭṭhakathāyaṃ āgataṃ, kevalaṃ ācariyamatānusārena vuttaṃ, tasmā na sārato paccetabbaṃ. 96.However, these directions for recognizing the temperaments have not been handed down in their entirety in either the texts or the commentaries; they are only expressed according to the opinion of the teachers and cannot therefore be treated as authentic.
Rāgacaritassa hi vuttāni iriyāpathādīni dosacaritādayopi appamādavihārino kātuṃ sakkonti. For even those of hating temperament can exhibit postures, etc., ascribed to the greedy temperament when they try diligently.
Saṃsaṭṭhacaritassa ca puggalassa ekasseva bhinnalakkhaṇā iriyāpathādayo na upapajjanti. And postures, etc., never arise with distinct characteristics in a person of mixed temperament.
Yaṃ panetaṃ aṭṭhakathāsu cariyāvibhāvanavidhānaṃ vuttaṃ, tadeva sārato paccetabbaṃ. Only such directions for recognizing temperament as are given in the commentaries should be treated as authentic;
Vuttañhetaṃ "cetopariyañāṇassa lābhī ācariyo cariyaṃ ñatvā kammaṭṭhānaṃ kathessati, itarena antevāsiko pucchitabbo"ti. for this is said: “A teacher who has acquired penetration of minds will know the temperament and will explain a meditation subject accordingly; one who has not should question the pupil.”
Tasmā cetopariyañāṇena vā taṃ vā puggalaṃ pucchitvā jānitabbaṃ. So it is by penetration of minds or by questioning the person, that it can be known
Ayaṃ puggalo rāgacarito, ayaṃ dosādīsu aññataracaritoti. ¶ whether he is one of greedy temperament or one of those beginning with hating temperament. ¶
46. Kiṃ caritassa puggalassa kiṃ sappāyanti ettha pana senāsanaṃ tāva rāgacaritassa adhotavedikaṃ bhūmaṭṭhakaṃ akatapabbhārakaṃ tiṇakuṭikaṃ paṇṇasālādīnaṃ aññataraṃ rajokiṇṇaṃ jatukābharitaṃ oluggaviluggaṃ atiuccaṃ vā atinīcaṃ vā ujjaṅgalaṃ sāsaṅkaṃ asucivisamamaggaṃ, yattha mañcapīṭhampi maṅkuṇabharitaṃ durūpaṃ dubbaṇṇaṃ, yaṃ olokentasseva jigucchā uppajjati, tādisaṃ sappāyaṃ. 97.What suits one of what kind of temperament?(§79). A suitable lodging for one of greedy temperament has an unwashed sill and stands level with the ground, and it can be either an overhanging [rock with an] unprepared [drip-ledge] (see Ch. II, note 15), a grass hut, or a leaf house, etc. It ought to be spattered with dirt, full of bats,24 dilapidated, too high or too low, in bleak surroundings, threatened [by lions, tigers, etc.,] with a muddy, uneven path, [108] where even the bed and chair are full of bugs. And it should be ugly and unsightly, exciting loathing as soon as looked at.
Nivāsanapārupanaṃ antacchinnaṃ olambavilambasuttakākiṇṇaṃ jālapūvasadisaṃ sāṇi viya kharasamphassaṃ kiliṭṭhaṃ bhārikaṃ kicchapariharaṇaṃ sappāyaṃ. Suitable inner and outer garments are those that have torn-off edges with threads hanging down all round like a “net cake,”25 harsh to the touch like hemp, soiled, heavy and hard to wear.
Pattopi dubbaṇṇo mattikāpatto vā āṇigaṇṭhikāhato ayopatto vā garuko dussaṇṭhāno sīsakapālamiva jeguccho vaṭṭati. And the right kind of bowl for him is an ugly clay bowl disfigured by stoppings and joints, or a heavy and misshapen iron bowl as unappetizing as a skull.
Bhikkhācāramaggopi amanāpo anāsannagāmo visamo vaṭṭati. The right kind of road for him on which to wander for alms is disagreeable, with no village near, and uneven.
Bhikkhācāragāmopi yattha manussā apassantā viya caranti, yattha ekakulepi bhikkhaṃ alabhitvā nikkhamantaṃ "ehi, bhante"ti āsanasālaṃ pavesetvā yāgubhattaṃ datvā gacchantā gāvī viya vaje pavesetvā anapalokentā gacchanti, tādiso vaṭṭati. The right kind of village for him in which to wander for alms is where people wander about as if oblivious of him, where, as he is about to leave without getting alms even from a single family, people call him into the sitting hall, saying, “Come, venerable sir,” and give him gruel and rice, but do so as casually as if they were putting a cow in a pen.
