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Paṭhamajjhānakathā ¶ [ABSORPTION IN THE COGNITIVE SERIES] ¶
69. Iti evaṃ nimittābhimukhaṃ mānasaṃ paṭipādayato panassa idāni appanā ijjhissatīti bhavaṅgaṃ upacchinditvā pathavī pathavīti anuyogavasena upaṭṭhitaṃ tadeva pathavīkasiṇaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā manodvārāvajjanamuppajjati. 74. So, while he is guiding his mind in this way, confronting the sign, [then knowing]: “Now absorption will succeed,” there arises in him mind-door adverting with that same earth kasiṇa as its object, interrupting the [occurrence of consciousness as] life-continuum, and evoked by the constant repeating of “earth, earth.”
Tato tasmiṃyevārammaṇe cattāri pañca vā javanāni javanti. After that, either four or five impulsions impel on that same object,
Tesu avasāne ekaṃ rūpāvacaraṃ, sesāni kāmāvacarāni. the last one of which is an impulsion of the fine-material sphere. The rest are of the sense sphere,
Pakaticittehi balavataravitakkavicārapītisukhacittekaggatāni yāni appanāya parikammattā parikammānītipi, yathā gāmādīnaṃ āsannapadeso gāmūpacāro nagarūpacāroti vuccati, evaṃ appanāya āsannattā samīpacārattā vā upacārānītipi, ito pubbe parikammānaṃ, upari appanāya ca anulomato anulomānītipi vuccanti. but they have stronger applied thought, sustained thought, happiness, bliss, and unification of mind than the normal ones. They are called “preliminary work” [consciousnesses] because they are the preliminary work for absorption; [138] and they are also called “access” [consciousnesses] because of their nearness to absorption because they happen in its neighbourhood, just as the words “village access” and “city access” are used for a place near to a village, etc.; and they are also called “conformity” [consciousnesses] because they conform to those that precede the “preliminary work” [consciousnesses] and to the absorption that follows.
Yañcettha sabbantimaṃ, taṃ parittagottābhibhavanato, mahaggatagottabhāvanato ca gotrabhūtipi vuccati. And the last of these is also called “change- of-lineage” because it transcends the limited [sense-sphere] lineage and brings into being the exalted [fine-material-sphere] lineage. 18
Agahitaggahaṇena panettha paṭhamaṃ parikammaṃ, dutiyaṃ upacāraṃ, tatiyaṃ anulomaṃ, catutthaṃ gotrabhu. 75. But omitting repetitions,19 then either the first is the “preliminary work,” the second “access,” the third “conformity,” and the fourth, “change-of-lineage,”
Paṭhamaṃ vā upacāraṃ, dutiyaṃ anulomaṃ, tatiyaṃ gotrabhu, catutthaṃ pañcamaṃ vā appanācittaṃ. or else the first is “access,” the second “conformity,” and the third “change-of- lineage.” Then either the fourth [in the latter case] or the fifth [in the former case] is the absorption consciousness.
Catutthameva hi pañcamaṃ vā appeti, tañca kho khippābhiññadandhābhiññavasena. For it is only either the fourth or the fifth that fixes in absorption. And that is according as there is swift or sluggish direct- knowledge. (cf. XXI.117)
Tato paraṃ javanaṃ patati. Beyond that, impulsion lapses
Bhavaṅgassa vāro hoti. ¶ and the life-continuum20 takes over. ¶
Ābhidhammikagodattatthero pana "purimā purimā kusalā dhammā pacchimānaṃ pacchimānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ āsevanapaccayena paccayo"ti (paṭṭhā. 1.1.12) imaṃ suttaṃ vatvā āsevanapaccayena pacchimo pacchimo dhammo balavā hoti, tasmā chaṭṭhepi sattamepi appanā hotīti āha, taṃ aṭṭhakathāsu "attano matimattaṃ therasseta"nti vatvā paṭikkhittaṃ. 76.But the Abhidhamma scholar, the Elder Godatta, quoted this text: “Preceding profitable states are a condition, as repetition condition, for succeeding profitable states” (Paṭṭh I 5). Adding, “It is owing to the repetition condition that each succeeding state is strong, so there is absorption also in the sixth and seventh. ” 77.That is rejected by the commentaries with the remark that it is merely that elder’s opinion,
Catutthapañcamesuyeva pana appanā hoti. adding that, “It is only either in the fourth or the fifth21 that there is absorption.
Parato javanaṃ patitaṃ nāma hoti, bhavaṅgassa āsannattāti vuttaṃ. Beyond that, impulsion lapses. It is said to do so because of nearness of the life-continuum.”
Tameva vicāretvā vuttattā na sakkā paṭikkhipituṃ. And that has been stated in this way after consideration, so it cannot be rejected.
Yathā hi puriso chinnapapātābhimukho dhāvanto ṭhātukāmopi pariyante pādaṃ katvā ṭhātuṃ na sakkoti papāte eva patati, evaṃ chaṭṭhe vā sattame vā appetuṃ na sakkoti, bhavaṅgassa āsannattā. For just as a man who is running towards a precipice and wants to stop cannot do so when he has his foot on the edge but falls over it, so there can be no fixing in absorption in the sixth or the seventh because of the nearness to the life-continuum.
Tasmā catutthapañcamesuyeva appanā hotīti veditabbā. ¶ That is why it should be understood that there is absorption only in the fourth or the fifth. ¶
Sā ca pana ekacittakkhaṇikāyeva. 78. But that absorption is only of a single conscious moment.
Sattasu hi ṭhānesu addhānaparicchedo nāma natthi paṭhamappanāyaṃ, lokiyābhiññāsu, catūsu maggesu, maggānantaraphale, rūpārūpabhavesu bhavaṅgajjhāne, nirodhassa paccaye nevasaññānāsaññāyatane, nirodhā vuṭṭhahantassa phalasamāpattiyanti. For there are seven instances in which the normal extent22 [of the cognitive series] does not apply. They are in the cases of the first absorption, the mundane kinds of direct- knowledge, the four paths, fruition next after the path, life-continuum jhāna in the fine-material and immaterial kinds of becoming, the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception as condition for cessation [of perception and feeling], and the fruition attainment in one emerging from cessation.
Ettha maggānantaraphalaṃ tiṇṇaṃ upari na hoti. Here the fruition next after the path does not exceed three [consciousnesses in number];
Nirodhassa paccayo nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ dvinnamupari na hoti. the [consciousnesses] of the base consisting of neither perception nor non- perception as condition for cessation do not exceed two [in number]; there is no measure of the [number of consciousnesses in the] life-continuum in the fine- material and immaterial [kinds of becoming].
Rūpārūpesu bhavaṅgassa parimāṇaṃ natthi, sesaṭṭhānesu ekameva cittanti. In the remaining instances [the number of consciousnesses is] one only.
Iti ekacittakkhaṇikāyeva appanā. So absorption is of a single consciousness moment.
Tato bhavaṅgapāto. After that, it lapses into the life-continuum.
Atha bhavaṅgaṃ vocchinditvā jhānapaccavekkhaṇatthāya āvajjanaṃ, tato jhānapaccavekkhaṇanti. ¶ Then the life-continuum is interrupted by adverting for the purpose of reviewing the jhāna, next to which comes the reviewing of the jhāna. ¶
Ettāvatā ca panesa vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati (dha. sa. 160; dī. ni. 1.226). [THE FIRST JHĀNA]79. At this point, “Quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unprofitable things he enters upon and dwells in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought with happiness and bliss born of seclusion” (Vibh 245),
Evamanena pañcaṅgavippahīnaṃ pañcaṅgasamannāgataṃ tividhakalyāṇaṃ dasalakkhaṇasampannaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ adhigataṃ hoti pathavīkasiṇaṃ. ¶ and so he has attained the first jhāna, which abandons five factors, possesses five factors, is good in three ways, possesses ten characteristics, and is of the earth kasiṇa. ¶
70. Tattha vivicceva kāmehīti kāmehi viviccitvā vinā hutvā apakkamitvā. 80. Herein, quite secluded from sense desires means having secluded himself from, having become without, having gone away from, sense desires.
Yo panāyamettha evakāro, so niyamatthoti veditabbo. Now, this word quite (eva) should be understood to have the meaning of absoluteness.
Yasmā ca niyamattho, tasmā tasmiṃ paṭhamajjhānaṃ upasampajja viharaṇasamaye avijjamānānampi kāmānaṃ tassa paṭhamajjhānassa paṭipakkhabhāvaṃ kāmapariccāgeneva cassa adhigamaṃ dīpeti. ¶ Precisely because it has the meaning of absoluteness it shows how, on the actual occasion of entering upon and dwelling in the first jhāna, sense desires as well as being non-existent then are the first jhāna’s contrary opposite, and it also shows that the arrival takes place only (eva) through the letting go of sense desires. ¶
Kathaṃ? How?
"Vivicceva kāmehī"ti evañhi niyame kariyamāne idaṃ paññāyati, nūna jhānassa kāmā paṭipakkhabhūtā yesu sati idaṃ nappavattati, andhakāre sati padīpobhāso viya. 81.When absoluteness is introduced thus, “quite secluded from sense desires,” what is expressed is this: sense desires are certainly incompatible with this jhāna; when they exist, it does not occur, just as when there is darkness, there is no lamplight;
Tesaṃ pariccāgeneva cassa adhigamo hoti, orimatīrapariccāgena pārimatīrasseva. and it is only by letting go of them that it is reached, just as the further bank is reached only by letting go of the near bank.
Tasmā niyamaṃ karotīti. ¶ That is why absoluteness is introduced. ¶
Tattha siyā, kasmā panesa pubbapadeyeva vutto, na uttarapade, kiṃ akusalehi dhammehi aviviccāpi jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyyāti? 82.Here it might be asked: But why is this [word “quite”] mentioned only in the first phrase and not in the second? How is this, might he enter upon and dwell in the first jhāna even when not secluded from unprofitable things?
Na kho panetaṃ evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. —It should not be regarded in that way.
Taṃnissaraṇato hi pubbapade esa vutto. It is mentioned in the first phrase as the escape from them;
Kāmadhātusamatikkamanato hi kāmarāgapaṭipakkhato ca idaṃ jhānaṃ kāmānameva nissaraṇaṃ. for this jhāna is the escape from sense desires since it surmounts the sense-desire element and since it is incompatible with greed for sense desires,
Yathāha, "kāmānametaṃ nissaraṇaṃ yadidaṃ nekkhamma"nti (dī. ni. 3.353). according as it is said: “The escape from sense desires is this, that is to say, renunciation” (D III 275).