Parivisakamanussāpi dāsā vā kammakarā vā dubbaṇṇā duddasikā kiliṭṭhavasanā duggandhā jegucchā, ye acittīkārena yāgubhattaṃ chaḍḍentā viya parivisanti, tādisā sappāyā. Suitable people to serve him are slaves or workmen who are unsightly, ill-favoured, with dirty clothes, ill-smelling and disgusting, who serve him his gruel and rice as if they were throwing it rudely at him.
Yāgubhattakhajjakampi lūkhaṃ dubbaṇṇaṃ sāmākakudrūsakakaṇājakādimayaṃ pūtitakkaṃ bilaṅgaṃ jiṇṇasākasūpeyyaṃ yaṃkiñcideva kevalaṃ udarapūramattaṃ vaṭṭati. The right kind of gruel and rice and hard food is poor, unsightly, made up of millet, kudusaka, broken rice, etc., stale buttermilk, sour gruel, curry of old vegetables, or anything at all that is merely for filling the stomach.
Iriyāpathopissa ṭhānaṃ vā caṅkamo vā vaṭṭati. The right kind of posture for him is either standing or walking.
Ārammaṇaṃ nīlādīsu vaṇṇakasiṇesu yaṃkiñci aparisuddhavaṇṇanti idaṃ rāgacaritassa sappāyaṃ. ¶ The object of his contemplation should be any of the colour kasiṇas, beginning with the blue, whose colour is not pure. This is what suits one of greedy temperament. ¶
Dosacaritassa senāsanaṃ nātiuccaṃ nātinīcaṃ chāyūdakasampannaṃ suvibhattabhittithambhasopānaṃ supariniṭṭhitamālākammalatākammanānāvidhacittakammasamujjalasamasiniddhamudubhūmitalaṃ brahmavimānamiva kusumadāmavicitravaṇṇacelavitānasamalaṅkataṃ supaññattasucimanoramattharaṇamañcapīṭhaṃ tattha tattha vāsatthāya nikkhittakusumavāsagandhasugandhaṃ yaṃ dassanamatteneva pītipāmojjaṃ janayati, evarūpaṃ sappāyaṃ. 98.A suitable resting place for one of hating temperament is not too high or too low, provided with shade and water, with well-proportioned walls, posts and steps, with well-prepared frieze work and lattice work, brightened with various kinds of painting, with an even, smooth, soft floor, adorned with festoons of flowers and a canopy of many-coloured cloth like a Brahmā-god’s divine palace, with bed and chair covered with well-spread clean pretty covers, smelling sweetly of flowers, and perfumes and scents set about for homely comfort, which makes one happy and glad at the mere sight of it. 99.
Tassa pana senāsanassa maggopi sabbaparissayavimutto sucisamatalo alaṅkatapaṭiyattova vaṭṭati. The right kind of road to his lodging is free from any sort of danger, traverses clean, even ground, and has been properly prepared.
Senāsanaparikkhāropettha kīṭamaṅkuṇadīghajātimūsikānaṃ nissayaparicchindanatthaṃ nātibahuko, ekamañcapīṭhamattameva vaṭṭati. And here it is best that the lodging’s furnishings are not too many in order to avoid hiding-places for insects, bugs, snakes and rats: even a single bed and chair only.
Nivāsanapārupanampissa cīnapaṭṭasomārapaṭṭakoseyyakappāsikasukhumakhomādīnaṃ yaṃ yaṃ paṇītaṃ, tena tena ekapaṭṭaṃ vā dupaṭṭaṃ vā sallahukaṃ samaṇasāruppena surattaṃ suddhavaṇṇaṃ vaṭṭati. The right kind of inner and outer garments for him are of any superior stuff such as China cloth, Somāra cloth, silk, fine cotton, fine linen, of either single or double thickness, quite light, and well dyed, quite pure in colour to befit an ascetic.
Patto udakapupphuḷamiva susaṇṭhāno maṇi viya sumaṭṭho nimmalo samaṇasāruppena suparisuddhavaṇṇo ayomayo vaṭṭati. The right kind of bowl is made of iron, as well shaped as a water bubble, as polished as a gem, spotless, and of quite pure colour to befit an ascetic.
Bhikkhācāramaggo parissayavimutto samo manāpo nātidūranāccāsannagāmo vaṭṭati. The right kind of road on which to wander for alms is free from dangers, level, agreeable, with the village neither too far nor too near.
Bhikkhācāragāmopi yattha manussā "idāni ayyo āgamissatī"ti sittasammaṭṭhe padese āsanaṃ paññāpetvā paccuggantvā pattaṃ ādāya gharaṃ pavesetvā paññattāsane nisīdāpetvā sakkaccaṃ sahatthā parivisanti, tādiso vaṭṭati. The right kind of village in which to wander for alms is where people, thinking, “Now our lord is coming,” prepare a seat in a sprinkled, swept place, and going out to meet him, take his bowl, lead him to the house, seat him on a prepared seat and serve him carefully with their own hands.