Uttarapadepi pana yathā "idheva, bhikkhave, samaṇo, idha dutiyo samaṇo"ti (ma. ni. 1.139; a. ni. 4.241) ettha evakāro ānetvā vuccati, evaṃ vattabbo. But in the second phrase [140] the word eva should be adduced and taken as said, as in the passage, “Bhikkhus, only (eva) here is there an ascetic, here a second ascetic” (M I 63).
Na hi sakkā ito aññehipi nīvaraṇasaṅkhātehi akusaladhammehi avivicca jhānaṃ upasampajja viharituṃ. For it is impossible to enter upon and dwell in jhāna unsecluded also from unprofitable things, in other words, the hindrances other than that [sense desire].
Tasmā "vivicceva kāmehi vivicceva akusalehi dhammehī"ti evaṃ padadvayepi esa daṭṭhabbo. So this word must be read in both phrases thus: “Quite secluded from sense desires, quite secluded from unprofitable things.”
Padadvayepi ca kiñcāpi viviccāti iminā sādhāraṇavacanena tadaṅgavivekādayo, kāyavivekādayo ca sabbepi vivekā saṅgahaṃ gacchanti, tathāpi kāyaviveko cittaviveko vikkhambhanavivekoti tayo eva idha daṭṭhabbā. ¶ And although the word “secluded” as a general term includes all kinds of seclusion, that is to say, seclusion by substitution of opposites, etc., and bodily seclusion, etc.,23 still only the three, namely, bodily seclusion, mental seclusion, and seclusion by suppression (suspension) should be regarded here. ¶ Comm NT: The five (see e.g. Paṭis II 220; M-a I 85) are suppression (by concentration), substitution of opposites (by insight), cutting off (by the pa...
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Kāmehīti iminā pana padena ye ca niddese "katame vatthukāmā, manāpiyā rūpā"tiādinā (mahāni. 1) nayena vatthukāmā vuttā, ye ca tattheva vibhaṅge ca "chando kāmo, rāgo kāmo, chandarāgo kāmo, saṅkappo kāmo, rāgo kāmo, saṅkapparāgo kāmo, ime vuccanti kāmā"ti (mahāni. 1; vibha. 564) evaṃ kilesakāmā vuttā, te sabbepi saṅgahitāicceva daṭṭhabbā. 83. But this term “sense desires” should be regarded as including all kinds, that is to say, sense desires as object as given in the Niddesa in the passage beginning, “What are sense desires as object? They are agreeable visible objects …” (Nidd I 1), and the sense desires as defilement given there too and in the Vibhaṅga thus: “Zeal as sense desire (kāma), greed as sense desire, zeal and greed as sense desire, thinking as sense desire, greed as sense desire, thinking and greed as sense desire”24 (Nidd I 2; Vibh 256). Comm NT: Kāmacchanda (lust): a technical term for the first of the five hindrances. Chanda-rāga (zeal and greed) and kāma-rāga (greed for sense desire...
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Evañhi sati vivicceva kāmehīti vatthukāmehipi viviccevāti attho yujjati, tena kāyaviveko vutto hoti. That being so, the words “quite secluded from sense desires” properly mean “quite secluded from sense desires as object,” and express bodily seclusion,
Vivicca akusalehi dhammehīti kilesakāmehi sabbākusalehi vā viviccāti attho yujjati, tena cittaviveko vutto hoti. while the words “secluded from unprofitable things” properly mean “secluded from sense desires as defilement or from all unprofitable things,” and express mental seclusion.
Purimena cettha vatthukāmehi vivekavacanato eva kāmasukhapariccāgo, dutiyena kilesakāmehi vivekavacanato nekkhammasukhapariggaho vibhāvito hoti. And in this case giving up of pleasure in sense desires is indicated by the first since it only expresses seclusion from sense desires as object, while acquisition of pleasure in renunciation is indicated by the second since it expresses seclusion from sense desire as defilement.
Evaṃ vatthukāmakilesakāmavivekavacanatoyeva ca etesaṃ paṭhamena saṃkilesavatthuppahānaṃ, dutiyena saṃkilesappahānaṃ. 84.And with sense desires as object and sense desires as defilement expressed in this way, it should also be recognized that the abandoning of the objective basis for defilement is indicated by the first of these two phrases and the abandoning of the [subjective] defilement by the second;
Paṭhamena lolabhāvassa hetupariccāgo, dutiyena bālabhāvassa. also that the giving up of the cause of cupidity is indicated by the first and [the giving up of the cause] of stupidity by the second;
Paṭhamena ca payogasuddhi, dutiyena āsayaposanaṃ vibhāvitaṃ hotīti viññātabbaṃ. also that the purification of one’s occupation is indicated by the first and the educating of one’s inclination by the second.
Esa tāva nayo kāmehīti ettha vuttakāmesu vatthukāmapakkhe. ¶ This, firstly, is the method here when the words from sense desires are treated as referring to sense desires as object. ¶
Kilesakāmapakkhe pana chandoti ca rāgoti ca evamādīhi anekabhedo kāmacchandoyeva kāmoti adhippeto. 85.But if they are treated as referring to sense desires as defilement, then it is simply just zeal for sense desires (kāmacchanda) in the various forms of zeal (chanda), greed (rāga), etc., that is intended as “sense desires” (kāma) (§83, 2nd quotation).
So ca akusalapariyāpannopi samāno "tattha katamo kāmo chando kāmo"tiādinā (vibha. 564) nayena vibhaṅge jhānapaṭipakkhato visuṃ vutto. And although that [lust] is also included by [the word] “unprofitable,” it is nevertheless stated separately in the Vibhaṅga in the way beginning, “Herein, what are sense desires? Zeal as sense desire …” (Vibh 256) because of its incompatibility with jhāna.
Kilesakāmattā vā purimapade vutto, akusalapariyāpannattā dutiyapade. Or, alternatively, it is mentioned in the first phrase because it is sense desire as defilement and in the second phrase because it is included in the “unprofitable.”
Anekabhedato cassa kāmatoti avatvā kāmehīti vuttaṃ. ¶ And because this [lust] has various forms, therefore “from sense desires” is said instead of “from sense desire. ” ¶
Aññesampi ca dhammānaṃ akusalabhāve vijjamāne "tattha katame akusalā dhammā, kāmacchando"tiādinā nayena vibhaṅge upari jhānaṅgānaṃ paccanīkapaṭipakkhabhāvadassanato nīvaraṇāneva vuttāni. 86. And although there may be unprofitableness in other states as well, nevertheless only the hindrances are mentioned subsequently in the Vibhaṅga thus, “Herein, what states are unprofitable? Lust …” (Vibh 256), etc., in order to show their opposition to, and incompatibility with, the jhāna factors.
Nīvaraṇāni hi jhānaṅgapaccanīkāni, tesaṃ jhānaṅgāneva paṭipakkhāni viddhaṃsakāni vighātakānīti vuttaṃ hoti. For the hindrances are the contrary opposites of the jhāna factors: what is meant is that the jhāna factors are incompatible with them, eliminate them, abolish them.
Tathā hi samādhi kāmacchandassa paṭipakkho, pīti byāpādassa, vitakko thinamiddhassa, sukhaṃ uddhaccakukkuccassa, vicāro vicikicchāyāti peṭake vuttaṃ. ¶ And it is said accordingly in the Peṭaka (Peṭakopadesa): “Concentration is incompatible with lust, happiness with ill will, applied thought with stiffness and torpor, bliss with agitation and worry, and sustained thought with uncertainty” (not in Peṭakopadesa). ¶
Evamettha vivicceva kāmehīti iminā kāmacchandassa vikkhambhanaviveko vutto hoti. 87. So in this case it should be understood that seclusion by suppression (suspension) of lust is indicated by the phrase quite secluded from sense desires,
Vivicca akusalehi dhammehīti iminā pañcannampi nīvaraṇānaṃ, agahitaggahaṇena pana paṭhamena kāmacchandassa, dutiyena sesanīvaraṇānaṃ. and seclusion by suppression (suspension) of [all] five hindrances by the phrase secluded from unprofitable things. But omitting repetitions, that of lust is indicated by the first and that of the remaining hindrances by the second.
Tathā paṭhamena tīsu akusalamūlesu pañcakāmaguṇabhedavisayassa lobhassa, dutiyena āghātavatthubhedādivisayānaṃ dosamohānaṃ. Similarly with the three unprofitable roots, that of greed, which has the five cords of sense desire (M I 85) as its province, is indicated by the first, and that of hate and delusion, which have as their respective provinces the various grounds for annoyance (A IV 408; V 150), etc., by the second.
Oghādīsu vā dhammesu paṭhamena kāmoghakāmayogakāmāsavakāmupādānaabhijjhākāyaganthakāmarāgasaṃyojanānaṃ, dutiyena avasesaoghayogāsavaupādānaganthasaṃyojanānaṃ. Or with the states consisting of the floods, etc., that of the flood of sense desires, of the bond of sense desires, of the canker of sense desires, of sense-desire clinging, of the bodily tie of covetousness, and of the fetter of greed for sense desires, is indicated by the first, and that of the remaining floods, bonds, cankers, clingings, ties, and fetters, is indicated by the second.
Paṭhamena ca taṇhāya taṃsampayuttakānañca, dutiyena avijjāya taṃsampayuttakānañca. Again, that of craving and of what is associated with craving is indicated by the first, and that of ignorance and of what is associated with ignorance is indicated by the second.
Apica paṭhamena lobhasampayuttānaṃ aṭṭhannaṃ cittuppādānaṃ, dutiyena sesānaṃ catunnaṃ akusalacittuppādānaṃ vikkhambhanaviveko vutto hotīti veditabbo. Furthermore, that of the eight thought- arisings associated with greed (XIV.90) is indicated by the first, and that of the remaining kinds of unprofitable thought-arisings is indicated by the second.
Ayaṃ tāva vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehīti ettha atthappakāsanā. ¶ This, in the first place, is the explanation of the meaning of the words “quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unprofitable things. ” ¶
71. Ettāvatā ca paṭhamassa jhānassa pahānaṅgaṃ dassetvā idāni sampayogaṅgaṃ dassetuṃ savitakkaṃ savicārantiādi vuttaṃ. 88.So far the factors abandoned by the jhāna have been shown. And now, in order to show the factors associated with it, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought is said.
Tattha vitakkanaṃ vitakko, ūhananti vuttaṃ hoti. Herein, applied thinking (vitakkana) is applied thought (vitakka); hitting upon, is what is meant.25 Comm. NT: 25. Úhana—“hitting upon”: possibly connected with ūhanati (to disturb—see M I 243; II 193). Obviously connected here with the meaning of āh...