Parivesakā panassa ye honti abhirūpā pāsādikā sunhātā suvilittā dhūpavāsakusumagandhasurabhino nānāvirāgasucimanuññavatthābharaṇapaṭimaṇḍitā sakkaccakārino, tādisā sappāyā. 100. Suitable people to serve him are handsome, pleasing, well bathed, well anointed, scented26 with the perfume of incense and the smell of flowers, adorned with apparel made of variously-dyed clean pretty cloth, who do their work carefully.
Yāgubhattakhajjakampi vaṇṇagandharasasampannaṃ ojavantaṃ manoramaṃ sabbākārapaṇītaṃ yāvadatthaṃ vaṭṭati. The right kind of gruel, rice, and hard food has colour, smell and taste, possesses nutritive essence, and is inviting, superior in every way, and enough for his wants.
Iriyāpathopissa seyyā vā nisajjā vā vaṭṭati, ārammaṇaṃ nīlādīsu vaṇṇakasiṇesu yaṃkiñci suparisuddhavaṇṇanti idaṃ dosacaritassa sappāyaṃ. ¶ The right kind of posture for him is lying down or sitting. The object of his contemplation should be anyone of the colour kasiṇas, beginning with the blue, whose colour is quite pure. This is what suits one of hating temperament. ¶
Mohacaritassa senāsanaṃ disāmukhaṃ asambādhaṃ vaṭṭati, yattha nisinnassa vivaṭā disā khāyanti, iriyāpathesu caṅkamo vaṭṭati. 101.The right lodging for one of deluded temperament has a view and is not shut in, where the four quarters are visible to him as he sits there. As to the postures, walking is right.
Ārammaṇaṃ panassa parittaṃ suppamattaṃ sarāvamattaṃ vā (khuddakaṃ) na vaṭṭati. The right kind of object for his contemplation is not small, that is to say, the size of a winnowing basket or the size of a saucer;
Sambādhasmiñhi okāse cittaṃ bhiyyo sammohamāpajjati, tasmā vipulaṃ mahākasiṇaṃ vaṭṭati. for his mind becomes more confused in a confined space; so the right kind is an amply large kasiṇa.
Sesaṃ dosacaritassa vuttasadisamevāti idaṃ mohacaritassa sappāyaṃ. ¶ The rest is as stated for one of hating temperament. This is what suits one of deluded temperament. ¶
Saddhācaritassa sabbampi dosacaritamhi vuttavidhānaṃ sappāyaṃ. 102. For one of faithful temperament all the directions given for one of hating temperament are suitable.
Ārammaṇesu cassa anussatiṭṭhānampi vaṭṭati. ¶ As to the object of his contemplation, one of the recollections is right as well. ¶
Buddhicaritassa senāsanādīsu idaṃ nāma asappāyanti natthi. ¶ For one of intelligent temperament there is nothing unsuitable as far as concerns the lodging and so on. ¶
Vitakkacaritassa senāsanaṃ vivaṭaṃ disāmukhaṃ yattha nisinnassa ārāmavanapokkharaṇīrāmaṇeyyakāni gāmanigamajanapadapaṭipāṭiyo nīlobhāsā ca pabbatā paññāyanti, taṃ na vaṭṭati, tañhi vitakkavidhāvanasseva paccayo hoti, tasmā gambhīre darīmukhe vanappaṭicchanne hatthikucchipabbhāramahindaguhāsadise senāsane vasitabbaṃ. For one of speculative temperament an open lodging with a view, [110] where gardens, groves and ponds, pleasant prospects, panoramas of villages, towns and countryside, and the blue gleam of mountains, are visible to him as he sits there, is not right; for that is a condition for the running hither and thither of applied thought. So he should live in a lodging such as a deep cavern screened by woods like the Overhanging Rock of the Elephant’s Belly (Hatthikucchipabbhāra), or Mahinda’s Cave.
Ārammaṇampissa vipulaṃ na vaṭṭati. Also an ample-sized object of contemplation is not suitable for him;
Tādisañhi vitakkavasena sandhāvanassa paccayo hoti. for one like that is a condition for the running hither and thither of applied thought.
Parittaṃ pana vaṭṭati. ¶ A small one is right. ¶
Sesaṃ rāgacaritassa vuttasadisamevāti idaṃ vitakkacaritassa sappāyaṃ. The rest is as stated for one of greedy temperament. This is what suits one of speculative temperament.
Ayaṃ attano cariyānukūlanti ettha āgatacariyānaṃ pabhedanidānavibhāvanasappāyaparicchedato vitthāro. These are the details, with definition of the kind, source, recognition, and what is suitable, as regards the various temperaments handed down here with the words “that suits his own temperament” (§60).
Na ca tāva cariyānukūlaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ sabbākārena āvikataṃ. 103. However, the meditation subject that is suitable to the temperament has not been cleared up in all its aspects yet.
Tañhi anantarassa mātikāpadassa vitthāre sayameva āvibhavissati. This will become clear automatically when those in the following list are treated in detail. .
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