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Svāyaṃ ārammaṇe cittassa abhiniropanalakkhaṇo, āhananapariyāhananaraso. It has the characteristic of directing the mind on to an object (mounting the mind on its object). Its function is to strike at and thresh
Tathā hi tena yogāvacaro ārammaṇaṃ vitakkāhataṃ vitakkapariyāhataṃ karotīti vuccati. —for the meditator is said, in virtue of it, to have the object struck at by applied thought, threshed by applied thought.
Ārammaṇe cittassa ānayanapaccupaṭṭhāno. ¶ It is manifested as the leading of the mind onto an object. ¶
Vicaraṇaṃ vicāro, anusañcaraṇanti vuttaṃ hoti. Sustained thinking (vicaraṇa) is sustained thought (vicāra); continued sustainment (anusañcaraṇa), is what is meant.
Svāyaṃ ārammaṇānumajjanalakkhaṇo, tattha sahajātānuyojanaraso, cittassa anuppabandhanapaccupaṭṭhāno. ¶ It has the characteristic of continued pressure on (occupation with) the object. Its function is to keep conascent [mental] states [occupied] with that. It is manifested as keeping consciousness anchored [on that object]. ¶
Santepi ca nesaṃ katthaci avippayoge oḷārikaṭṭhena pubbaṅgamaṭṭhena ca ghaṇḍābhighāto viya cetaso paṭhamābhinipāto vitakko. 89.And, though sometimes not separate, applied thought is the first impact of the mind in the sense that it is both gross and inceptive, like the striking of a bell.
Sukhumaṭṭhena anumajjanasabhāvena ca ghaṇḍānuravo viya anuppabandho vicāro. Sustained thought is the act of keeping the mind anchored, in the sense that it is subtle with the individual essence of continued pressure, like the ringing of the bell.
Vipphāravā cettha vitakko paṭhamuppattikāle paripphandanabhūto cittassa ākāse uppatitukāmassa pakkhino pakkhavikkhepo viya padumābhimukhapāto viya ca gandhānubandhacetaso bhamarassa. Applied thought intervenes, being the interference of consciousness at the time of first arousing [thought], like a bird’s spreading out its wings when about to soar into the air, and like a bee’s diving towards a lotus when it is minded to follow up the scent of it.
Santavutti vicāro nātiparipphandanabhāvo cittassa ākāse uppatitassa pakkhino pakkhappasāraṇaṃ viya, paribbhamanaṃ viya ca padumābhimukhapatitassa bhamarassa padumassa uparibhāge. The behaviour of sustained thought is quiet, being the near non-interference of consciousness, like the bird’s planing with outspread wings after soaring into the air, and like the bee’s buzzing above the lotus after it has dived towards it.
Dukanipātaṭṭhakathāyaṃ pana "ākāse gacchato mahāsakuṇassa ubhohi pakkhehi vātaṃ gahetvā pakkhe sannisīdāpetvā gamanaṃ viya ārammaṇe cetaso abhiniropanabhāvena pavatto vitakko. 90. In the commentary to the Book of Twos26 this is said: “Applied thought occurs as a state of directing the mind onto an object, like the movement of a large bird taking off into the air by engaging the air with both wings and forcing them downwards. For it causes absorption by being unified. Comm. NT: 26. Of the Aṅguttara Nikāya? [The original could not be traced anywhere in the Tipiṭaka, Aṭṭhakathā, and other texts contained in the digita...
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Vātaggahaṇatthaṃ pakkhe phandāpayamānassa gamanaṃ viya anumajjanabhāvena pavatto vicāro"ti vuttaṃ, taṃ anuppabandhena pavattiyaṃ yujjati. Sustained thought occurs with the individual essence of continued pressure, like the bird’s movement when it is using (activating) its wings for the purpose of keeping hold on the air. For it keeps pressing the object27”. That fits in with the latter’s occurrence as anchoring. Comm. NT: 27. These two sentences, “So hi ekaggo hutvā appeti” and “So hi ārammaṇaṃ anumajjati,” are not in Be and Ae.
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So pana nesaṃ viseso paṭhamadutiyajjhānesu pākaṭo hoti. ¶ This difference of theirs becomes evident in the first and second jhānas [in the fivefold reckoning]. ¶
Apica malaggahitaṃ kaṃsabhājanaṃ ekena hatthena daḷhaṃ gahetvā itarena hatthena cuṇṇatelavālaṇḍupakena parimajjantassa daḷhagahaṇahattho viya vitakko, parimajjanahattho viya vicāro. 91.Furthermore, applied thought is like the hand that grips firmly and sustained thought is like the hand that rubs, when one grips a tarnished metal dish firmly with one hand and rubs it with powder and oil and a woollen pad with the other hand.
Tathā kumbhakārassa daṇḍappahārena cakkaṃ bhamayitvā bhājanaṃ karontassa uppīḷanahattho viya vitakko, ito cito ca sañcaraṇahattho viya vicāro. Likewise, when a potter has spun his wheel with a stroke on the stick and is making a dish [143], his supporting hand is like applied thought and his hand that moves back and forth is like sustained thought.
Tathā maṇḍalaṃ karontassa majjhe sannirumbhitvā ṭhitakaṇṭako viya abhiniropano vitakko, bahi paribbhamanakaṇṭako viya anumajjano vicāro. Likewise, when one is drawing a circle, the pin that stays fixed down in the centre is like applied thought, which directs onto the object, and the pin that revolves round it is like sustained thought, which continuously presses.
Iti iminā ca vitakkena iminā ca vicārena saha vattati rukkho viya pupphena phalena cāti idaṃ jhānaṃ "savitakkaṃ savicāra"nti vuccati. 92.So this jhāna occurs together with this applied thought and this sustained thought and it is called, “accompanied by applied and sustained thought” as a tree is called “accompanied by flowers and fruits.”
Vibhaṅge pana "iminā ca vitakkena iminā ca vicārena upeto hoti samupeto"tiādinā (vibha. 565) nayena puggalādhiṭṭhānā desanā katā. But in the Vibhaṅga the teaching is given in terms of a person28 in the way beginning, “He is possessed, fully possessed, of this applied thought and this sustained thought” (Vibh 257). Comm. NT: 28. Puggalādhiṭṭhāna—“in terms of a person”; a technical commentarial term for one of the ways of presenting a subject. They are dhammā-desa...
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Attho pana tatrāpi evameva daṭṭhabbo. ¶ The meaning should be regarded in the same way there too. ¶
Vivekajanti ettha vivitti viveko, nīvaraṇavigamoti attho. 93.Born of seclusion: here secludedness (vivitti) is seclusion (viveka); the meaning is, disappearance of hindrances.
Vivittoti vā viveko, nīvaraṇavivitto jhānasampayuttadhammarāsīti attho. Or alternatively, it is secluded (vivitta), thus it is seclusion; the meaning is, the collection of states associated with the jhāna is secluded from hindrances.
Tasmā vivekā, tasmiṃ vā viveke jātanti vivekajaṃ. ¶ “Born of seclusion” is born of or in that kind of seclusion. ¶
72. Pītisukhanti ettha pīṇayatīti pīti. 94.Happiness and bliss: it refreshes (pīnayati), thus it is happiness (pīti).
Sā sampiyāyanalakkhaṇā, kāyacittapīnanarasā, pharaṇarasā vā, odagyapaccupaṭṭhānā. It has the characteristic of endearing (sampiyāyanā). Its function is to refresh the body and the mind; or its function is to pervade (thrill with rapture). It is manifested as elation.
Sā panesā khuddikā pīti, khaṇikāpīti, okkantikāpīti, ubbegāpīti, pharaṇāpītīti pañcavidhā hoti. But it is of five kinds as minor happiness, momentary happiness, showering happiness, uplifting happiness, and pervading (rapturous) happiness.
Tattha khuddikāpīti sarīre lomahaṃsamattameva kātuṃ sakkoti. Herein, minor happiness is only able to raise the hairs on the body.
Khaṇikāpīti khaṇe khaṇe vijjuppādasadisā hoti. Momentary happiness is like flashes of lightning at different moments.
Okkantikāpīti samuddatīraṃ vīci viya kāyaṃ okkamitvā okkamitvā bhijjati. Showering happiness breaks over the body again and again like waves on the sea shore.
Ubbegāpīti balavatī hoti kāyaṃ uddhaggaṃ katvā ākāse laṅghāpanappamāṇappattā. 95. Uplifting happiness can be powerful enough to levitate the body and make it spring up into the air.
Tathā hi puṇṇavallikavāsī mahātissatthero puṇṇamadivase sāyaṃ cetiyaṅgaṇaṃ gantvā candālokaṃ disvā mahācetiyābhimukho hutvā "imāya vata velāya catasso parisā mahācetiyaṃ vandantī"ti pakatiyā diṭṭhārammaṇavasena buddhārammaṇaṃ ubbegāpītiṃ uppādetvā sudhātale pahaṭacitrageṇḍuko viya ākāse uppatitvā mahācetiyaṅgaṇeyeva patiṭṭhāsi. For this was what happened to the Elder Mahā-Tissa, resident at Puṇṇavallika. He went to the shrine terrace on the evening of the full-moon day. Seeing the moonlight, he faced in the direction of the Great Shrine [at Anurādhapura], thinking, “At this very hour the four assemblies29 are worshipping at the Great Shrine!” By means of objects formerly seen [there] he aroused uplifting happiness with the Enlightened One as object, and he rose into the air like a painted ball bounced off a plastered floor and alighted on the terrace of the Great Shrine. Comm. NT: 29. The four assemblies (parisā) are the bhikkhus, bhikkhunīs, laymen followers and laywomen followers.
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Tathā girikaṇḍakavihārassa upanissaye vattakālakagāme ekā kuladhītāpi balavabuddhārammaṇāya ubbegāpītiyā ākāse laṅghesi. ¶ 96. And this was what happened to the daughter of a clan in the village of Vattakālaka near the Girikaṇḍaka Monastery when she sprang up into the air owing to strong uplifting happiness with the Enlightened One as object. ¶
Tassā kira mātāpitaro sāyaṃ dhammassavanatthāya vihāraṃ gacchantā "amma tvaṃ garubhārā akāle vicarituṃ na sakkosi, mayaṃ tuyhaṃ pattiṃ katvā dhammaṃ sossāmā"ti agamaṃsu. As her parents were about to go to the monastery in the evening, it seems, in order to hear the Dhamma [144], they told her: “My dear, you are expecting a child; you cannot go out at an unsuitable time. We shall hear the Dhamma and gain merit for you. ” So they went out.
Sā gantukāmāpi tesaṃ vacanaṃ paṭibāhituṃ asakkontī ghare ohīyitvā gharājire ṭhatvā candālokena girikaṇḍake ākāsacetiyaṅgaṇaṃ olokentī cetiyassa dīpapūjaṃ addasa, catasso ca parisā mālāgandhādīhi cetiyapūjaṃ katvā padakkhiṇaṃ karontiyo bhikkhusaṅghassa ca gaṇasajjhāyasaddaṃ assosi. And though she wanted to go too, she could not well object to what they said. She stepped out of the house onto a balcony and stood looking at the Ākāsacetiya Shrine at Girikaṇḍaka lit by the moon. She saw the offering of lamps at the shrine, and the four communities as they circumambulated it to the right after making their offerings of flowers and perfumes; and she heard the sound of the massed recital by the Community of Bhikkhus.
Athassā "dhaññāvatime, ye vihāraṃ gantvā evarūpe cetiyaṅgaṇe anusañcarituṃ, evarūpañca madhuradhammakathaṃ sotuṃ labhantī"ti muttarāsisadisaṃ cetiyaṃ passantiyā eva ubbegāpīti udapādi. Then she thought: “How lucky they are to be able to go to the monastery and wander round such a shrine terrace and listen to such sweet preaching of Dhamma!” Seeing the shrine as a mound of pearls and arousing uplifting happiness,
Sā ākāse laṅghitvā mātāpitūnaṃ purimataraṃyeva ākāsato cetiyaṅgaṇe oruyha cetiyaṃ vanditvā dhammaṃ suṇamānā aṭṭhāsi. she sprang up into the air, and before her parents arrived she came down from the air into the shrine terrace, where she paid homage and stood listening to the Dhamma.
Atha naṃ mātāpitaro āgantvā "amma tvaṃ katarena maggena āgatāsī"ti pucchiṃsu. 97.When her parents arrived, they asked her, “What road did you come by?”
Sā "ākāsena āgatāmhi, na maggenā"ti vatvā "amma ākāsena nāma khīṇāsavā sañcaranti, tvaṃ kathaṃ āgatā"ti vuttā āha – "mayhaṃ candālokena cetiyaṃ ālokentiyā ṭhitāya buddhārammaṇā balavapīti uppajji. She said, “I came through the air, not by the road,” and when they told her, “My dear, those whose cankers are destroyed come through the air. But how did you come? ” she replied: “As I was standing looking at the shrine in the moonlight a strong sense of happiness arose in me with the Enlightened One as its object.
Athāhaṃ neva attano ṭhitabhāvaṃ, na nisinnabhāvaṃ aññāsiṃ, gahitanimitteneva pana ākāse laṅghitvā cetiyaṅgaṇe patiṭṭhitāmhī"ti. ¶ Then I knew no more whether I was standing or sitting, but only that I was springing up into the air with the sign that I had grasped, and I came to rest on this shrine terrace. ” ¶
Evaṃ ubbegāpīti ākāse laṅghāpanappamāṇā hoti. So uplifting happiness can be powerful enough to levitate the body, make it spring up into the air.
Pharaṇāpītiyā pana uppannāya sakalasarīraṃ dhamitvā pūritavatthi viya mahatā udakoghena pakkhandapabbatakucchi viya ca anuparipphuṭaṃ hoti. ¶ 98. But when pervading (rapturous) happiness arises, the whole body is completely pervaded, like a filled bladder, like a rock cavern invaded by a huge inundation. ¶
Sā panesā pañcavidhā pīti gabbhaṃ gaṇhantī paripākaṃ gacchantī duvidhaṃ passaddhiṃ paripūreti kāyapassaddhiñca cittapassaddhiñca. 99.Now, this fivefold happiness, when conceived and matured, perfects the twofold tranquillity, that is, bodily and mental tranquillity.
Passaddhi gabbhaṃ gaṇhantī paripākaṃ gacchantī duvidhampi sukhaṃ paripūreti kāyikañca cetasikañca. When tranquillity is conceived and matured, it perfects the twofold bliss, that is, bodily and mental bliss.
Sukhaṃ gabbhaṃ gaṇhantaṃ paripākaṃ gacchantaṃ tividhaṃ samādhiṃ paripūreti khaṇikasamādhiṃ upacārasamādhiṃ appanā samādhinti. When bliss is conceived and matured, it perfects the threefold concentration, that is, momentary concentration, access concentration, and absorption concentration.
Tāsu yā appanāsamādhissa mūlaṃ hutvā vaḍḍhamānā samādhisampayogaṃ gatā pharaṇāpīti, ayaṃ imasmiṃ atthe adhippetā pītīti. ¶ Of these, what is intended in this context by happiness is pervading happiness, which is the root of absorption and comes by growth into association with absorption. ¶
73. Itaraṃ pana sukhanaṃ sukhaṃ, suṭṭhu vā khādati, khanati ca kāyacittābādhanti sukhaṃ, taṃ sātalakkhaṇaṃ, sampayuttānaṃ upabrūhanarasaṃ, anuggahapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. 100. But as to the other word: pleasing (sukhana) is bliss (sukha). Or alternatively: it thoroughly (SUṭṭhu) devours (KHĀdati), consumes (KHAṇati),30 bodily and mental affliction, thus it is bliss (sukha). It has gratifying as its characteristic. Its function is to intensify associated states. It is manifested as aid. Comm. NT: 30. For this word play see also XVII.48. Khaṇati is only given in normal meaning of “to dig” in PED. There seems to be some confusion of mea...
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Satipi ca nesaṃ katthaci avippayoge iṭṭhārammaṇapaṭilābhatuṭṭhi pīti. And wherever the two are associated, happiness is the contentedness at getting a desirable object,
Paṭiladdharasānubhavanaṃ sukhaṃ. and bliss is the actual experiencing of it when got.
Yattha pīti, tattha sukhaṃ. Where there is happiness there is bliss (pleasure);
Yattha sukhaṃ, tattha na niyamato pīti. but where there is bliss there is not necessarily happiness.
Saṅkhārakkhandhasaṅgahitā pīti. Happiness is included in the formations aggregate;
Vedanākkhandhasaṅgahitaṃ sukhaṃ. bliss is included in the feeling aggregate.
Kantārakhinnassa vanantudakadassanasavanesu viya pīti. If a man, exhausted31 in a desert, saw or heard about a pond on the edge of a wood, he would have happiness; Comm. NT: 31. Kantāra-khinna—“exhausted in a desert”; khinna is not in PED.
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Vanacchāyāpavesanaudakaparibhogesu viya sukhaṃ. if he went into the wood’s shade and used the water, he would have bliss.
Tasmiṃ tasmiṃ samaye pākaṭabhāvato cetaṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ. And it should be understood that this is said because they are obvious on such occasions.
Iti ayañca pīti idañca sukhaṃ assa jhānassa, asmiṃ vā jhāne atthīti idaṃ jhānaṃ pītisukhanti vuccati. ¶ 101. Accordingly, (a) this happiness and this bliss are of this jhāna, or in this jhāna; so in this way this jhāna is qualified by the words with happiness and bliss [and also born of seclusion]. ¶
Atha vā pīti ca sukhañca pītisukhaṃ, dhammavinayādayo viya. Or alternatively: (b) the words happiness and bliss (pītisukhaṃ) can be taken as “the happiness and the bliss” independently, like “the Dhamma and the Discipline” (dhammavinaya),
Vivekajaṃ pītisukhamassa jhānassa, asmiṃ vā jhāne atthīti evampi vivekajaṃpītisukhaṃ. and so then it can be taken as seclusion-born happiness-and-bliss of this jhāna, or in this jhāna; so in this way it is the happiness and bliss [rather than the jhāna] that are born of seclusion.
Yatheva hi jhānaṃ, evaṃ pītisukhampettha vivekajameva hoti, tañcassa atthi, tasmā ekapadeneva "vivekajaṃpītisukha"ntipi vattuṃ yujjati. For just as the words “born of seclusion” can [as at (a)] be taken as qualifying the word “jhāna,” so too they can be taken here [as at (b)] as qualifying the expression “happiness and bliss,” and then that [total expression] is predicated of this [jhāna]. So it is also correct to call “happiness-and-bliss born-of-seclusion” a single expression.
Vibhaṅge pana "idaṃ sukhaṃ imāya pītiyā sahagata"ntiādinā (vibha. 567) nayena vuttaṃ. In the Vibhaṅga it is stated in the way beginning, “This bliss accompanied by this happiness” (Vibh 257).
Attho pana tatthāpi evameva daṭṭhabbo. ¶ The meaning should be regarded in the same way there too. ¶
Paṭhamaṃ jhānanti idaṃ parato āvibhavissati. 102. First jhāna: this will be explained below (§119).
Upasampajjāti upagantvā, pāpuṇitvāti vuttaṃ hoti. Enters upon (upasampajja): arrives at; reaches, is what is meant;
Upasampādayitvā vā, nipphādetvāti vuttaṃ hoti. or else, taking it as “makes enter” (upasampādayitvā), then producing, is what is meant.
Vibhaṅge pana "upasampajjāti paṭhamassa jhānassa lābho paṭilābho patti sampatti phusanā sacchikiriyā upasampadā"ti vuttaṃ. In the Vibhaṅga this is said: “‘Enters upon’: the gaining, the regaining, the reaching, the arrival at, the touching, the realizing of, the entering upon (upasampadā, the first jhāna” (Vibh 257),
Tassāpi evamevattho daṭṭhabbo. the meaning of which should be regarded in the same way.
Viharatīti tadanurūpena iriyāpathavihārena itivuttappakārajhānasamaṅgī hutvā attabhāvassa iriyaṃ vuttiṃ pālanaṃ yapanaṃ yāpanaṃ cāraṃ vihāraṃ abhinipphādeti. 103. And dwells in (viharati): by becoming possessed of jhāna of the kind described above through dwelling in a posture favourable to that [jhāna], he produces a posture, a procedure, a keeping, an enduring, a lasting, a behaviour, a dwelling, of the person.
Vuttañhetaṃ vibhaṅge "viharatīti iriyati vattati pāleti yapeti yāpeti carati viharati, tena vuccati viharatī"ti (vibha. 540). For this is said in the Vibhaṅga: “‘Dwells in’: poses, proceeds, keeps, endures, lasts, behaves, dwells; [146] hence ‘dwells’ is said” (Vibh 252).
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